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1.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 104(5): 2229-2241, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915903

RESUMO

The aquatic microbial community is sensitive to environmental change; however, the impacts of those changes combined with disease outbreaks affecting S. paramamosain are unknown. Thus, from March to October, we explored the interaction between aquacultural environmental conditions and microbial composition and function in open-air aquaculture ponds containing S. paramamosain in Southern China. The microbial community structure was significantly positively correlated with microbial community function. The environment variables such as temperature and salinity during May and June changed more quickly compared with other periods, resulting changes in the structure and function of the microbial community affected S. paramamosain survivability, with higher crab mortality observed from May to June compared with other periods. These included changes in the relative abundance of Microtrichales, Synechococcales, Rhodobacterales, Chitinophagales, and SAR11_clade, and corresponding functions associated with glycolysis and/or gluconeogenesis, porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism, photosynthetic proteins, and transcription factors. These changes could impact S. paramamosain mortality and be used to evaluate the health status of the ponds. Though the environment variables during July~October changed slowly comparing to May and June, the ponds microflora changed which benefit S. paramamosain survivability with correspondingly low S. paramamosain mortality. Therefore, rapid environmental change alters the structure and function of the aquatic microflora, increasing S. paramamosain mortality.


Assuntos
Braquiúros/fisiologia , Microbiota , Tanques/microbiologia , Microbiologia da Água , Animais , Aquicultura , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Microbiota/genética , Nutrientes/análise , Tanques/química , Salinidade , Estações do Ano , Temperatura Ambiente
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 885-890, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The research focused on the evaluation of the impact of cover cropping on trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Co and Cd) and nutrients in vineyard soils and Vitis vinifera L. For this purpose, two types of cover crops (Lolium perenne L. and Medicago sativa L.) and their mixture were planted between vine rows of Muscat white in the vineyard in South Crimea. Trace elements, nutrients and other parameters were analyzed in the soil layers, leaves and grapevines of control and cover cropped plots. RESULTS: The effect of cover cropping was dependent on applied plant species. Ryegrass (L. perenne L.) seems to compete with V. vinifera L. for nutrients - these were lower in the soil and vines of the treated plot. In parallel, lead (Pb) bioconcentration in grapevines was reduced. In contrast, under lucerne (M. sativa L.), nitrogen in the soil and vines, and trace metal bioconcentration (Fe, Pb and Co) were higher. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that cover cropping can influence the chemical composition of soil and vines. This should be considered when selecting cover crops. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Lolium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Medicago/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oligoelementos/análise , Vitis/química , Frutas/química , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Lolium/metabolismo , Medicago/metabolismo , Nutrientes/análise , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Solo/química , Especificidade da Espécie , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vitis/metabolismo
3.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 540-550, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Root-shoot ratio plays an important role in mulching effects on increases in maize kernel dry weight and grain yield. RESULTS: We examined the effects of plastic film mulching with fertigation on soil nitrate, soil Olsen-P, aboveground and belowground growth, grain filling, and yield of maize. The 2-year research was conducted in a field with a subsoil sand layer (FSS) and in a field without a subsoil sand layer (FNS) in the Hetao Irrigation District, northwest China. Treatments included two levels of plastic film mulching (FM, fully mulched; PM, partially mulched with a cover ratio of 60%), and a non-mulched (NM) control. Mulching methods significantly increased soil NO3 -N concentrations (SNCs) in the main root zone in FSS, but not in FNS. Mulching significantly increased root length density in the 0-40 cm soil layer. Mulching increased brace roots emergence by 20.2% under full, and by 9.9% under partial mulching, accelerating soil phosphorus use in the surface soil layer. Mulching increased grain yield in spring maize via enhancing base stem diameter, leaf area, and relative chlorophyll content, decreased the ratio of surface root area to leaf area, and improved kernel dry weight increase. CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of base fertilizer to total fertilizer input resulted in nutrient deficiency during reproductive stage in fertigated maize, therefore, applying a portion of base fertilizer after the maize elongation stage is recommended for a further yield increase of mulched fertigated maize. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , China , Produção Agrícola/instrumentação , Fertilizantes/análise , Nitratos/análise , Nitratos/metabolismo , Nutrientes/análise , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plásticos/análise , Solo/química , Água/análise , Água/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo
4.
Food Chem ; 302: 125330, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404872

RESUMO

This study assessed compliance between declared and analysed values on prepacked foods, considering the tolerance limits for salt, fat and saturated fatty acids. Foods were distributed by food categories (e.g. snacks, ready-to-eat meals, potato and potato-products, bakery and pastry products) and a total of 209 products were analysed. Only half of the samples with a declared value ≥1.25 g/100 g were within tolerance limits for salt content. The lowest number of samples outside tolerance limits was observed for fat content; for saturated fatty acids, 27% of the samples were outside of tolerance limits. Only amongst "cereal products" were 100% of products compliant for fat and salt declarations. It is of utmost importance that manufacturers update continuously values declared for prepacked foods, because this information is crucial for consumers and food policy-makers as well as being a legal requirement.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Alimentos/normas , Nutrientes/análise , Política Nutricional , Grão Comestível , União Europeia , Fast Foods/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos/normas , Lanches , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/análise
5.
Insect Sci ; 27(1): 99-112, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30039604

RESUMO

This study sheds light on a poorly understood area in insect-plant-microbe interactions, focusing on aphid probing and feeding behavior on plants with varying levels of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus root colonization. It investigates a commonly occurring interaction of three species: pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, barrel medic Medicago truncatula, and the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis, examining whether aphid-feeding behavior changes when insects feed on plants at different levels of AM fungus colonization (42% and 84% root length colonized). Aphid probing and feeding behavior was monitored throughout 8 h of recording using the electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique, also, foliar nutrient content and plant growth were measured. Summarizing, aphids took longer to reach their 1st sustained phloem ingestion on the 84% AM plants than on the 42% AM plants or on controls. Less aphids showed phloem ingestion on the 84% AM plants relative to the 42% AM plants. Shoots of the 84% AM plants had higher percent carbon (43.7%) relative to controls (40.5%), and the 84% AM plants had reduced percent nitrogen (5.3%) relative to the 42% AM plants (6%). In conclusion, EPG and foliar nutrient data support the hypothesis that modifications in plant anatomy (e.g., thicker leaves), and poor food quality (reduced nitrogen) in the 84% AM plants contribute to reduced aphid success in locating phloem and ultimately to differences in phloem sap ingestion. This work suggests that M. truncatula plants benefit from AM symbiosis not only because of increased nutrient uptake but also because of reduced susceptibility to aphids.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Herbivoria , Medicago truncatula/microbiologia , Medicago truncatula/fisiologia , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Animais , Antibiose , Comportamento Alimentar , Nutrientes/análise , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia
6.
Se Pu ; 37(10): 1105-1111, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642290

RESUMO

An analytical method by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of the two types of nutrients, viz. gingerol-related compounds and curcuminoids in ginger, including 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 8-shogaol, 10-shogaol, tetrahydrocurcumin, curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin. The 10 target compounds were separated on a ZORBAX RRHD Eclipse Plus C18 column (100 mm×2.1 mm, 1.8 µm) using gradient elution with 0.1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution and methanol containing 0.1% (v/v) formic acid as the mobile phases. Qualitative confirmation and quantitative analysis of the target compounds were performed using an electrospray ionization (ESI) source in the positive ion and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) modes. The linear correlation coefficients (r) of the 10 nutrients were ≥ 0.9995. The limits of quantification were 0.10-7.71 µg/L. The average spiked recoveries of the samples at the three levels were 82.8%-115.3%, the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 0.58%-11.49%. The results showed that all the 10 nutrients in ginger were detected, and the content of 6-gingerol was the highest at 373.35-702.48 mg/kg. This method is convenient, rapid, accurate and reliable, and is suitable for the analysis of gingerol-related and curcuminoids in ginger. It provides a technical means for the quality identification and control of ginger.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Gengibre/química , Nutrientes/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 186: 109783, 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629192

RESUMO

Chemical fungicides are effective tools in controlling plant pathogens; however, these chemicals can, on the other hand, distress the ecosystem. Accordingly, the current research investigates the potentiality of substituting traditional chemical fungicides by inducing plant resistance against infection with soil-born pathogens i.e. Sclerotium rolfsii in the presence of mycorrhizae (AMF) as plant inoculants and one of the following amendments: humic acid, sulphex (a mixture of canola oil and diluted sulphuric acid) and paclobutrazol (ABZ). To attain the abovementioned objective, a field (mildly infected with S. rolfsii) was cultivated with Helianthus tuberosus (a perennial plant belongs to the Asteraceae family) for two successive seasons (2014 and 2015) and the above-mentioned treatments were tested for their feasibilities in controlling S. rolfsii infection against the chemical fungicide "Vitavax-200" either solely or in combinations in a complete randomized block design. Inoculating plants with AMF or amending soils with either humic acid, Sulphex or ABZ solely increased significantly the activities of plant defense enzymes by approximately 1.5-2.1 folds higher than the control treatment. These treatments also improved NPK availability in soil and; hence, increased their contents within plant tubers. Consequently, these treatments decreased the disease incidence and severity caused by S. rolfsii while improved shoot biomass and tuber yield. In spite of that, these results stood below the prospective of the fungicide treatment. The integrated treatments i.e. "humic acid + AMF", "Sulphex + AMF" and "ABZ + AMF" caused further significant improvements in both NPK availabilities in soil and plant areal bio-masses. This probably induced further plant resistance against the investigated soil-borne pathogen while recorded insignificant variations in disease incidence and severity when compared with the fungicide treatment. Moreover, the integrated treatments increased the tuber yields beyond those attained for the fungicide treatment. Accordingly, such integrated strategies can completely substitute the chemical fungicides; thus, minimize their negative impacts on the ecosystem.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença/fisiologia , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Helianthus/microbiologia , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Biomassa , Fungicidas Industriais/análise , Helianthus/metabolismo , Helianthus/fisiologia , Nutrientes/análise , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Solo/química
8.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(5): 728-732, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601312

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the situations of dietary microelements intakes among elderly people in different areas of Zhejiang Province, and analyze the food sources of microelements. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 2010-2012 Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey in Zhejiang Province. 832 elderly people( 434 male, 398 female, age was( 68. 02±6. 68) years) were from large cities, small-medium cities and rural counties. The 24-hour dietary recall method for 3 consecutive days was used to collect food intake information to analyze dietary intakes among elderly people of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Se and their sources in different areas. RESULTS: The elderly people'intakes of Mn was 4. 86( 3. 44, 6. 45) mg/d, Cu was 1. 69( 1. 13, 2. 27) mg/d, and Se was36. 85( 21. 32, 54. 21) µg/d, those were generally low. The intake of Zn was 10. 15( 7. 94, 12. 62) mg/d in males, was low as well. Intakes of Mn, Cu, Se were significantly different in different areas, small-medium cities had highest intakes of Mn( 5. 87 mg/d)and Cu( 1. 88 mg/d), large cities had a highest intake of Se( 45. 47 µg/d). The food sources of microelements were slightly variant. Rural counties had less fungi and algae sources of Fe and Mn than large cities and small-medium cities. The Cu from vegetables were higher than dried legumes and the Se from poultry and poultry products were higher than eggs in rural counties. The Zn from fish, shellfish and mollusk were higher than dried legumes in large cities. CONCLUSION: The insufficient status of microelements intakes among elderly people in Zhejiang Province was serious, and there were differences among elderly people from different areas in intakes and food sources of microelements.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Nutrientes/análise , Estado Nutricional , Oligoelementos/análise , Idoso , Animais , Cidades , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Verduras
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(15): 3226-3232, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602876

RESUMO

Ophiopogon japonicus is one of the commonly used medicines,and it has gradually become a therapeutic food for people's daily health care. O. japonicus in Sichuan province is the famous Dao-di herbs in Sichuan province,and is mainly produced in Santai county,Sichuan province. With the unique geographical advantage,Santai county plans to declare the new food raw materials of O. japonicus based on the geographical indication products( Fu Cheng O. japonicus),so it is necessary to analyze and evaluate the nutritional components of O. japonicus in Santai county. The experimental results showed that the content of the nutrients was characterized by low fat,high polysaccharide,high potassium and high vitamin B2,which can be developed as new food raw materials.


Assuntos
Nutrientes/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Ophiopogon/química , China , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Raízes de Plantas/química , Polissacarídeos/análise , Potássio/análise , Riboflavina/análise
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505822

RESUMO

This study examined whether maternal nutritional intake and breast milk macronutrient content influence the weight of breastfed infants. We investigated 129 healthy mothers with singleton babies born from July 2016 to December 2017 in a university hospital in Tokyo, Japan. Information was obtained by a self-administered food frequency questionnaire at 1 (valid response n = 92; mean age, 34 years) and 3 (n = 57) months after delivery. Breast milk was sampled at 1 and 3 months and the macronutrient contents were analyzed. The average pre-pregnancy body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy were 20.7 ± 2.6 kg/m2 and 9.6 ± 3.7 kg, respectively. At 1 month, average maternal calorie intake was 1993 ± 417 kcal/day, which was lower than the intake recommended by Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes for breastfeeding mothers. There were no significant differences with regard to maternal calorie and protein intake, and breast milk macronutrient content between breastfed infants with weight above and below the 25th percentile of its distribution at both 1 and 3 months. This study suggests that suboptimal calorie intake by breastfeeding mothers and breast milk macronutrient content were not associated with weight of their infants at 1 and 3 months after delivery.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Aleitamento Materno , Recém-Nascido/fisiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Leite Humano/química , Nutrientes/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desnutrição/etiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Tempo , Tóquio/epidemiologia
11.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 120(9): 658-662, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475549

RESUMO

AIM: To analyse the dynamics of macronutrients in breast milk in Slovakian women and compare the dynamics between mothers of hospitalized newborns and donors of human breast milk relative to the gestational age of their babies. METHODS: Human milk samples were collected from 101 breastfeeding women and analysed once or repeatedly from September 2017 to August 2018. Group A consisted of 79 mothers of newborns hospitalized at the Neonatal Department of Intensive Medicine (NDIM) of whom 69 were mothers of premature newborns (subgroup A1) and 10 were mothers of term babies (subgroup A2). Group B consisted of 22 breast milk donors registered at the Human Milk Bank at National Institute of Children's Diseases (NICHD). Of these, 4 were mothers of premature newborns (subgroup B1) and 18 were mothers of term newborns (subgroup B2). From subgroup A1, we chose two mothers, one with a hypotrophic newborn and another with a eutrophic newborn. The results were obtained by using the MIRIS breast­milk analyzer. RESULTS: The overall dynamics of macronutrients correspond with other studies, however, we demonstrated that the level of macronutrients in individual cases were different. CONCLUSION: The determination of macronutrients in human milk is essential in neonatal care. It provides information about the nutritional value of breast milk and helps to optimise nutrition according to the individual needs of newborns (Fig. 10, Ref. 16).


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Leite Humano/química , Nutrientes/análise , Aleitamento Materno , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Bancos de Leite
12.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(15): 6962-6972, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Through precise control of the nutrient solution (NS), closed soilless systems enable targeted manipulation of plant secondary metabolites, which constitute health-promoting components of the human daily diet. A nutrient film technique (NFT) system was employed to assess the effect of NS macronutrient-based concentration (full, half-, and quarter-strength corresponding to electrical conductivity (EC) of 1.5, 0.75, and 0.5 dS m-1 ) on the bioactive profile of red and green-pigmented Salanova® butterhead lettuce. RESULTS: Half-strength NS reduced fresh biomass of both cultivars by 14%, whereas quarter-strength NS reduced the fresh biomass of green and red Salanova by 24% and 38%, respectively. However, moderate nutrient stress (half-strength NS) boosted red Salanova total ascorbic acid, chlorogenic, chicoric, caffeoyl-meso-tartaric, total phenolic acids, and anthocyanins concentrations by 266%, 199%, 124%, 251%, 162%, and 380%, respectively compared with the control, full-strength NS. CONCLUSIONS: Nutritional eustress and appropriate cultivar selection are effective means to increase phytochemical content and optimize year-round production of lettuce in closed soilless systems. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Alface/química , Alface/metabolismo , Nutrientes/análise , Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Hidroponia , Alface/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário
13.
J Appl Microbiol ; 127(5): 1339-1348, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386790

RESUMO

AIMS: This study was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition and in vitro gas production (GP) and fermentation parameters of Quercus infectoria and Quercus libani leaves following treatment with the Klebsiella pneumoniae, a tannin-degrading bacterium. METHODS AND RESULTS: This isolate was isolated on medium containing tannic acid as the sole source of carbon and energy, and identified based on 16S rRNA sequencing analysis. In both oak leaf species (i.e. Q. infectoria and Q. libani), inoculation with Klebsiella pneumoniae significantly increased (P < 0·05) dry matter (DM) loss. For Q. libani, crude protein content was increased (P = 0·02) by bacterial treatment vs. control. In both oak leaves, total phenolic content and total tannins were decreased (P < 0·05) as a consequence of bacterial treatment. However, bacterial processing didn't changed (P > 0·05) organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre or acid detergent lignin content of treated leaves. In both oak leaves the measuring parameters including GP volume, in vitro digestibility of DM and OM, estimated metabolizable energy, total volatile fatty acids, acetate, ammonia nitrogen concentration, total protozoal population and the subfamily Isotricha in treatments were higher (P < 0·05) than control. CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that biological treatment of Q. infectoria and Q. libani leaves with K. pneumoniae represents a useful approach to decrease their phenolic compound content and improve their nutritive value as ruminant feed. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study demonstrated that biologically processing of tannin-containing by-products with K. pneumoniae could increase their nutritive value as ruminant feeds and increase animal productivity.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/microbiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/metabolismo , Quercus/química , Quercus/microbiologia , Ruminantes/fisiologia , Taninos/metabolismo , Animais , Fermentação , Nutrientes/análise , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Fenol/análise , Fenol/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Ruminantes/microbiologia , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Taninos/análise
14.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 146: 377-386, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426170

RESUMO

The effects of nutrient distribution and structure on the behavior and speciation of dissolved inorganic arsenic (DIAs) in coastal waters were analyzed based on the data of 48 surface water samples collected in the southwestern coast of Laizhou Bay and its adjacent rivers (SWLZB). The concentration of DIAs in the SWLZB ranged from 0.016 to 0.099 µmol l-1 and generally decreased from west to south. The inshore waters exhibited higher DIAs level than the open ocean. The As5+/As3+ ratio was significantly positively correlated with the concentration of TDN, NO3-N, PO4-P, DSi, Chl-a and DO. The concentration of DIAs was strongly correlated with the concentration of PO4-P and DSi, suggesting that adsorption/desorption was an important process for regulating the total DIAs concentration. The results indicated that the distribution of nutrients might well be an important environmental factor affecting the speciation and behavior of DIAs in surface water of the SWLZB.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Água do Mar/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Arsênico/química , Baías , China , Clorofila A/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nitratos/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Nutrientes/análise , Fosfatos/análise , Fósforo/análise , Rios/química , Água do Mar/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
15.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 148: 30-46, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422301

RESUMO

Monthly measurements of nitrate, nitrite, ammonium and phosphate at three stations off Kuwait during 2002-2015 revealed considerable inter-annual variability, broadly corresponding to fluctuations in the Shatt-al-Arab River discharge, but a lack of secular increasing trend. Nutrient enrichment experiments during two seasons revealed nitrate uptake, chlorophyll build-up and growth of micro-phytoplankton, even in the presence of ammonium, provided the availability of phosphate. Primary production was mostly nitrogen limited, but anthropogenic nitrogen supply may eventually make it phosphorus limited, especially in summer and in the open Gulf. Anthropogenic nutrient inputs appear to have enhanced biological productivity of the northern Gulf, but heterotrophic consumption, indicated by high respiration rates, probably prevented accumulation of phytoplankton biomass, accounting for the observed lack of chlorophyll increase over the past three decades. Consequently high total organic carbon and emerging hypoxia in the Gulf may lead to expansion/intensification of the oxygen minimum zone of the Arabian Sea.


Assuntos
Nutrientes/análise , Fitoplâncton/metabolismo , Água do Mar/química , Biomassa , Clorofila/metabolismo , Oceano Índico , Kuweit , Oxigênio/análise , Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rios/química , Estações do Ano , Água do Mar/microbiologia
16.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 58: 104643, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450325

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ultrasound-assisted osmotic dehydration on texture, retention of bioactive compounds, nutritional quality and metabolites of plum. The osmotic dehydration was performed using 50% glucose and sucrose in ultrasound (25 kHz) for 30 and 60 min. After osmotic treatment samples were dried at 55 °C using hot air oven. In this study, the texture of the sample was determined by 20% compression of texture profile analysis and solute diffusion coefficient was calculated by Fick's law of diffusion. Further, the volatile compound and nutritional quality were determined. Furthermore, treatment difference of osmo-dehydrated plum on metabolites was measured by 1H NMR. The results showed that the ultrasound-assisted osmotic dehydration increased water loss and solid gain. It also increases the reduction of moisture content from the plum. Textural result of osmo-dehydrated plum in glucose increases the softness of plum and decreases hardness. Moreover, the increased antioxidant and phenolics were obtained in plum treated in 50% sucrose for 30 and 60 min and also at 30 min of glucose. Color of ultrasound-assisted osmotic dehydrated plum was also affected by treatment time and the osmotic solution used. Ultrasound-assisted osmotic dehydration reveals that water loss, solid gain, texture and bioactive compounds affected by treatment time and osmotic solution.


Assuntos
Dessecação/métodos , Osmose , Prunus domestica/química , Prunus domestica/metabolismo , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Cor , Difusão , Nutrientes/análise
17.
Food Chem ; 301: 125305, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387042

RESUMO

This research investigates the effect of swarming season and sourcing geographical area on the nutrient composition of R. differens. On a dry matter basis, protein (34.2-45.8%) and fat (42.2-54.3%) are the major macro-nutrients. Leucine (80. 9-88.5), lysine (54.0-69.8) and valine (59.2-61.8) are the most abundant essential amino acids (EAA) (mg/g protein). Tryptophan is the most limiting EAA. Its EAA composition is like the children and adults' reference protein. Its fat is highly unsaturated (63.5-64.7). Oleic (38.4-42.7), linoleic (19.0-23.0) and palmitic (26.6-27.8) fatty acids (FA) (g/100 g total FA) are the most abundant. Geographical area significantly influences its mineral content within seasons. Season significantly influences its fat, protein, ash and mineral content but not its AAs' and FAs' content. Both factors significantly influence its vitamin B12 content (0.73-1.35 µg/100 g).


Assuntos
Gafanhotos/química , Nutrientes/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Aminoácidos Essenciais/análise , Animais , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Estações do Ano , Oligoelementos/análise , Uganda , Vitamina B 12/análise
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 692: 441-449, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351288

RESUMO

The mechanisms underlying nutrient-induced diversity-stability relationships have been examined extensively. However, the effects of nutrient-induced shifts of dominant species on ecosystem stability have rarely been evaluated. We compiled a dataset from a long-term nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enrichment experiment conducted in an alpine grassland on the Tibetan Plateau to test the effects of nutrient-induced shifts of dominant species on stability. Our results show that N enrichment increased synchrony among the dominant species, which contributed to a significant increase in synchrony of the whole community. Meanwhile, N-induced shifts in dominant species composition significantly increased population variability. Increases in species synchrony and population variability resulted in a decline in ecosystem stability. Our study has important implications for progress in understanding the role of plant functional compensation in the stability of ecosystem functions, which is critical for better understanding the mechanisms driving both community assembly and ecosystem functions.


Assuntos
Biota , Fertilizantes/análise , Pradaria , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Altitude , Nutrientes/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Tibet
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 692: 39-48, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336300

RESUMO

Although many studies have described the influence of bivalve aquaculture on the benthic environment, effects on benthic functional diversity are poorly known, as are links with ecosystem processes. We investigated the response of a benthic ecosystem in terms of taxonomic and functional diversity (infauna >500 µm), biogeochemical indicators (organic matter content, redox potential, sulfides level, bacteria) and metabolism (nutrient fluxes), subjected to various levels of mussel biodeposition as a general model of organic enrichment. Results show that local benthic conditions may recover fairly quickly depending on environmental conditions whereas modifications of the benthic community structure persist over a longer time scale with an impact on benthic ecosystem functioning. Fauna-mediated oxidation of the sediment likely increased nitrogen recycling through nitrification whereas binding and release of phosphorus to the water column seems to be driven by more complex processes. Results highlight the importance of species identity (ecological traits) on biogeochemical cycling and solute exchange across the sediment-water interface, with implications for the ecological functioning of exploited areas.


Assuntos
Biota , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Mytilus edulis/fisiologia , Nutrientes/análise , Animais , Aquicultura , Organismos Aquáticos/fisiologia , Quebeque
20.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 74(3): 436-442, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321622

RESUMO

In this work, the profiles of phenolics, fiber, pectins, sugars, organic acids and carotenoids, vitamin C, ash, protein and fat contents, as well as antioxidant capacity were compared in fruits, flowers, and bark of Viburnum opulus (VO). Antioxidant capacity was evaluated against ABTS, hydroxyl, peroxyl and superoxide free radicals, and as a reducing power by using in vitro test. The results showed great quantitative differences in the composition of the VO morphological parts tested. Fruits contained the highest concentrations of fat, organic acids, sugars, soluble dietary fiber (10.57 ± 0.54; 7.34 ± 0.06; 32.27 ± 1.25; 6.82 ± 0.38 g/100 g DW, respectively) and carotenoids (2.70 ± 0.07 mg/100 g DW). Whereas, the bark exceeded the remaining parts of the VO in terms of antioxidant capacity, ash (9.32 ± 0.17 g/100 g DW), total (59.34 ± 0.75 g/100 g DW) and insoluble dietary fiber (58.20 ± 0.73 g/100 g DW) contents as well as phenolic compounds (3.98 ± 0.04 g/100 g DW). Among the phenolic compounds quantified in this study, chlorogenic acid and (+)-catechin had the highest concentrations (> 1 g/100 g DW) in the flowers and bark, respectively.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Carotenoides/análise , Nutrientes/análise , Fenóis/análise , Viburnum/química , Ácidos Carboxílicos/análise , Catequina/análise , Ácido Clorogênico/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Flores/química , Frutas/química , Especificidade de Órgãos , Pectinas/análise , Casca de Planta/química , Açúcares/análise
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