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1.
Food Chem ; 309: 125713, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708345

RESUMO

The effect of cultivar and nutrient solution macrocation proportions (SK, SCa, SMg) on the bioactive content of hydroponically cultivated lettuce was evaluated on two lettuce cultivars (red and green-pigmented Salanova®) grown in a fully controlled Fitotron® chamber. Fresh weight and color attributes were superior in green Salanova and in SK-treated plants, while elevated macrocation proportions (SK, SCa, and SMg) affected the corresponding minerals, P and Na content. SCa and SMg treatments raised ascorbate concentration and reduced nitrate levels in treated plants. Chicoric and chlorogenic acids were higher in red over green Salanova. Chlorogenic acid was higher in SCa and SMg plants and chicoric acid levels were SMg > SCa > SK. The SMg-treated red Salanova contained higher concentrations of target carotenoids. In conclusion, nutrient solution management constitutes an effective cultural practice to increase bioactive properties and functional quality of hydroponically grown lettuce.


Assuntos
Alface/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Antocianinas/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Biomassa , Carotenoides/análise , Cátions/química , Ácido Clorogênico/análise , Cor , Genótipo , Alface/efeitos dos fármacos , Alface/genética , Alface/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Minerais/análise , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Componente Principal
2.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 134: 110834, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577924

RESUMO

Doxorubicin (DOX), is a very effective chemotherapeutic agent against cancer whose clinical use is limited by toxicity. Different strategies have been proposed to attenuate toxicity, including combined therapy with bioactive compounds. This review update mechanisms of action and toxicity of doxorubicin and the role of nutrients like vitamins (A, C, E), minerals (selenium) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Protective activities against DOX toxicity in liver, kidney, skin, bone marrow, testicles or brain have been reported, but these have not been evaluated for all of the reviewed nutrients. In most cases oxidation-related effects were present either, by reducing ROS levels and/or increasing antioxidant defenses. Antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms are also commonly reported. In some cases, interferences with autophagy and calcium homeostasis also have shown to be affected. Notwithstanding, there is a wide variety in duration and doses of treatment tested for both, compounds and DOX, which make difficult to compare the results of the studies. In spite of the reduction of DOX cardiotoxicity in health models, DOX anti-cancer activity in cancer cell lines or xenograft models usually did not result compromised when this has been evaluated. Importantly, clinical studies are needed to confirm all the observed effects.


Assuntos
Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Doxorrubicina/toxicidade , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos
3.
Microbes Environ ; 34(4): 388-392, 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631079

RESUMO

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) between bacteria with different habitats and nutritional requirements is important for the spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG). The objective of the present study was to clarify the effects of organic matter on HGT between nourished and starved bacteria. We demonstrated that conjugation ability is affected by the nutritional conditions of the cell and environment. A filter mating HGT experiment was performed using Photobacterium damselae ssp. damselae, strain 04Ya311, a marine-origin bacterium possessing the multidrug-resistance plasmid pAQU1, as the donor, and Escherichia coli as the recipient. The donor and recipient were both prepared as nutrient-rich cultured and starved cells. Filter mating was performed on agar plates with and without organic nutrients. The transcription of the plasmid-borne genes tet(M) and traI was quantitated under eutrophic and oligotrophic conditions. The donor P. damselae transferred the plasmid to E. coli at a transfer rate of 10-4 under oligotrophic and eutrophic conditions. However, when the donor was starved, HGT was not detected under oligotrophic conditions. The addition of organic matter to starved cells restored conjugative HGT even after 6 d of starvation. The transcription of traI was not detected in starved cells, but was restored upon the addition of organic matter. The HGT rate appears to be affected by the transcription of plasmid-associated genes. The present results suggest that the HGT rate is low in starved donors under oligotrophic conditions, but is restored by the addition of organic matter.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/genética , Transferência Genética Horizontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Photobacterium/genética , Conjugação Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Meios de Cultura/química , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Nutrientes/análise , Photobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmídeos/genética , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Eur J Protistol ; 71: 125631, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542654

RESUMO

Ciliated protozoa (ciliates) play vital roles in biological wastewater-treatment processes, however, combined effects of abiotic and biotic factors as well as the importance of species-specificity of bacterial food organisms on population growth dynamics remain poorly understood, which are hampering the management and optimization of biological wastewater treatment processes. This study investigated the effects of food resources and ammonium nitrogen (NH4+) exposure, both independently and in combination, on the population growth of the bacterivorous ciliate Paramecium caudatum. Results showed that, when fed with two different bacterial food organisms, population growth performance of P. caudatum differed significantly and increased with the addition of protozoa pellet medium. When exposed to NH4+ population growth declined and metabolic enzyme activities were altered. The negative effects of NH4+ on population growth could be weakened by supplementing the food resource with protozoa pellet media. In brief, it was confirmed that the existence of interactive effect of food resources and ammonium nitrogen, as well as the importance of species-specificity of bacterial food organisms on the population growth performance of ciliates. These findings might lead to the development of a valuable strategy for improving the performance of biological wastewater-treatment processes.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio/farmacologia , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Paramecium caudatum/efeitos dos fármacos , Paramecium caudatum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Dinâmica Populacional
5.
Phytopathology ; 109(12): 2033-2045, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294680

RESUMO

The induction of plant defense mechanisms by resistance inducers is an attractive and innovative alternative to reduce the use of fungicides on wheat against Zymoseptoria tritici, the responsible agent of Septoria tritici blotch (STB). Under controlled conditions, we investigated the resistance induction in three wheat cultivars with different susceptible levels to STB as a response to a treatment with a sulfur, manganese sulfate, and protein-based resistance inducer (NECTAR Céréales). While no direct antigermination effect of the product was observed in planta, more than 50% reduction of both symptoms and sporulation were recorded on the three tested cultivars. However, an impact of the wheat genotype on resistance induction was highlighted, which affects host penetration, cell colonization, and the production of cell-wall degrading enzymes by the fungus. Moreover, in the most susceptible cultivar Alixan, the product upregulated POX2, PAL, PR1, and GLUC gene expression in both noninoculated and inoculated plants and CHIT2 in noninoculated plants only. In contrast, defense responses induced in Altigo, the most resistant cultivar, seem to be more specifically mediated by the phenylpropanoid pathway in noninoculated as well as inoculated plants, since PAL and CHS were most specifically upregulated in this cultivar. In Premio, the moderate resistant cultivar, NECTAR Céréales elicits mainly the octadecanoid pathway, via LOX and AOS induction in noninoculated plants. We concluded that this complex resistance-inducing product protects wheat against Z. tritici by stimulating the cultivar-dependent plant defense mechanisms.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Fertilizantes , Nutrientes , Triticum , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungicidas Industriais , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/microbiologia
6.
Chemosphere ; 234: 34-42, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203039

RESUMO

Due to excessive loadings of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), frequent blooms of harmful cyanobacteria and their associated cyanotoxins pose serious threats to recreational usage and human health. However, whether cyanobacteria growth and toxin production are limited by N, P, or both N + P is still not clear. Thus, we conducted a nutrient enrichment bioassay in situ in Spring Lake, a eutrophic lake in west Michigan, USA, to examine the influence of nutrient limitation on the proliferation of algal blooms and the production of microcystins (MC). N or P addition alone resulted in a slight increase in the concentration of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), suggesting a positive effect on phytoplankton growth, but alone, neither were sufficient to induce algal blooms. In contrast, the combination of N and P had a significant and positive influence on phytoplankton growth and MC production. Compared to controls, the N + P treatment resulted in high concentrations of Chl-a and MC, as well as high pH and dissolved oxygen. In addition, significant increases were observed in different MC analogues for each treatment; the highest concentrations of intracellular MC-LR, -RR, -YR, and TMC (total MC) were found in the N + P treatment with values of 9.16, 6.10, 2.57, and 17.82 µg/L, respectively. This study suggests that at least in this temperate coastal lake, cyanobacterial blooms and associated MC are influenced more by combined N and P enrichment than by N or P alone, indicating that managing both nutrients is important for effectively reducing algal blooms and MC production.


Assuntos
Lagos/microbiologia , Microcistinas/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Fósforo/farmacologia , Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carcinógenos/metabolismo , Eutrofização , Lagos/análise , Fitoplâncton/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Biofouling ; 35(5): 494-507, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177828

RESUMO

In this work, infrared spectroscopy was used to monitor the changes in the biochemical composition of biofilms of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) in three nutritive media (10-fold diluted MRS, AOAC, and mTSB), in situ and under flow conditions. Epifluorescence microscopy was used to observe the shape of LGG cells and their distribution on the surface. Spectroscopic fingerprints recorded as a function of time revealed a medium-dependent content of nucleic acids, phospholipids and polysaccharides in the biofilms. In addition, time-dependent synthesis of lactic acid was observed in MRS/10 and AOAC/10. Polysaccharides were produced to the highest extent in mTSB/10, and the biofilms obtained were the densest in this medium. The rod shape of the cells was preserved in MRS/10, whereas acidic stress induced in AOAC/10 and the nutritional quality of mTSB/10 led to strong morphological changes. These alterations due to the nutritive environment are important to consider in research and use of LGG biofilms.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/fisiologia , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise Espectral
8.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181761

RESUMO

Postprandial lipemia, which is one of the main characteristics of the atherogenic dyslipidemia with fasting plasma hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and an increase of small and dense low-density lipoproteins is now considered a causal risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Postprandial lipemia, which is mainly related to the increase in chylomicron production, is frequently elevated in individuals at high cardiovascular risk such as obese or overweight patients, type 2 diabetic patients and subjects with a metabolic syndrome who share an insulin resistant state. It is now well known that chylomicron production and thus postprandial lipemia is highly regulated by many factors such as endogenous factors: circulating factors such as hormones or free fatty acids, genetic variants, circadian rhythms, or exogenous factors: food components, dietary supplements and prescription drugs. In this review, we focused on the effect of nutrients, micronutrients and phytochemicals but also on food structure on chylomicron production and postprandial lipemia.


Assuntos
Quilomícrons/biossíntese , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Hiperlipidemias/etiologia , Micronutrientes/farmacologia , Período Pós-Prandial , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/prevenção & controle , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Micronutrientes/análise , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Nutrientes/análise , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Nutrientes/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
9.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083616

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract; it is a heterogeneous and multifactorial disorder resulting from a complex interplay between genetic variation, intestinal microbiota, the host immune system and environmental factors such as diet, drugs, breastfeeding and smoking. The interactions between dietary nutrients and intestinal immunity are complex. There is a compelling argument for environmental factors such as diet playing a role in the cause and course of IBD, given that three important factors in the pathogenesis of IBD can be modulated and controlled by diet: intestinal microbiota, the immune system and epithelial barrier function. The aim of this review is to summarize the epidemiological findings regarding diet and to focus on the effects that nutrients exert on the intestinal mucosa-microbiota-permeability interaction. The nature of these interactions in IBD is influenced by alterations in the nutritional metabolism of the gut microbiota and host cells that can influence the outcome of nutritional intervention. A better understanding of diet-host-microbiota interactions is essential for unravelling the complex molecular basis of epigenetic, genetic and environmental interactions underlying IBD pathogenesis as well as for offering new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of IBD.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/dietoterapia , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Estado Nutricional , Dieta , Humanos , Inflamação , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Intestinos/imunologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/patologia , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Nutrientes/uso terapêutico , Permeabilidade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
10.
mBio ; 10(3)2019 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088923

RESUMO

Inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel diseases, are dramatically increasing worldwide, but an understanding of the underlying factors is lacking. We here present an ecoevolutionary perspective on the emergence of inflammatory diseases. We propose that adaptation has led to fine-tuned host-microbe interactions, which are maintained by secreted host metabolites nourishing the associated microbes. A constant elevation of nutrients in the gut environment leads to an increased activity and changed functionality of the microbiota, thus severely disturbing host-microbe interactions and leading to dysbiosis and disease development. In the past, starvation and pathogen infections, causing diarrhea, were common incidences that reset the gut bacterial community to its "human-specific-baseline." However, these natural clearing mechanisms have been virtually eradicated in developed countries, allowing a constant uncontrolled growth of bacteria. This leads to an increase of bacterial products that stimulate the immune system and ultimately might initiate inflammatory reactions.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Disbiose/etiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Animais , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/etiologia , Camundongos , Nutrientes/efeitos adversos
11.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216939, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141543

RESUMO

In the present two-year study, an attempt was made to estimate the grain yield, grain nutrient uptake, and oil quality of three commonly grown maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids fertilized with varied levels of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Results obtained from both the experimental years indicated that application of 125% of recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) recorded maximum grain yield (10.37 t ha-1; 124% higher than control). When compared with 100% RDF, grain yield reduction with nutrient omission was 44% for N omission, 17% for P omission, and 27% for K omission. Nitrogen uptake was increased with increasing NPK levels up to 150% RDF that was statistically at par (p ≥ 0.01) with 125% RDF. Increasing trend in P and K uptake was observed with successive increase in NPK levels up to 125% RDF, above which it declined. The protein content was significantly higher in grains of var. P 3396 with 125% RDF. Nutrient management has significant (p ≤ 0.01) role in the grain oil content. Saturated fatty acids (palmitic, stearic and arachidic acid) content decreased, and unsaturated fatty acid (oleic, linoleic and linolenic acid) increased with increasing NPK levels. The average oleic acid desaturation and linoleic acid desaturation ratios were increased with increasing NPK levels up to 100 and 125% RDF, respectively. However, average monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA): poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), saturated: unsaturated as well as linoleic: linolenic acid ratios were increased on receiving 75% RDF, and beyond that it showed decreasing trend. The omission of K had the highest inhibitory effect on corn oil quality followed by N and P omission.


Assuntos
Óleo de Milho/química , Grão Comestível/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Fósforo/farmacologia , Potássio/farmacologia , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Quimera/metabolismo , Óleo de Milho/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/biossíntese , Ácidos Graxos/classificação , Ácidos Graxos/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/biossíntese , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/classificação , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/isolamento & purificação , Fertilizantes/análise , Humanos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Fósforo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Potássio/metabolismo , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/metabolismo
12.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130625

RESUMO

Low glycemic index (GI) and/or low glycemic load (GL) are associated with decreased risks of type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. It is therefore relevant to consider GI and GL in the early phases of the development of packaged foods and beverages. This paper proposes a model that predicts GI and GL from macronutrient composition, by quantifying both the impact of glycemic carbohydrates and the GI-lowering effects of nutrients such as proteins, fats and fibers. The precision of the model is illustrated using data on 42 breakfast cereals. The predictions of GI (r = 0.90, median residual = 2.0) and GL (r = 0.96, median residual = 0.40 g) compete well with the precision of the underlying in-vivo data (Standard Error SE = 3.5 for GI). This model can guide product development towards lowering GI and GL, before final confirmation by in vivo testing.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Dieta , Carboidratos da Dieta/sangue , Índice Glicêmico , Carga Glicêmica , Modelos Biológicos , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Adulto , Bebidas , Desjejum , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Grão Comestível , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nutrientes/sangue , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
13.
EMBO J ; 38(12)2019 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126958

RESUMO

Autophagy and energy metabolism are known to follow a circadian pattern. However, it is unclear whether autophagy and the circadian clock are coordinated by common control mechanisms. Here, we show that the oscillation of autophagy genes is dependent on the nutrient-sensitive activation of TFEB and TFE3, key regulators of autophagy, lysosomal biogenesis, and cell homeostasis. TFEB and TFE3 display a circadian activation over the 24-h cycle and are responsible for the rhythmic induction of genes involved in autophagy during the light phase. Genetic ablation of TFEB and TFE3 in mice results in deregulated autophagy over the diurnal cycle and altered gene expression causing abnormal circadian wheel-running behavior. In addition, TFEB and TFE3 directly regulate the expression of Rev-erbα (Nr1d1), a transcriptional repressor component of the core clock machinery also involved in the regulation of whole-body metabolism and autophagy. Comparative analysis of the cistromes of TFEB/TFE3 and REV-ERBα showed an extensive overlap of their binding sites, particularly in genes involved in autophagy and metabolic functions. These data reveal a direct link between nutrient and clock-dependent regulation of gene expression shedding a new light on the crosstalk between autophagy, metabolism, and circadian cycles.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/fisiologia , Relógios Circadianos , Metabolismo Energético , Nutrientes/fisiologia , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Células Cultivadas , Relógios Circadianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Relógios Circadianos/genética , Ritmo Circadiano/efeitos dos fármacos , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Membro 1 do Grupo D da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/genética , Membro 1 do Grupo D da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/fisiologia , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia
14.
Integr Cancer Ther ; 18: 1534735419832365, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumor metastasis is a major cause for most cancer-related deaths. Melanoma is a serious cancer that metastasizes to other areas of the body, including the lungs, liver, brain, bones, or lymph nodes. Currently used cancer therapies are ineffective with a high degree of toxicity and patient mortality. Thus, any successful treatment for melanoma must target metastasis. METHODS: We studied the effect of a novel nutrient mixture (NM) containing ascorbic acid, lysine, proline, green tea extract, quercetin, and others, on the inhibition of melanoma growth and metastasis after inoculation of B16FO melanoma cells into the left kidney of female nude mice. Female athymic mice (n = 10) 8 to 10 weeks of age, were inoculated superficially in the left kidney with 5 × 105 B16FO melanoma cells in 100 µL of media. The right kidney was left untreated. After inoculation, the mice were randomly divided into 2 groups. The control group (n = 5) was fed a regular rodent chow diet, and the test group was given the same diet supplemented with 0.5% NM. The animals in control and the test groups were sacrificed 2 weeks later. Each animal's abdominal cavity was opened, and the kidneys, lungs, liver, and spleen were excised and examined for tumor growth and metastasis. RESULTS: The kidneys in the control group weighed 25% to 30% more than those in the NM group due to colonization of B16FO melanoma cells. No metastasis to the liver or spleen was observed in either of the groups. However, severe lung metastasis was observed in the control group and mild to moderate metastasis was observed in the NM group. CONCLUSION: These results show that the NM is effective in mitigating the growth of tumors in the kidney and metastases to the lung.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Dieta/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus
15.
J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol ; 46(6): 855-868, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30874983

RESUMO

Biofilm accumulation in porous media can cause pore plugging and change many of the physical properties of porous media. Engineering bioplugging may have significant applications for many industrial processes, while improved knowledge on biofilm accumulation in porous media at porescale in general has broad relevance for a range of industries as well as environmental and water research. The experimental results by means of microscopic imaging over a T-shape microchannel clearly show that increase in fluid velocity could facilitate biofilm growth, but that above a velocity threshold, biofilm detachment and inhibition of biofilm formation due to high shear stress were observed. High nutrient concentration prompts the biofilm growth; however, the generated biofilm displays a weak adhesive strength. This paper provides an overview of biofilm development in a hydrodynamic environment for better prediction and modelling of bioplugging processes associated with porous systems in petroleum industry, hydrogeology and water purification.


Assuntos
Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microfluídica/métodos , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Aderência Bacteriana/fisiologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrodinâmica , Microfluídica/instrumentação , Microscopia Confocal , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estresse Mecânico , Movimentos da Água , Purificação da Água
16.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(4): 591-599, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900975

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Trichophyton rubrum is a dermatophyte that causes most human superficial mycoses worldwide. The spliceosome, a large ribonucleoprotein complex responsible for pre-mRNA processing, may confer adaptive advantages to deal with different stresses. Here, we assessed the structural aspects of the Prp4 kinase protein and other pre-mRNA-splicing factors (Prps) in T. rubrum grown in different protein sources and exposed to antifungal drugs. METHODOLOGY: Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (RT-PCR) assessed the modulation of prp1, prp31, prp8 and prp4 kinase genes after exposure of T. rubrum to sub-lethal doses of amphotericin B, caspofungin and acriflavine, or after T. rubrum growth on keratin sources for 48 and 72 h. We also performed the in silico analysis of the domain organization of Prps orthologues from filamentous fungi and yeasts. RESULTS: The prp4 gene was modulated in a time-dependent manner. Transcription levels were mostly up-regulated when T. rubrum was grown on keratin for 72 h, while exposure to amphotericin B promoted prp4 gene down-regulation at the same time point. We also observed co-expression of prp1 and prp31, and their down-regulation after amphotericin B exposure. In silico analysis revealed a conserved domain organization for most Prps orthologues with slight differences, which were mostly related to structural elements such as repetition domains in Prp1 and complexity in motif assembly for the Prp4 kinase. These differences were mainly observed in dermatophyte species and may alter protein interactions and substrate affinity. CONCLUSION: Our results improve the understanding of spliceosome proteins in fungi as well as their roles in adaptation to different environmental situations.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Trichophyton/efeitos dos fármacos , Trichophyton/genética , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Queratinas/farmacologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/química , Processamento de RNA , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Spliceossomos/química , Spliceossomos/genética
17.
Water Environ Res ; 91(5): 369-376, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714277

RESUMO

In this study, algal growth potential tests were performed in water samples collected from six sampling sites in Meiliang Bay, Lake Taihu. The potential release of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) by enzymatic hydrolysis of enzymatically hydrolyzable phosphorus (EHP) was simultaneously evaluated. Results show that all studied regions were in highly eutrophic states, with additional nitrogen (N) or phosphorus (P) inputs, inducing negligible further increase in algal growth. EHP in water could be rapidly transformed into SRP, further supporting the proliferation of algal blooms. The shortest EHP mineralization time was calculated as 69 minutes; therefore, limiting specific nutrient inputs alone in extremely eutrophic lakes can have a limited effect on suppressing the proliferation of algal blooms. Methods to establish a suitable environmental fate for excessive nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients may be more effective and provide more significant results. PRACTITIONER POINTS: N and P were no longer serving as the limiting factors in Meiliang Bay. Enzymatically hydrolysable phosphorus could be hydrolyzed into soluble reactive phosphorus in a very short period during algal blooms. Both enzymatically hydrolysable phosphorus and soluble reactive phosphorus are required to be curbed in practical eutrophication control.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Baías , Monitoramento Ambiental , Eutrofização/efeitos dos fármacos , Lagos/química , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Hidrólise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Fósforo/farmacologia
18.
Life Sci Space Res (Amst) ; 20: 62-71, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30797435

RESUMO

Extended human spaceflight missions require not only the processing, but also the recycling of human waste streams in bio-regenerative life support systems, which are rich in valuable resources. The Combined Regenerative Organic food Production® project of the German Aerospace Center aims for recycling human metabolic waste products to produce useful resources. A biofiltration process based on natural communities of microorganisms has been developed and tested. The processed aqueous solution is, among others, rich in nitrogen present as nitrate. Nitrate is one of the main nutrients required for plant cultivation, resulting in strong synergies between the developed recycling process and plant cultivation. The latter is envisaged as the basis of future bio-regenerative life support systems, because plants do consume carbon dioxide, water and nutrients in order to produce oxygen, water, food and inedible biomass. This paper describes a series of plant cultivation experiments performed with synthetic urine processed in a bioreactor. The aim of the experiments was to investigate the feasibility of growing tomato plants with this solution. The results of the experiments show that such cultivation of tomato plants is generally feasible, but that the plants are less productive. The fruit fresh weight per plant is less compared to plants grown with the half-strength Hoagland reference solution. This lack in production is caused by imbalances of sodium, chloride, potassium, magnesium and ammonium in the solution gained from recycling the synthetic urine. An attempt on adjusting the produced bioreactor solution with additional mineral fertilizers did not show a significant improvement in crop yield.


Assuntos
Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Sistemas Ecológicos Fechados , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Urina/química , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Humanos , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Voo Espacial
19.
Nutrients ; 11(2)2019 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30764560

RESUMO

Gut appetite hormone responses may be influenced by meal macronutrients and obesity. The primary aim of this study was to examine in adolescents with obesity and of healthy weight the effect of a high-protein and a high-carbohydrate meal on postprandial gut appetite hormones. A postprandial cross-over study with adolescents 11⁻19 years old was undertaken. Participants consumed, in random order, a high 79% carbohydrate (HCHO) and a high 55% protein (HP) meal. Ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and self-reported appetite were assessed for four hours postprandial. Total energy intake from an ad libitum lunch and remaining 24 h was assessed. Eight adolescents with obesity (OB) and 12 with healthy weight (HW) participated. Compared with HW, OB adolescents displayed a smaller ghrelin iAUC (-25,896.5 ± 7943 pg/mL/4 h vs. -60,863.5 ± 13104 pg/mL/4 h) (p = 0.008) with no effect of meal (p > 0.05). The suppression of ghrelin relative to baseline was similar between OB and HW. Ghrelin suppression was greater following the HP vs. HCHO meal (effect of meal, p = 0.018). Glucose and insulin response were greater following HCHO vs. HP, with responses more marked in OB (time × weight × meal interaction, p = 0.003 and p = 0.018, respectively). There were no effects of weight or macronutrient on GLP-1 or PYY, appetite or subsequent energy intake. The present study demonstrates that dietary protein can modulate postprandial ghrelin responses; however, this did not translate to subsequent changes in subjective appetite or energy intake.


Assuntos
Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/metabolismo , Adolescente , Apetite/fisiologia , Criança , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Grelina/genética , Grelina/metabolismo , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/genética , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Peptídeo YY/genética , Peptídeo YY/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nutrients ; 11(1)2019 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30669673

RESUMO

The approach to studying diet⁻health relationships has progressively shifted from individual dietary components to overall dietary patterns that affect the interaction and balance of low-molecular-weight metabolites (metabolome) and host-enteric mic{Citation}robial ecology (microbiome). Even though the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has been recognized as a powerful strategy to improve health, the accurate assessment of exposure to the MedDiet has been a major challenge in epidemiological and clinical studies. Interestingly, while the effects of individual dietary components on the metabolome have been described, studies investigating metabolomic profiles in response to overall dietary patterns (including the MedDiet), although limited, have been gaining attention. Similarly, the beneficial effects of the MedDiet on cardiometabolic outcomes may be mediated through gut microbial changes. Accumulating evidence linking food ingestion and enteric microbiome alterations merits the evaluation of the microbiome-mediated effects of the MedDiet on metabolic pathways implicated in disease. In this narrative review, we aimed to summarize the current evidence from observational and clinical trials involving the MedDiet by (1) assessing changes in the metabolome and microbiome for the measurement of diet pattern adherence and (2) assessing health outcomes related to the MedDiet through alterations to human metabolomics and/or the microbiome.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Comportamento Alimentar , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Metaboloma , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/microbiologia , Humanos , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolômica , Nutrientes/farmacologia
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