Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 7.046
Filtrar
1.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 21(9): 607-611, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ophthalmic pathologies may further complicate the sensory input of patients with congenital hearing loss; however, data on children with coexisting impairment of vision and hearing is outdated, from before universal implementation of hearing screening programs. OBJECTIVES: To examine the different ophthalmic pathologies among children with congenital sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) before or after the introduction of a universal newborn hearing screening program (UNHSP). METHODS: Retrospective cohort study was conducted of 91 children diagnosed with congenital SNHL between 2005 and 2016 in a tertiary pediatric hospital. All patients completed an ophthalmologic examination, including assessment of visual acuity, refraction, ocular motility, slit lamp examination, and indirect funduscopy. Radiological assessment and genetic analysis were offered to all caregivers. RESULTS: Average age at diagnosis was 4.1 years. Nineteen children (21%) were diagnosed with an ophthalmic condition, of which the most common were refractive pathologies. Diagnosis of an ophthalmic pathology was twice as likely in the pre-UNHSP era (14 children, 27%) compared to the post-UNHSP era (5 children, 13%). Out of 91 children, 57 (63%) underwent a computed tomography scan and/or magnetic resonance imaging. Imaging was positive for structural abnormalities in 23 children (40%). There was no correlation between imaging and ophthalmic conditions. Genetic analysis was performed in 67 patients (74%). CONCLUSIONS: The ophthalmic assessment of babies and children with congenital SNHL may yield in significant numbers of children with concomitant ophthalmic pathologies. Implementation of a UNHSP allows early diagnosis and treatment of coexisting ophthalmic and hearing conditions.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias/diagnóstico , Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico , Perda Auditiva/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Orthop Clin North Am ; 50(4): 539-548, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466669

RESUMO

End-stage ankle arthritis has a significant effect on function and quality of life. Total ankle arthroplasty continues to emerge as a safe and effective treatment of ankle arthritis. Ankle arthroplasty preserves motion at the ankle joint, while still achieving the primary goal of pain relief. With encouraging outcomes and improved implant longevity, there has been significant improvement on the results of first-generation implants. Further high-quality studies are required to clarify outcomes post ankle arthroplasty. This article reviews the latest data from national registries and the wider literature to evaluate the current status with outcomes of modern total ankle replacements.


Assuntos
Artrite/epidemiologia , Artrite/cirurgia , Artroplastia de Substituição do Tornozelo/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artroplastia de Substituição do Tornozelo/instrumentação , Austrália/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Noruega/epidemiologia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Desenho de Prótese , Falha de Prótese , Sistema de Registros , Suécia/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1841-1842, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438370

RESUMO

Diagnosis and prescription data in the electronic health records (EHR) of a New Zealand primary care clinic are analyzed to identify skin infection occurrences in support of a public health initiative. High prevalence of this disease and substantial differences in the prevalence and occurrence rates among ethnic groups are identified. The findings indicate application potential of the analysis algorithm in public health for identifying the population groups with high needs and assessing intervention impact.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Saúde Pública , Dermatopatias Infecciosas/etnologia , Algoritmos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Prevalência
4.
Crit Care Resusc ; 21(3): 188-199, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462206

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Acute liver failure (ALF) leads to severe illness and usually requires admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Despite its importance, little is known about patients with ALF in Australia and New Zealand. DESIGN: Binational observational study to evaluate the aetiology, baseline characteristics, patterns of illness, management, and outcomes for patients with ALF admitted to Australian and New Zealand ICUs. SETTING: All six Australian and New Zealand ICUs in liver transplant centres submitted de-identified data for ten or more consecutive patients with ALF. Data were obtained from the clinical record and included baseline characteristics, aetiology, mode of presentation, illness severity, markers of liver failure, critical care interventions, utilisation of transplantation, and hospital outcome. RESULTS: We studied 62 patients with ALF. Paracetamol overdose (POD) was the underlying cause of ALF in 53% of patients (33/62), with staggered ingestion in 42% of patients (14/33). Among patients with POD, 70% (23/33) were young women, most had psychiatric diagnoses, and most presented relatively early with overt liver failure. This group were transplanted in only 6% of cases (2/33) and had an overall mortality of 24% (8/33). The remaining patients with ALF had less common conditions, such as hepatitis B and non-paracetamol drug-induced ALF. These patients presented later and exhibited less extreme evidence of acute hepatic necrosis. Transplantation was performed in 38% of patients (11/29) in this subgroup. The mortality of nontransplanted non-POD patients was 56% (10/18). Illness severity at ICU admission, initial requirement for organ support therapies and length of hospital stay were similar between patients with POD and non-POD ALF. CONCLUSION: POD is the major cause of ALF in Australian and New Zealand liver transplant centres and is a unique and separate form of ALF. It has a much lower associated mortality and treatment with liver transplantation than non-POD ALF. Non-POD patients have a poor prognosis in the absence of transplantation.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Acetaminofen/toxicidade , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/toxicidade , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Falência Hepática Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Falência Hepática Aguda/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Falência Hepática Aguda/epidemiologia , Falência Hepática Aguda/etiologia , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
5.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 43(5): 470-476, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287940

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the prevalence of disability between migrants and non-migrants at three and 24 months post-injury, and to identify key predictors of post-injury disability among migrants. METHODS: Disability among 2,850 injured participants, including 677 migrants to New Zealand, was measured prospectively using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule. RESULTS: Migrants experienced higher risk of disability than non-migrants at three months post-injury (aRR=1.14, 95%CI 1.03-1.26). Both groups had similar disability prevalence, but higher than pre-injury, at 24 months. For migrants, strong predictors of disability at three months post-injury were: higher injury severity, pre-injury obesity, and perceiving the injury as a threat of disability. Having multiple chronic conditions was a predictor of disability at both time points. CONCLUSIONS: Disability was persistent for migrants and non-migrants to 24 months post-injury. The disability risk at three months was higher for migrants. Certain predictors associated with disability were identified. Implications for public health: Despite having accessed healthcare services for their injury, migrants (compared with non-migrants) had higher risks of disability at least in the first three months post-injury. Interventions should be focused during this critical period on identified key predictors to promote faster recovery and reduce disability.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/reabilitação , Adulto , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/etnologia
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 633, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Group A Streptococcal (GAS) infections cause the autoimmune disease acute rheumatic fever (ARF), which can progress to chronic rheumatic heart disease (RHD). Treating pharyngitis caused by GAS with antibiotics is important in preventing ARF. However, it is difficult to distinguish these infections from GAS carriers. There is growing evidence for GAS skin infections as a cause of ARF. This study will identify the incidence of true GAS pharyngitis and serological responses to GAS skin infections. The effectiveness of antibiotics for these conditions will be explored, and modifiable risk factors. Serum antibody titres indicating the upper limits of normal (ULN for ASO/ADB antibodies) will be established alongside carriage rates in asymptomatic children. METHODS: This is a prospective disease incidence study, with an associated case-control study. The study population includes 1000 children (5-14 years) from Auckland, New Zealand, 800 of whom have visited their healthcare professional, resulting in a throat or skin swab for GAS, and 200 who are asymptomatic. The conditions of interest are GAS throat swab positive pharyngitis (n = 200); GAS carriage (n = 200); GAS negative throat swab (n = 200); GAS skin infections (n = 200); and asymptomatic controls (n = 200). All participants, except asymptomatic controls, will have acute and convalescent serological testing for ASO/ADB titres (collected < 9 days, and 2-4 weeks following symptom onset, respectively), alongside viral PCR from throat swabs. Asymptomatic controls will have ASO/ADB titres measured in one blood specimen and a throat swab for microbial culture. Caregivers of children will be interviewed using a questionnaire and any GAS isolates identified will be emm typed. The persistence of GAS antibodies will also be investigated. DISCUSSION: Findings from this study will fill critical gaps in scientific knowledge to better understand the pathophysiology of ARF, improve clinical management of GAS infections, and design more effective ARF prevention programmes. In particular it will measure the incidence of true, serologically confirmed GAS pharyngitis; assess the immune response to GAS skin infections and its role as a cause of ARF; examine the effectiveness of oral antibiotics for treating GAS pharyngitis and carriage; and identify whether risk factors for GAS infections might provide intervention points for reducing ARF.


Assuntos
Faringite/microbiologia , Febre Reumática/microbiologia , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/microbiologia , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Faringite/tratamento farmacológico , Faringite/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Prospectivos , Febre Reumática/tratamento farmacológico , Febre Reumática/epidemiologia , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/genética , Streptococcus pyogenes/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus pyogenes/patogenicidade
7.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 266, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Johne's disease is a major production limiting disease of dairy cows caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in calf-hood. The disease is chronic, progressive, contagious and widespread with no treatment and no cure. Economic losses arise from decreased productivity through reduced growth, milk yield, fertility and also capital losses due to premature culling or death. Control chiefly centers upon removing those animals which actively shed bacteria and protecting calves from infection. A prolonged pre-clinical shedding phase, lack of test sensitivity, organism persistence and abundance in the environment as well as management systems that expose susceptible calves to infection make control challenging, particularly in pastoral, seasonal dairy systems. Combining a novel testing strategy to remove infected cows along with limited measures to protect vulnerable calves at pasture, this study reports the successful reduction over a four-year period of seroprevalence of cows testing positive for MAP infection in a New Zealand pastoral dairy herd. RESULTS: For all age groups considered the apparent seroprevalence of cows testing positive decreased from 297 / 1,122 (26%) in 2013-2014, to 24 / 1,030 (2.3%) in 2016-2017. Over the same period, the apparent seroprevalence in primiparous cows decreased from 39 / 260 (15%) to 7 / 275 (2.5%) and in multiparous cows from 258 / 862 (29.9%) to 17 / 755 (2.3%). The reported proportion of calved cows culled annually from suspected clinical Johne's disease fell from 55 / 1,201 (5%) in the year preceding the control program to 5 / 1,283 (0.4%) in the final year of the study. CONCLUSIONS: On this farm, reduction in the prevalence of infection was achieved by reducing the infectious pressure through targeted culling of heavily shedding animals together with limited measures to protect calves at pasture from exposure to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Whilst greater protection of young animals through separation from infected cows and their colostrum and milk would have reduced the risk of neonatal infection, this study demonstrates, in this case, that these management measures while prudent were not essential for effective reduction in the prevalence of MAP infection.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/fisiologia , Paratuberculose/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Indústria de Laticínios , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Paratuberculose/prevenção & controle , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
8.
Public Health ; 172: 125-134, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemic obesity poses a major threat to global health. This phenomenon reflects the inability of the average person to cope, biologically and behaviorally, with environmental contexts that promote caloric overconsumption and inadequate caloric expenditure. There is still much to be learned about how to improve these contexts nationally and within-countries for sociodemographic groups with above-average obesity risks. METHODS: Higher obesity risks relative to respective white majority populations were identified among diverse indigenous, other native-born, or migrant 'racial' or ethnic minority (hereafter, ethnic minority) populations in the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and the Netherlands, using publicly available national survey data or other sources. Cross-national comparisons were of interest for identifying common risk pathways associated with social and economic inequities. Potential explanations were explored through a narrative review of peer-reviewed literature, informed by the World Health Organization's Conceptual Framework for Action on The Social Determinants of Health. MAIN FINDINGS: Identifying viable solutions to the high risk of obesity in ethnic minority populations in these high-income countries requires examination of national-level social, economic, and health system contexts, food systems, and built environments for physical activity, as well as patterns of social stratification and cultural biases related to ethnicity, migration, and other determinants of social disadvantage. These factors can be linked to mediators of exposure or vulnerability to obesity-related risks, such as poverty, being an 'outsider', stress and trauma resulting from historical and current oppression, exposure to bias and discrimination, related biological or behavioral consequences, and inadequate health and social care. CONCLUSIONS: Focusing on ethnic minority populations in high-income countries is critical for public health efforts to address epidemic obesity. Mitigating intersecting risk pathways arising from stratification and bias based on ethnicity and migrant status should be prominent in these efforts.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/etnologia , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Parasitol Res ; 118(7): 2065-2077, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187222

RESUMO

This study tested for association between Toxoplasma gondii and pregnancy and abortion to investigate sub-optimal reproduction in farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus). Sera from a sub-sample (n = 2304) of pregnant and non-pregnant hinds in early gestation at first pregnancy scan (scan 1) and approximately at the end of second trimester at second pregnancy scan (scan 2) were tested for T. gondii antibodies using a validated ELISA. Foetuses and/or uteri from pregnant, non-pregnant, and aborting hinds at scan 1, scan 2, or weaning were tested for T. gondii DNA by nested PCR. At scan 1, 31.1% of 861 rising two-year-old (R2) and 28.3% of 357 mixed-aged (MA, ≥ 2 years) hinds were sero-positive. There was no association between scan 1 serology and non-pregnancy at animal (R2, p = 0.05 and MA, p = 0.43) or herd level (R2, p = 0.37). Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected in 3/18 placenta and 4/18 foetal brains from aborting R2 hinds and 15/157 R2 and 3/21 MA uteri from non-pregnant hinds at scan 1. At scan 2, sero-prevalence was higher (odds ratio = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.04-2.48) in aborted (34.3% of 268) than in non-aborted (23.5% of 446) R2 hinds (p = 0.03) and 7.9% of abortions between scans were attributable to T. gondii exposure. Within-herd sero-prevalence at scan 2 was positively associated with daily abortion rate in R2 herds with aborted hinds (p < 0.001) but not in MA herds (p = 0.07). Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected in 27/169 uteri, 2/20 cotyledons, and 1/5 foetal brains from aborted hinds at scan 2 and in uteri from 5/33 hinds not rearing a calf to weaning. Toxoplasma gondii RFLP genotyping of five loci revealed a unique type I/III genotype pattern, TgRDNZ1, in a foetal brain sample, not been previously reported in deer. These findings provide serological and molecular evidence that T. gondii infection is associated with abortion in red deer, possibly in all three trimesters.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/veterinária , Cervos/parasitologia , Reprodução , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Animais , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Fazendas , Feminino , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Placenta/parasitologia , Gravidez , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal , Desmame
10.
Vet Microbiol ; 233: 61-67, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176414

RESUMO

The incidence of infections with extended spectrum ß-lactamase producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-E) is increasing both in humans and animals. There is a paucity of data about the rate of faecal carriage of ESBL-E in pets. In this study, faecal swabs collected from 586 pets (225 cats; 361 dogs) in Auckland, New Zealand, were analysed for the presence of ESBL-E by culture, and a questionnaire was delivered to the owners. The ESBL-E were characterised and data elicited by the questionnaires were used for a multivariable analysis, to investigate the factors associated with faecal ESBL-E carriage. The prevalence of ESBL-E in faecal swabs was 6.4%. The ß-lactamase genes detected in the ESBL-E were the blaCTX-M-14 (n = 2) and blaCMY-2 (n = 34). Several isolates displayed multilocus sequence types (ST) associated with human and animal infections. Multiple isolates sharing the same ST displayed different antibiograms and ß-lactamase genes, reflecting horizontal gene transfer between and within ST. Variables independently associated with increased odds of ESBL-E carriage were: animal received systemic antimicrobial treatment in the six months before the sampling; presence of household members working in veterinary clinics; presence of household members travelling overseas in the six months before the sampling. We conclude that pets are colonised by ESBL-E which are genotypically similar to the bacteria found to infect humans and animals. The statistical analysis suggested a number of eco-epidemiological factors associated with ESBL-E carriage. In particular, they suggest veterinary clinics may represent hot-spots of antimicrobial resistance.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/veterinária , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Escherichia coli/genética , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , beta-Lactamases/genética , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Gatos/microbiologia , Cães/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Genética Populacional , Genótipo , Hospitais Veterinários , Humanos , Masculino , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , beta-Lactamases/biossíntese
11.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 794, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drowning is a leading and preventable cause of death that has suffered an attention deficit. Improving drowning data in countries would assist the understanding of the full extent and circumstances of drowning, to target interventions and evaluate their effectiveness. The World Health Organization identifies data collection as a key strategy underpinning effective interventions. This study compares unintentional fatal drowning data collection, management and comparison using the databases of Australia, Canada and New Zealand. METHODS: Cases of fatal unintentional drowning between 1-January-2005 and 31-December-2014 were extracted. Cases were combined into a single dataset and univariate and chi square analysis (p < 0.01) were undertaken. Location and activity variables were mapped and combined. Variables consistently collected across the three countries were compared to the ILCOR Drowning Data Guideline. The authors also recommend variables for a minimum core dataset. RESULTS: Of 55 total variables, 19 were consistent and 13 could be compared across the three databases. When mapped against the ILCOR Drowning Data Guideline, six variables were consistently collected by all countries, with five compared within this study. The authors recommend a minimum core dataset of 11 variables including age, sex, location, activity, date of incident, and alcohol and drug involvement). There were 8176 drowning deaths (Australia 34.1%, Canada 55.9%, New Zealand 9.9%). All countries achieved reductions in crude drowning rates (Australia - 10.2%, Canada - 20.4%, New Zealand - 24.7%). Location and activity prior to drowning differed significantly across the three countries. Beaches (X2 = 1151.0;p < 0.001) and ocean/harbour locations (X2 = 300.5;p < 0.001) were common in Australia and New Zealand, while lakes/ponds (X2 = 826.5;p < 0.001) and bathtubs (X2 = 27.7;p < 0.001) were common drowning locations in Canada. Boating prior to drowning was common in Canada (X2 = 66.3;p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The comparison of data across the three countries was complex. Work was required to merge categories within the 20% of variables collected that were comparable, thus reducing the fidelity of data available. Data sources, collection and coding varied by country, with the widest diversity seen in location and activity variables. This study highlights the need for universally agreed and consistently applied categories and definitions to allow for global comparisons and proposes a core minimum dataset.


Assuntos
Afogamento/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(1): 16-22, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120658

RESUMO

Disorders of the oral cavity are conditions reported by veterinarians that impact the health and welfare of large felids in human care. There have been no studies documenting the prevalence of these conditions and species affected in Australian zoos. A review of the medical records of lions (Panthera leo), tigers (Panthera tigris), cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), jaguars (Puma onca), snow leopards (Panthera uncia), Persian leopards (Panthera pardus saxicolor), and cougars (Puma concolor) from 10 Australian zoos and an online survey of zoo professionals from Australian and New Zealand zoos was performed to determine the recorded prevalence of disorders of the oral cavity in these species. Preliminary assessments were also made to determine if there was an association between the occurrence of tooth fractures and diet, feeding practices, species, sex, and age of the animal. The study also examined associations of these conditions with behavior, such as fighting, and husbandry practices, such as the provision of enrichment items. The review found that tooth fractures were common in tigers and lions greater than 8 yr of age. Animal caregivers attributed this to animals chewing on large, hard pieces of bone in some instances, but this could not be verified. Instances of bones being lodged between canine teeth were observed and appeared to be related to the feeding of bones of inappropriate size. Based on these findings, it is recommended that guidelines for bone size fed be developed and that animals over the age of 8 yr receive regular dental examinations under general anesthesia.


Assuntos
Felidae , Doenças Estomatognáticas/veterinária , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Boca/patologia , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças Estomatognáticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Estomatognáticas/etiologia
14.
J Hand Surg Asian Pac Vol ; 24(2): 129-137, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035877

RESUMO

Background: Community Acquired Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) rates have been increasing worldwide and contribute to a growing "global health security threat" as reported by the WHO. Our group previously reported an overall rate of 7% in CA-MRSA upper extremity infections between 2004-2009 at the Auckland Regional Hand Unit. This fell below the Center for Disease Control (CDC) recommendation for empiric antimicrobial cover once local rates exceed 10-15%. We examined prevalence and characteristics of CA-MRSA upper extremity infections in our region over a subsequent 5-year period. Methods: One thousand two hundred and fifty-two patients with upper extremity infections requiring operative management between 2011 and 2015 inclusive were included in this study. Associated clinical characteristics were recorded including ethnicity, cultured organisms, antibiotic sensitivities, infection rate, and treatment practice. Results: One hundred and fifty (12%) of patients had culture positive CA-MRSA upper extremity infections. There was an increasing annual trend. Of note, rates of CA-MRSA in the Maori and Pacific Island ethnic subpopulations exceeded 15% in 2014 and 2015. Susceptibilities, associated factors and patient demographics are reported. Conclusions: Our unit enjoys significantly lower rates of CA-MRSA upper extremity infections than has been reported internationally. However, trends are increasing relative to our prior 6-year report, and the threshold for empiric treatment has been met within the Maori and Pacific Island ethnic subpopulations. This evolving threat is also highlighted by increasing cases of multi-drug resistant CA-MRSA. Evolving regional guidelines for empiric coverage of CA-MRSA among high-risk ethnic subpopulations identified by this study are underway.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Extremidade Superior/microbiologia , Adulto , Artrite Infecciosa/epidemiologia , Artrite Infecciosa/microbiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Prevalência , Dermatopatias Infecciosas/epidemiologia , Dermatopatias Infecciosas/microbiologia , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/epidemiologia , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/microbiologia
15.
N Z Vet J ; 67(5): 219-227, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104579

RESUMO

Eradicating bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) from cattle populations requires a clear approach for determining the epidemiological status of individual herds and implementing the appropriate control measures to ensure the transmission cycle is cost-effectively broken. This is particularly important in countries such as New Zealand where there is currently no coordinated national programme and the herd-level decisions to control BVD are left to the discretion of individual farmers and veterinarians. To ensure greater consistency in the information being delivered by different stakeholders, we review the epidemiology of BVD in the context of New Zealand pastoral production systems and provides a series of simplified recommendations for the future control of BVD in beef and dairy herds. Based on analysis of BVD test accession data from commercial diagnostic laboratories, it has been estimated that 40.6% of dairy herds and 45.6% of beef herds tested had positive results for antibodies to BVD virus. While BVD continues to remain widespread and under voluntary control in New Zealand, it is recommended that herds test all individual mixed-age cows and replacement heifers for BVD virus or antigen and remove persistently infected animals from the breeding population. All new breeding animals that have entered the herd either through purchase or birth should also be tested for BVD virus. Biosecurity risks should be managed by reducing contacts with other herds and implementing targeted vaccination programmes. All individual purchased cattle should be tested and confirmed negative for BVD virus before being moved onto the buyer's property, even if the herd of origin had a negative antibody-based screening test. Herds should continue annual antigen or virus testing of all calves as soon as possible after birth to identify any persistently infected animals.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/diagnóstico , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/epidemiologia , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/transmissão , Bovinos , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/isolamento & purificação , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico
16.
Vet J ; 247: 75-80, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971356

RESUMO

To investigate the effect of climate and farm management practices on prevalence of bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) in spring-calving farms in Taranaki, New Zealand, whole herd assessments of BDD were made on 57 farms which had been previously identified as having cows with BDD. Assessments of BDD lesions were made on five occasions between early lactation (September 2015) and drying-off (May 2016; at approximately 6-week intervals). Along with the clinical assessment, data on farm management practices were collected using questionnaires. In addition, climate data including rainfall and soil/air temperature were obtained from a local weather station. The raw temporal pattern was analysed using a generalised estimating equation method, followed by a mixed effects negative binomial model which modelled the associations between prevalence and the covariates including management practices, rainfall and soil temperature. The highest farm and cow level prevalences were seen on the second visit (27/Oct/2015-11/Dec/2015) and were lowest on the fourth visit (29/Jan/2016-10/Mar/2016). Farms with a higher prevalence at the first visit tended to have a higher prevalence at later visits, even though the affected individuals were often different. There was thus a strong correlation (0.94) between prevalence (proportion of cows affected at each time point) and incidence (proportion of cows with new affections at each time point). Two climate measurements were found to have associations with BDD prevalence. Firstly, increased rainfall in the previous month was associated with decreased cow level prevalence; secondly, there was a quadratic relationship between prevalence and soil temperature, with prevalence increasing as soil temperature increased from 11.8 °C to approximately 18 °C and then decreasing as soil temperature increased from approximately 18 °C to 23.9 °C. In addition to the effect of climate, using outside staff to perform hoof trimming was found to increase the risk of BDD affection (risk ratio [RR]: 2.06, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-4.06).


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Clima , Indústria de Laticínios , Dermatite Digital/etiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Dermatite Digital/epidemiologia , Feminino , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estações do Ano
17.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 125, 2019 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) is considered the most important infectious cause of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide, but has only recently been observed in New Zealand. Although many studies have investigated the risk factors for BDD in confined dairy systems, information on risk factors in pasture-based system is limited. Therefore a cross-sectional study including 59,849 animals from 127 dairy herds in four regions of New Zealand was conducted to identify the herd-level factors associated with the probability of a herd being BDD-lesion positive and with within-herd BDD prevalence. RESULTS: Purchasing heifers was associated with increased odds of a herd being BDD-lesion positive (odds ratio [OR]: 2.33, 95% probability interval [PI]: 1.26-4.42) and a cow being BDD affected (OR: 3.76, 95%PI: 1.73-8.38), respectively. Higher odds of a herd being BDD-lesion positive (OR: 2.06, 95%PI: 1.17-3.62) and a cow being BDD affected (OR: 2.87, 95%PI: 1.43-5.94) were also seen in herds where heifers co-grazed with cattle from other properties. In addition, using outside staff to treat lameness was associated with higher odds of a cow being BDD affected (OR: 2.18, 95%PI: 0.96-4.98). CONCLUSION: This study highlighted that movements of heifers are significantly associated with the spread of BDD within and between dairy herds in New Zealand. To minimise the risk of disease introductions in herds where moving heifers cannot be avoided, it is best to purchase heifers only from herds where BDD-freedom has been confirmed and, if heifers have to graze-off a farm, they should be reared as a single biosecure management group, especially since animals may be BDD-infected without having clinically obvious lesions.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Dermatite Digital/epidemiologia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Bovinos , Feminino , Modelos Biológicos , Análise Multivariada , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco
18.
Int J Public Health ; 64(4): 625-635, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006826

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate risk factors for women with obesity of childbearing age. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of New Zealand women (15-49 years) with measured height and weight was used [unweighted (n = 3625) and weighted analytical sample (n = 1,098,372)] alongside sociodemographic-, behavioural- and environmental-level predictors. Multilevel logistic regression weighted for non-response of height and weight data was used. RESULTS: Meeting physical activity guidelines (AOR (adjusted odds ratio) 0.66, 95% CI 0.54-0.80), Asian (AOR 0.15, 95% CI 0.10-0.23) and European/other ethnicity (AOR 0.46, 95% CI 0.36-0.58) and an increased availability of public greenspace (Q4 AOR 0.55, 95% CI 0.41-0.75) were related to decreased obesity risk. Older age (45-49 years AOR 3.01, 95% CI 2.17-4.16), Pacific ethnicity (AOR 2.81, 95% CI 1.87-4.22), residing in deprived areas (AOR 1.65, 95% CI 1.16-2.35) or secondary urban areas (AOR 1.49, 95% CI 1.03-2.18) were related to increased obesity risk. When examined by rural/urban classification, private greenspace was only related to increased obesity risk in main urban areas. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights factors including but not limited to public greenspace, which inform obesity interventions for women of childbearing age in New Zealand.


Assuntos
Obesidade/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
19.
N Z Vet J ; 67(4): 180-187, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971180

RESUMO

Aims: To describe the common species and the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria cultured from samples submitted to commercial veterinary diagnostic laboratories from beef and pre-production dairy cattle between 2003-2016, and to describe the proportion of isolates with multidrug resistance (MDR). Methods: Bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility data from July 2003 to March 2016 were obtained from commercial veterinary diagnostic laboratories in New Zealand. Results were included from samples from beef cattle, irrespective of age or sex, dairy-breed females aged <2 years and dairy-breed males of any age. Submission information provided included the specimen description, the organisms cultured, and the antimicrobial susceptibilities of isolates, if tested. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was defined as any isolate not showing susceptibility to an antimicrobial compound and MDR as any isolate showing AMR to ≥3 antimicrobial classes. Results: There were 1,858 unique laboratory submissions, yielding 2,739 isolates. Of these submissions, most were from the Canterbury (389; 21.9%), Manawatu (388; 21.9%) Waikato (231; 12.4%) and Hawke's Bay (136; 7.3%) regions. There were 163 unique species identifications for the 2,739 isolates; the most common were Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (452; 16.5%), Campylobacter jejuni (249; 9.1%), Escherichia coli (230; 8.4%) and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (143; 5.2%). Only 251/2,739 (9.2%) isolates from 122/1,858 (6.6%) submissions had antimicrobial susceptibility results. There were no sensitivity results for Yersinia spp., and only one each for Salmonella spp., and Campylobacter spp. Amongst the isolates tested, susceptibility to ampicillin was lowest (33/56; 58.9%). Overall, 57/251 (20.7%) isolates tested for antimicrobial susceptibility had MDR, and MDR was most common for Enterococcus spp. (12/17; 71%) and E. coli (13/30; 43%). Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: This is the first report on antimicrobial susceptibility and MDR in New Zealand beef and pre-production dairy cattle. Findings highlight the limited use of bacterial culture and sensitivity testing by veterinarians and deficits in the information accompanying submissions. A national antimicrobial resistance surveillance strategy that specifically includes this population is recommended.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Análise de Variância , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Indústria de Laticínios , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Feminino , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/epidemiologia , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Carne Vermelha
20.
N Z Vet J ; 67(4): 188-193, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971195

RESUMO

Aims: To estimate the prevalence of lameness in sheep transported to meat processing plants in New Zealand, and to identify factors associated with the prevalence of lameness. Methods: The survey was conducted over the main meat processing season, running from October 2012 to the end of May 2013, at 10 sheep processing premises (five North Island and five South Island). A sample of 50 sheep selected from approximately six sheep consignments per week from each of the processing plants were scored for lameness, using a scale from Grade 1 (mild) to 3 (severe, non-weight-bearing). For each consignment the breed, age class and mean carcass weight were recorded. A multivariable regression model was fitted to identify the risk factors for prevalence of lame sheep (Grade 1-3) within a consignment. Results: In total, 1,854/78,833 (2.4 (95% CI = 2.2-2.5)%) sheep were diagnosed with lameness. Of the 1,854 lame sheep, lameness severity was Grade 1 in 1,349 (72.8%), Grade 2 in 450 (24.3%) and Grade 3 in 55 (3.0%) sheep. Within consignments ≥1 lame sheep was observed in 600/1,682 (35.7 (95% CI = 33.4-38.0)%) consignments. In Merino lambs and ewes the prevalence of lameness was greater than that of other breeds (p < 0.001), but in rams/wethers, the prevalence of lameness was lower in Merino than other breeds (p < 0.05). In sheep originating from the North Island, increasing mean carcass weight was associated with an increase in the prevalence of lameness (p < 0.001), but in the South Island prevalence was similar for different carcass weights (p = 0.5). In the North Island increasing yarding time was associated with an increase in the lameness prevalence (p < 0.01), but not in the South Island (p = 0.7). Sheep from the South Island generally had a higher prevalence of lameness than the North Island and the prevalence of lameness was lower over summer and autumn relative to the previous spring (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The results from this survey provided a measure of the prevalence of lameness in a section of the New Zealand sheep population, namely those animals sent for slaughter; as well as identification of several risk factors associated with lameness.


Assuntos
Coxeadura Animal/epidemiologia , Matadouros , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA