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1.
J Environ Qual ; 49(5): 1073-1080, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016437

RESUMO

Non-steady-state (NSS) chamber techniques have been used for decades to measure nitrous oxide (N2 O) fluxes from agricultural soils. These techniques are widely used because they are relatively inexpensive, easy to adopt, versatile, and adaptable to varying conditions. Much of our current understanding of the drivers of N2 O emissions is based on studies using NSS chambers. These chamber techniques require decisions regarding multiple methodological aspects (e.g., chamber materials and geometry, deployment, sample analysis, and data and statistical analysis), each of which may significantly affect the results. Variation in methodological details can lead to challenges in comparing results between studies and assessment of reliability and uncertainty. Therefore, the New Zealand Government, in support of the objectives of the Livestock Research Group of the Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases (GRA), funded two international projects to, first, develop standardized guidelines on the use of NSS chamber techniques and, second, refine them based on the most up to date knowledge and methods. This introductory paper summarizes a collection of papers that represent the revised guidelines. Each article summarizes existing knowledge and provides guidance and minimum requirements on chamber design, deployment, sample collection, storage and analysis, automated chambers, flux calculations, statistical analysis, emission factor estimation and data reporting, modeling, and "gap-filling" approaches. The minimum requirements are not meant to be highly prescriptive but instead provide researchers with clear direction on best practices and factors that need to be considered. Health and safety considerations of NSS chamber techniques are also provided with this introductory paper.


Assuntos
Óxido Nitroso/análise , Projetos de Pesquisa , Nova Zelândia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Solo
2.
J Environ Qual ; 49(4): 987-999, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016489

RESUMO

The soil fluorine (F) concentration in New Zealand agricultural soils has increased with time as a direct result of the widespread application of phosphate fertilizer to land. Elevated soil F concentrations may potentially harm soil microorganisms, which are important for nutrient cycling and soil formation. Rhizobium leguminosarum is a N2 -fixing soil bacterium that is a fundamental component in New Zealand legume-based pastoral farming. Any impact of F on Rhizobium leguminosarum would have an adverse effect on New Zealand pasture production. In this study, F toxicity to Rhizobium leguminosarum was examined as a first step to develop F guideline values for New Zealand agricultural soils. Bottle-based experiments were conducted to examine the effect of the F- ion on Rhizobium-white clover (Trifolium repens L.) symbiosis by observing nodule morphology and growth. Results indicate that the F- concentration that causes 10% inhibition of Rhizobium respiration (IC10 ) for F- toxicity to Rhizobium leguminosarum was >100 mg F-  L-1 . Significant morphological changes occurred when Rhizobium was exposed to F concentrations of 500 and 1000 mg L-1 . Both light and transmission electron micrographs confirmed that the Rhizobium leguminosarum-white clover interaction was not influenced by F- concentrations >100 mg L-1 . The toxic F- concentration for Rhizobium leguminosarum determined in this study is orders of magnitude higher than the F- concentration in New Zealand agriculture soils under "normal conditions." There appears to be no indication of imminent risk of soil F to Rhizobium leguminosarum.


Assuntos
Rhizobium leguminosarum , Trifolium , Flúor , Nova Zelândia , Simbiose
3.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 523-531, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046923

RESUMO

A lack of human and material resources can limit effective responses to animal disease emergencies. Drawing upon examples from Australia and New Zealand, this paper proposes a framework for identifying human and material resources and securing the necessary personnel and materials before or during an animal disease emergency. This staged process involves: a) assessing the nature of the risks to be managed, b) identifying the types of resources required, c) assessing available resources and identifying gaps and d) developing arrangements to ensure availability of resources. It discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different strategies to secure access to human and material resources, including whole-of-government arrangements to access other government resources, national and international reserve models for responders, just-in-time employment and purchase of materials, and purchase of stockpiles.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais , Animais , Austrália , Emergências/veterinária , Governo , Humanos , Nova Zelândia
4.
Zootaxa ; 4777(1): zootaxa.4777.1.1, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055599

RESUMO

The species-rich genus Eupines King of New Zealand is revised to include 48 species, with 22 known species redescribed. Twenty-two new species are described: Eupines (Byraxis) brevis sp. n., E. (B.) caesta sp. n., E. (B.) carinata sp. n., E. (B.) coalita sp. n., E. (B.) complector sp. n., E. (B.) dugdalei sp. n., E. (B.) gigas sp. n., E. (B.) graceae sp. n., E. (B.) huizhenae sp. n., E. (B.) hoarei sp. n., E. (B.) insolita sp. n., E. (B.) mayae sp. n., E. (B.) minuta sp. n., E. (B.) obtusa sp. n., E. (B.) ovalis sp. n., E. (B.) pannicula sp. n., E. (B.) petila sp. n., E. (B.) protibialis sp. n., E. (B.) whirinaki sp. n., E. (B.) waikaremoana sp. n., Eupines (Eupines) undecim sp. n. and Eupines novem sp. n. The following 11 synonymies are proposed: E. (B.) dispar (Sharp) (= E. (B.) munroi Broun syn. n.), E. (B.) hectori Broun (= E. (B.) diversides Newton syn. n.), E. (B.) impar (Sharp) (= E. (B.) sanguineua Broun syn. n., E. (B.) foveatissima Broun syn. n.), E. (B.) monstrosa (Reitter) (= E. (B.) rudicornis Broun syn. n., E. (B.) costata Broun syn. n.), E. (B.) mundula (Schaufuss) (= E. (B.) forficulida Broun syn. n.), E. (B.) paganus (Broun) (= E. (B.) allocera Broun syn. n., E. (B.) sylvicola Broun syn. n., E. (B.) rhyssarthra Broun syn. n.) and Eupinolus altulus (Broun) (= E. (E.) nasuta Broun syn. n.). New combinations are proposed for four species previously described in Eupines: Eupinolus calcaratus (Broun) new comb., Eupinolus nasutus (Broun) new comb., Gastrobothrus ignotus (Broun) new comb. and Gastrobothrus platynotus (Broun) new comb. A key and distribution maps for all New Zealand members of Eupines are provided.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Nova Zelândia
5.
Zootaxa ; 4852(5): zootaxa.4852.5.4, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056396

RESUMO

Catotrichinae, a small, relict subfamily of the Cecidomyiidae, are of peculiar interest to the phylogeny of gall midges. Three genera and eight species of extant catotrichines were previously known to science, all found in the Holarctic region and Australia. Here, the first New Zealand member of this group is described and named Wheeleriola perplexa, new genus, new species. The adult morphology of Wheeleriola is characterized by two peculiarities: the vestiture on the male flagellomeres shows beginnings of girdle formation, and the medial veins are largely reduced. Both conditions challenge the hypothesis of Catotrichinae being the earliest branching lineage of the cecidomyiid clade, which is explained and discussed.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Masculino , Nova Zelândia
6.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(10): 1331-1340, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adjuvant radiotherapy has been shown to halve the risk of biochemical progression for patients with high-risk disease after radical prostatectomy. Early salvage radiotherapy could result in similar biochemical control with lower treatment toxicity. We aimed to compare biochemical progression between patients given adjuvant radiotherapy and those given salvage radiotherapy. METHODS: We did a phase 3, randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial across 32 oncology centres in Australia and New Zealand. Eligible patients were aged at least 18 years and had undergone a radical prostatectomy for adenocarcinoma of the prostate with pathological staging showing high-risk features defined as positive surgical margins, extraprostatic extension, or seminal vesicle invasion; had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-1, and had a postoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration of 0·10 ng/mL or less. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) using a minimisation technique via an internet-based, independently generated allocation to either adjuvant radiotherapy within 6 months of radical prostatectomy or early salvage radiotherapy triggered by a PSA of 0·20 ng/mL or more. Allocation sequence was concealed from investigators and patients, but treatment assignment for individual randomisations was not masked. Patients were stratified by radiotherapy centre, preoperative PSA, Gleason score, surgical margin status, and seminal vesicle invasion status. Radiotherapy in both groups was 64 Gy in 32 fractions to the prostate bed without androgen deprivation therapy with real-time review of plan quality on all cases before treatment. The primary endpoint was freedom from biochemical progression. Salvage radiotherapy would be deemed non-inferior to adjuvant radiotherapy if freedom from biochemical progression at 5 years was within 10% of that for adjuvant radiotherapy with a hazard ratio (HR) for salvage radiotherapy versus adjuvant radiotherapy of 1·48. The primary analysis was done on an intention-to-treat basis. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00860652. FINDINGS: Between March 27, 2009, and Dec 31, 2015, 333 patients were randomly assigned (166 to adjuvant radiotherapy; 167 to salvage radiotherapy). Median follow-up was 6·1 years (IQR 4·3-7·5). An independent data monitoring committee recommended premature closure of enrolment because of unexpectedly low event rates. 84 (50%) patients in the salvage radiotherapy group had radiotherapy triggered by a PSA of 0·20 ng/mL or more. 5-year freedom from biochemical progression was 86% (95% CI 81-92) in the adjuvant radiotherapy group versus 87% (82-93) in the salvage radiotherapy group (stratified HR 1·12, 95% CI 0·65-1·90; pnon-inferiority=0·15). The grade 2 or worse genitourinary toxicity rate was lower in the salvage radiotherapy group (90 [54%] of 167) than in the adjuvant radiotherapy group (116 [70%] of 166). The grade 2 or worse gastrointestinal toxicity rate was similar between the salvage radiotherapy group (16 [10%]) and the adjuvant radiotherapy group (24 [14%]). INTERPRETATION: Salvage radiotherapy did not meet trial specified criteria for non-inferiority. However, these data support the use of salvage radiotherapy as it results in similar biochemical control to adjuvant radiotherapy, spares around half of men from pelvic radiation, and is associated with significantly lower genitourinary toxicity. FUNDING: New Zealand Health Research Council, Australian National Health Medical Research Council, Cancer Council Victoria, Cancer Council NSW, Auckland Hospital Charitable Trust, Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group Seed Funding, Cancer Research Trust New Zealand, Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists, Cancer Institute NSW, Prostate Cancer Foundation Australia, and Cancer Australia.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/radioterapia , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Terapia de Salvação , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Urogenitais Masculinas/epidemiologia , Doenças Urogenitais Masculinas/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Radioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Salvação/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Law Med ; 27(4): 937-951, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880411

RESUMO

In November of 2019, New Zealand's Parliament enacted the End of Life Choice Act 2019 (NZ) to authorise the administration of a lethal dose of medication to competent adults suffering from a terminal illness likely to end his or her life within six months, should they directly and voluntarily request it. However, before this legislation can enter into force, it must be approved by a majority of voters at a referendum held at the next general election. This article traces how the End of Life Choice Act 2019 came to be enacted and examines the existing data on public opinion in order to provide a cautious prediction as to that referendum vote's likely result.


Assuntos
Suicídio Assistido , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Opinião Pública
9.
J Law Med ; 27(4): 1014-1046, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880417

RESUMO

A major postpartum depression may develop insidiously and go untreated and represent a potentially serious hazard to the wellbeing of both the mother and her child or children. Infanticide is the term used to describe the deliberate act of a parent killing their own young child. The original Infanticide Act 1922 of England and Wales applied to a woman who caused the death of her "newly born" child at the time when she had not fully recovered from the effect of giving birth to such child and by reason thereof "the balance of her mind was disturbed". The subsequent Infanticide Act 1938 (1 & 2 Geo 6, c 36) provided that the victim child could be any age up to 12 months. After reviewing the phenomenology of postpartum depression, maternal child murder (infanticide and filicide) and post-traumatic stress disorder, this article examines the recommendations of various law reform commissions and the development of infanticide statutes in Australia and New Zealand. The article compares and contrasts the different provisions and concludes with some recommendations for law reform.


Assuntos
Infanticídio , Austrália , Criança , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Gravidez , País de Gales
11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1268: 123-139, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918216

RESUMO

Melanoma and keratinocyte skin cancer (KSC) are the most common types of cancer in White-skinned populations. Both tumor entities showed increasing incidence rates worldwide but stable or decreasing mortality rates. Rising incidence rates of cutaneous melanoma (CM) and KSC are largely attributed to increasing exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, the main causal risk factor for skin cancer.Incidence rates of KSC, comprising of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), are much higher than that of melanoma. BCC development is mainly the cause of an intensive UV exposure in childhood and adolescence, while SCC development is related to chronic, cumulative UV exposure over decades. Although mortality is relatively low, KSC is an increasing problem for health care services causing significant morbidity.Cutaneous melanoma is rapidly increasing in White populations, with an estimated annual increase of around 3-7% over the past decades. In contrast to SCC, melanoma risk is associated with intermittent and chronic exposure to sunlight. The frequency of its occurrence is closely associated with the constitutive color of the skin and the geographical zone. Changes in outdoor activities and exposure to sunlight during the past 70 years are an important factor for the increasing incidence of melanoma. Mortality rates of melanoma show stabilization in the USA, Australia, and in European countries. In the USA even dropping numbers of death cases were recently reported, probably reflecting efficacy of the new systemic treatments.Among younger cohorts in some populations (e.g., Australia and New Zealand,), stabilizing or declining incidence rates of CM are observed, potentially caused by primary prevention campaigns aimed at reducing UV exposure. In contrast, incidence rates of CM are still rising in most European countries and in the USA. Ongoing trends towards thinner melanoma are largely ascribed to earlier detection.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/epidemiologia , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
N Z Med J ; 133(1520): 83-90, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994596

RESUMO

AIM: To critically analyse the reliability of an article which claims to be evidence that the End of Life Choice Act 2019 provides a "potential hotspot for family, community and social discord that may not be easily remedied" should the legislation receive public support in New Zealand's September 2020 referendum. METHODS: The subject article was reviewed multiple times by all authors and critiqued against three criteria: a reliability pyramid developed to weigh evidence about assisted dying; principles that guide the conduct of social science research; and the use of reliable and current social science literature to support factual claims. RESULTS: The study being analysed involved a single interview and so is located at the second bottom row of the reliability pyramid. Its research design is also unable to support the broad findings that are asserted. Other flaws in method included findings being extended beyond the data, and failure to state appropriate limitations in the research method. Further, claims are made that are unsupported by the weight of reliable social science literature. CONCLUSION: The subject article is methodologically and factually flawed so is unreliable as evidence. It should not be considered in the assisted dying debates preceding the forthcoming referendum.


Assuntos
Suicídio Assistido , Peso Corporal , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa
13.
N Z Med J ; 133(1520): 104-107, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994599
14.
N Z Med J ; 133(1520): 140-143, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994606
15.
Intern Med J ; 50(8): 1000-1003, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881225

RESUMO

An increase in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infections prompted Level 4 lockdown throughout New Zealand from 25 March 2020. We have investigated trends in coronary and electrophysiology (EP) procedures before and during this lockdown. The number of acute procedures for ST elevation myocardial infarction remained stable. In contrast, the number of in-patient angiograms and percutaneous intervention procedures fell by 53% compared with the previous 4 weeks in 2020 and by 56% compared with the corresponding period in 2019. Further study is required to determine the reasons for these trends.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Cardiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Pneumonia Viral , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Betacoronavirus , Eletrofisiologia Cardíaca/métodos , Eletrofisiologia Cardíaca/tendências , Serviço Hospitalar de Cardiologia/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Cardiologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Angiografia Coronária/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Carga de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Intern Med J ; 50(8): 924-930, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases (ID) physicians perform a pivotal role in directing the response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). AIM: To assess the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on workload and the perceptions of ID physicians regarding the national response in Australia and New Zealand in the pre-pandemic. METHODS: A survey of ID physicians in Australia and New Zealand was undertaken from 3 to 10 March 2020. Respondents were asked to estimate time spent on SARS-CoV-2-related activities in February and report their agreement with statements on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 'strongly agree' to 'strongly disagree'. We also asked about the intended use of investigational agents. RESULTS: There were 214 respondents (36% of 600 eligible participants). The median workload due to SARS-CoV-2-related activities was 34% of one full-time equivalent (interquartile range 18-68%). Less than a quarter (50, 23%) of respondents had experience managing cases, while 33% (70) had experience preparing during similar pandemics. Nevertheless, 88% (188/213) believed they were well informed when giving testing and management advice, and 45% (95/212) believed their national response was well coordinated. Additionally, 41% (88/214) were worried about becoming infected through occupational exposure. Over half (116, 54%) the respondents intended to use lopinavir/ritonavir in confirmed cases of COVID-19 with severe disease. CONCLUSIONS: ID physicians spent a large proportion of time on SARS-CoV-2-related activities. Increased staffing is required to avoid burnout. Importantly, ID physicians feel well informed when giving advice. A national body should be established to co-ordinate response. Treatment efficacy trials are needed to clarify the utility of unproven treatments.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Médicos , Pneumonia Viral , Austrália/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Infecções/epidemiologia , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Papel do Médico , Médicos/psicologia , Médicos/provisão & distribução , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Carga de Trabalho
19.
J Prim Health Care ; 12(3): 199-206, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988441

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION Mass masking is emerging as a key non-pharmaceutical intervention for reducing community spread of COVID-19. However, although hand washing, social distancing and bubble living have been widely adopted by the 'team of 5 million', mass masking has not been socialised to the general population. AIM To identify factors associated with face masking in New Zealand during COVID-19 Alert Level 4 lockdown to inform strategies to socialise and support mass masking. METHODS A quantitative online survey conducted in New Zealand during April 2020 invited residents aged ≥18 years to complete a questionnaire. Questions about face masking were included in the survey. The sample was drawn from a commissioned research panel survey, with boosted sampling for Maori and Pacific participants. Responses were weighted to reflect the New Zealand population for all analyses. RESULTS A total of 1015 individuals participated. Self-reported beliefs were strongly related to behaviours, with respondents viewing face masking measures as 'somewhat' or 'very' effective in preventing them from contracting COVID-19 more likely to report having worn a face mask than respondents who viewed them as 'not at all' effective. The strongest barriers to face mask use included beliefs that there was a mask shortage and that the needs of others were greater than their own. DISCUSSION Highlighting the efficacy of and dispelling myths about the relative efficacy of mask types and socialising people to the purpose of mass masking will contribute to community protective actions of mask wearing in the New Zealand response to COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Máscaras , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Autorrelato , Distância Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
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