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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 885-890, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The research focused on the evaluation of the impact of cover cropping on trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Co and Cd) and nutrients in vineyard soils and Vitis vinifera L. For this purpose, two types of cover crops (Lolium perenne L. and Medicago sativa L.) and their mixture were planted between vine rows of Muscat white in the vineyard in South Crimea. Trace elements, nutrients and other parameters were analyzed in the soil layers, leaves and grapevines of control and cover cropped plots. RESULTS: The effect of cover cropping was dependent on applied plant species. Ryegrass (L. perenne L.) seems to compete with V. vinifera L. for nutrients - these were lower in the soil and vines of the treated plot. In parallel, lead (Pb) bioconcentration in grapevines was reduced. In contrast, under lucerne (M. sativa L.), nitrogen in the soil and vines, and trace metal bioconcentration (Fe, Pb and Co) were higher. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that cover cropping can influence the chemical composition of soil and vines. This should be considered when selecting cover crops. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Lolium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Medicago/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oligoelementos/análise , Vitis/química , Frutas/química , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Lolium/metabolismo , Medicago/metabolismo , Nutrientes/análise , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Solo/química , Especificidade da Espécie , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vitis/metabolismo
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 540-550, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Root-shoot ratio plays an important role in mulching effects on increases in maize kernel dry weight and grain yield. RESULTS: We examined the effects of plastic film mulching with fertigation on soil nitrate, soil Olsen-P, aboveground and belowground growth, grain filling, and yield of maize. The 2-year research was conducted in a field with a subsoil sand layer (FSS) and in a field without a subsoil sand layer (FNS) in the Hetao Irrigation District, northwest China. Treatments included two levels of plastic film mulching (FM, fully mulched; PM, partially mulched with a cover ratio of 60%), and a non-mulched (NM) control. Mulching methods significantly increased soil NO3 -N concentrations (SNCs) in the main root zone in FSS, but not in FNS. Mulching significantly increased root length density in the 0-40 cm soil layer. Mulching increased brace roots emergence by 20.2% under full, and by 9.9% under partial mulching, accelerating soil phosphorus use in the surface soil layer. Mulching increased grain yield in spring maize via enhancing base stem diameter, leaf area, and relative chlorophyll content, decreased the ratio of surface root area to leaf area, and improved kernel dry weight increase. CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of base fertilizer to total fertilizer input resulted in nutrient deficiency during reproductive stage in fertigated maize, therefore, applying a portion of base fertilizer after the maize elongation stage is recommended for a further yield increase of mulched fertigated maize. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , China , Produção Agrícola/instrumentação , Fertilizantes/análise , Nitratos/análise , Nitratos/metabolismo , Nutrientes/análise , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plásticos/análise , Solo/química , Água/análise , Água/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo
3.
J Basic Microbiol ; 59(12): 1229-1237, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642093

RESUMO

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria inhabit the plant rhizosphere. Both functional groups can influence plant community structures, and interactions between them can vary from being synergistic to antagonistic. HCN-producing Pseudomonas protegens CHA0 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium. P. protegens CHA0 has been shown to weakly attach to AMF hyphae. Here, we analyze the effect of P. protegens CHA0 on the viability of intraradical AMF hyphae. Using pot experiments, we have grown mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal Sorghum vulgare var. M35 with P. protegens CHA0 or HCN- mutant P. protegens CHA77, which did not produce HCN. Mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal Sorghum grown without CHA0 or CHA77 served as the control. While metabolically active AMF was not detected in mycorrhizal plants grown with HCN+ CHA0, the percentage of root colonization of metabolically active AMF in plants grown with HCN- CHA77 was lower than in the control. Root phosphorus was highest in mycorrhizal plants grown with HCN+ CHA0, but root Fe was higher in plants grown with the bacterial strains. Our results indicate that HCN-producing P. protegens can affect the viability of intraradical AMF.


Assuntos
Glomeromycota/fisiologia , Cianeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Interações Microbianas , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Pseudomonas/metabolismo , Sorghum/microbiologia , Biomassa , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas/genética , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Sorghum/metabolismo
4.
Malar J ; 18(1): 344, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601222

RESUMO

Historically neglected, due to its biological peculiarities, the absence of a continuous long-term in vitro blood stage culture system and a propensity towards high morbidity rather than mortality, Plasmodium vivax was put back on the agenda during the last decade by the paradigm shift in the fight against malaria from malaria control to malaria eradication. While the incidence of the deadliest form of malaria, Plasmodium falciparum malaria, has declined since this paradigm shift took hold, the prospects of eradication are now threatened by the increase in the incidence of other human malaria parasite species. Plasmodium vivax is geographically the most widely distributed human malaria parasite, characterized by millions of clinical cases every year and responsible for a massive economic burden. The urgent need to tackle the unique biological challenges posed by this parasite led to renewed efforts aimed at establishing a continuous, long-term in vitro P. vivax blood stage culture. Based on recent discoveries on the role of nutrient sensing in Plasmodium's pathophysiology, this review article critically assesses the extensive body of literature concerning Plasmodium culture conditions with a specific focus on culture media used in attempts to culture different Plasmodium spp. Hereby, the effect of specific media components on the parasite's in vitro fitness and the maturation of the parasite's host cell, the reticulocyte, is analysed. Challenging the wide-held belief that it is sufficient to find the right parasite isolate and give it the right type of cells to invade for P. vivax to grow in vitro, this review contends that a healthy side-by-side maturation of both the parasite and its host cell, the reticulocyte, is necessary in the adaptation of P. vivax to in vitro growth and argues that culture conditions and the media in particular play an essential role in this maturation process.


Assuntos
Meios de Cultura/análise , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Plasmodium vivax/fisiologia
5.
J Anim Sci ; 97(11): 4598-4607, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504604

RESUMO

Solvent extraction of soybean creates soybean meal (SBM), but an array of other soybean products can be created using further processing of SBM or soybean. For accurate inclusion of these products in pig feed, characterization of digestible AA profile and energy value is required. Soybean products from processes such as extrusion (EX) of soybean and thermo-mechanical (TM) treatment, bioconversion using fermentation or enzymes (BC), and ethanol-water extraction (EW) of soybean meal were collected together with SBM. These 9 soybean products were tested in cornstarch-based diets together with an N-free diet for a total of 10 diets. Ten ileal-cannulated barrows (30.4 ± 0.7 kg initial BW) were fed 10 diets at 2.8 times maintenance DE for six 9-d periods with a 6 (periods) × 10 (pigs) Youden square. The control SBM contained 47.0% CP, 1.4% ether extract, and ADF 6.0%. The 9 soybean products contained 35.6% to 66.4% CP, 0.9% to 21.6% ether extract, and 4.4% to 8.0% ADF. The EW soybean products were high in CP (>61%), whereas the 2 EX soybean products were low in CP (<36%) but high in ether extract (≥19%). Chemically available Lys ranged from 92.6% to 100% of total Lys, indicating that minor Lys damage occurred during processing. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy was lower (P < 0.05) for soybean products with greater ether extract and ADF content than SBM, and varied among soybean products. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) did not differ (P > 0.05) among soybean products for most AA, except for lower SID of Arg, Ile, Leu, Lys, Phe, and Tyr (P < 0.05) for EX2 and BC1 than other soybean products. The DE and predicted NE value did not differ (P > 0.05) among soybean products. The greater SID AA content (P < 0.05) in EW, BC, and TM1 soybean products than SBM was mainly a result of greater total AA content due to removal of other macronutrients. In conclusion, extrusion of soybean creates soybean products with a greater energy value but lower ATTD of energy and lower SID AA content than SBM. Further processing of SBM creates soybean products with greater CP and SID AA content but similar SID of AA than SBM. Thus, new technologies to process SBM or soybean create high-value ingredients to be included in pig diets, especially for young pigs with high nutritional requirements.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Soja , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Metabolismo Energético , Masculino , Nutrientes/metabolismo
6.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 9902-9918, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495619

RESUMO

Essential oils (EO) from oregano may have antimicrobial properties, potentially representing a methane mitigation strategy suitable for organic production. This study aimed to (1) examine the potential of oregano in lowering enteric methane production of dairy cows fed differing levels of dried oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum) plant material containing high levels of EO; (2) determine whether differing levels of dried oregano plant material of another subspecies (Origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare) with naturally low levels of EO in feed affected enteric methane production; and (3) evaluate the effect of various levels of the 2 oregano subspecies (containing high or low levels of EO) in feed on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, and milk fatty acids. Each experiment had a 4 × 4 Latin square design using 4 lactating Danish Holstein dairy cows that had rumen, duodenal, and ileal cannulas and were fed 4 different levels of oregano. Experiment 1 used low EO oregano [0.12% EO of oregano dry matter (DM)] and evaluated a control (C) diet with no oregano and 3 oregano diets with 18 (low; L), 36 (medium; M), and 53 g of oregano DM/kg of dietary DM (high; H). Experiment 2 used high EO oregano (4.21% EO of oregano DM) with 0, 7, 14, and 21 g of oregano DM/kg of dietary DM for C, L, M, and H, respectively. Oregano was added to the diets by substituting grass/clover silage on a DM basis. Low or high EO oregano in feed did not affect dry matter intake (DMI) or methane production (grams per day, grams per kilogram of DMI, grams per kilogram of energy-corrected milk, and percentage of gross energy intake). Rumen fermentation was slightly affected by diet in experiment 1, but was not affected by diet in experiment 2. In both experiments, the apparent total-tract digestibility of DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber decreased linearly and cubically (a cubic response was not observed for neutral detergent fiber) with increasing dietary oregano content, while milk fatty acids were slightly affected. In conclusion, dried oregano plant material with either high or low levels of EO did not lower the methane production of dairy cows over 4 consecutive days, and no substantial effects were observed on rumen fermentation or nutrient digestibility. This conclusion regarding methane production is in contrast with literature and requires further study.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Metano/metabolismo , Leite/química , Origanum , Silagem/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fermentação , Lactação , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Poaceae , Rúmen/metabolismo
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(18)2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491972

RESUMO

Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is characterized by nocturnal CO2 uptake and concentration, reduced photorespiration, and increased water-use efficiency (WUE) when compared to C3 and C4 plants. Plants can perform different types of CAM and the magnitude and duration of CAM expression can change based upon several abiotic conditions, including nutrient availability. Here, we summarize the abiotic factors that are associated with an increase in CAM expression with an emphasis on the relationship between CAM photosynthesis and nutrient availability, with particular focus on nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and calcium. Additionally, we examine nitrogen uptake and assimilation as this macronutrient has received the greatest amount of attention in studies using CAM species. We also discuss the preference of CAM species for different organic and inorganic sources of nitrogen, including nitrate, ammonium, glutamine, and urea. Lastly, we make recommendations for future research areas to better understand the relationship between macronutrients and CAM and how their interaction might improve nutrient and water-use efficiency in order to increase the growth and yield of CAM plants, especially CAM crops that may become increasingly important as global climate change continues.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Minerais , Nitrogênio , Estado Nutricional , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Fotossíntese
8.
J Anim Sci ; 97(10): 4134-4139, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414126

RESUMO

Dogs can benefit from dietary fibers. Traditionally, cellulose (CE) and beet pulp (BP) have been used by pet food companies as insoluble and soluble fiber sources. Miscanthus grass (MG) is a novel fiber ingredient made from Miscanthus giganteus, a C4 grass produced for its fiber content, but it has not been evaluated for dogs. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of different fiber sources on nutrient utilization and stool consistency by dogs. Twelve Beagle dogs were fed 3 dietary treatments varying in their fiber sources (BP, CE, MG). Diets were fed for a 14-d period (9 d adaptation), fecal samples were collected (5 d total fecal collection) and scored. Nutrient digestibility was estimated using total fecal collection (TFC). Dogs fed BP diet had softer stools than dogs fed CE and MG (3.15 vs. 3.68 and 3.64, respectively). Wet fecal output was higher for dogs fed CE compared to MG, with dogs fed BP having the lowest values (254.3 g vs. 241.6 g vs. 208.5 g, respectively). Dogs fed CE and MG had lower DM digestibility than dogs fed BP (P < 0.05), dogs fed BP had lower CP digestibility compared with dogs fed MG and CE (81.4% vs. 85.5% and 85.8%, respectively). In conclusion, MG could be used as an alternative fiber source to CE.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Beta vulgaris , Celulose/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Cães/fisiologia , Poaceae , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Fezes/química , Feminino , Nutrientes/metabolismo
9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(15): 6962-6972, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Through precise control of the nutrient solution (NS), closed soilless systems enable targeted manipulation of plant secondary metabolites, which constitute health-promoting components of the human daily diet. A nutrient film technique (NFT) system was employed to assess the effect of NS macronutrient-based concentration (full, half-, and quarter-strength corresponding to electrical conductivity (EC) of 1.5, 0.75, and 0.5 dS m-1 ) on the bioactive profile of red and green-pigmented Salanova® butterhead lettuce. RESULTS: Half-strength NS reduced fresh biomass of both cultivars by 14%, whereas quarter-strength NS reduced the fresh biomass of green and red Salanova by 24% and 38%, respectively. However, moderate nutrient stress (half-strength NS) boosted red Salanova total ascorbic acid, chlorogenic, chicoric, caffeoyl-meso-tartaric, total phenolic acids, and anthocyanins concentrations by 266%, 199%, 124%, 251%, 162%, and 380%, respectively compared with the control, full-strength NS. CONCLUSIONS: Nutritional eustress and appropriate cultivar selection are effective means to increase phytochemical content and optimize year-round production of lettuce in closed soilless systems. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Alface/química , Alface/metabolismo , Nutrientes/análise , Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Hidroponia , Alface/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário
10.
J Appl Microbiol ; 127(5): 1339-1348, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386790

RESUMO

AIMS: This study was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition and in vitro gas production (GP) and fermentation parameters of Quercus infectoria and Quercus libani leaves following treatment with the Klebsiella pneumoniae, a tannin-degrading bacterium. METHODS AND RESULTS: This isolate was isolated on medium containing tannic acid as the sole source of carbon and energy, and identified based on 16S rRNA sequencing analysis. In both oak leaf species (i.e. Q. infectoria and Q. libani), inoculation with Klebsiella pneumoniae significantly increased (P < 0·05) dry matter (DM) loss. For Q. libani, crude protein content was increased (P = 0·02) by bacterial treatment vs. control. In both oak leaves, total phenolic content and total tannins were decreased (P < 0·05) as a consequence of bacterial treatment. However, bacterial processing didn't changed (P > 0·05) organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre or acid detergent lignin content of treated leaves. In both oak leaves the measuring parameters including GP volume, in vitro digestibility of DM and OM, estimated metabolizable energy, total volatile fatty acids, acetate, ammonia nitrogen concentration, total protozoal population and the subfamily Isotricha in treatments were higher (P < 0·05) than control. CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that biological treatment of Q. infectoria and Q. libani leaves with K. pneumoniae represents a useful approach to decrease their phenolic compound content and improve their nutritive value as ruminant feed. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study demonstrated that biologically processing of tannin-containing by-products with K. pneumoniae could increase their nutritive value as ruminant feeds and increase animal productivity.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/microbiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/metabolismo , Quercus/química , Quercus/microbiologia , Ruminantes/fisiologia , Taninos/metabolismo , Animais , Fermentação , Nutrientes/análise , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Fenol/análise , Fenol/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Ruminantes/microbiologia , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Taninos/análise
11.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 10639-10656, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447146

RESUMO

Nutrient management on grazed grasslands is of critical importance to maintain productivity levels, as grass is the cheapest feed for ruminants and underpins these meat and milk production systems. Many attempts have been made to model the relationships between controllable (crop and soil fertility management) and noncontrollable influencing factors (weather, soil drainage) and nutrient/productivity levels. However, to the best of our knowledge not much research has been performed on modeling the interconnections between the influencing factors on one hand and nutrient uptake/herbage production on the other hand, by using data-driven modeling techniques. Our paper proposes to use predictive clustering trees (PCT) learned for building models on data from dairy farms in the Republic of Ireland. The PCT models show good accuracy in estimating herbage production and nutrient uptake. They are also interpretable and are found to embody knowledge that is in accordance with existing theoretical understanding of the task at hand. Moreover, if we combine more PCT into an ensemble of PCT (random forest of PCT), we can achieve improved accuracy of the estimates. In practical terms, the number of grazings, which is related proportionally with soil drainage class, is one of the most important factors that moderates the herbage production potential and nutrient uptake. Furthermore, we found the nutrient (N, P, and K) uptake and herbage nutrient concentration to be conservative in fields that had medium yield potential (11 t of dry matter per hectare on average), whereas nutrient uptake was more variable and potentially limiting in fields that had higher and lower herbage production. Our models also show that phosphorus is the most limiting nutrient for herbage production across the fields on these Irish dairy farms, followed by nitrogen and potassium.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bovinos/metabolismo , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Irlanda , Lactação , Leite , Poaceae
12.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 146: 236-246, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426152

RESUMO

Bivalves facilitate microbial nitrogen cycling, which can produce nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. Potential N2O production by three marine bivalves (Mytilus edulis, Mercenaria mercenaria and Crassostrea virginica) was measured in the laboratory including responses to nitrogen (N) loading and/or warming over short-terms (up to 14 or 28 days). N additions (targeting 100 µM-N ammonium nitrate) or warming (22 °C) individually and in combination were applied with experimental controls (20 µM-N, 19 °C). N2O production rates were higher with N additions for all species, but warming lacked significant direct effects. Ammonium and nitrate concentrations varied but were consistent with nitrification as a potential N2O source for all bivalves. Highest N2O emissions (7.5 nmol N2O g-1 h-1) were from M. edulis under hypoxic conditions coincident with a drop in pH. Macro-epifauna on M. edulis did not significantly alter N2O production. Thus, under short-term hypoxic conditions, micro-organisms in M. edulis guts may be a particularly significant source of N2O.


Assuntos
Crassostrea/metabolismo , Mercenaria/metabolismo , Mytilus edulis/metabolismo , Óxido Nitroso/metabolismo , Compostos de Amônio/metabolismo , Exoesqueleto/fisiologia , Animais , Crassostrea/fisiologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Mercenaria/fisiologia , Mytilus edulis/fisiologia , Nitratos/metabolismo , Nitrificação , Ciclo do Nitrogênio , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Rhode Island , Água do Mar/química , Temperatura Ambiente , Qualidade da Água
13.
Anaerobe ; 59: 205-211, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386902

RESUMO

Regulation of bacterial motility to maximize nutrient acquisition or minimize exposure to harmful substances plays an important role in microbial proliferation and host colonization. The technical difficulties of performing high-resolution live microscopy on anaerobes have hindered mechanistic studies of motility in Clostridioides (formerly Clostridium) difficile. Here, we present a widely applicable protocol for live cell imaging of anaerobic bacteria that has allowed us to characterize C. difficile swimming at the single-cell level. This accessible method for anaerobic live cell microscopy enables inquiry into previously inaccessible aspects of C. difficile physiology and behavior. We present the first report that vegetative C. difficile are capable of regulated motility in the presence of different nutrients. We demonstrate that the epidemic C. difficile strain R20291 exhibits regulated motility in the presence of multiple nutrient sources by modulating its swimming velocity. This is a powerful illustration of the ability of single-cell studies to explain population-wide phenomena such as dispersal through the environment.


Assuntos
Clostridium difficile/efeitos dos fármacos , Clostridium difficile/fisiologia , Microscopia Intravital/métodos , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Nutrientes/metabolismo
14.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 625, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oyster is rich in glycogen and free amino acids and is called "the milk of sea". To understand the main genetic effects of these traits and the genetic networks underlying their correlation, we have conducted the whole genome resequencing with 427 oysters collected from the world-wide scale. RESULTS: After association analysis, 168 clustered significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci were identified for glycogen content and 17 SNPs were verified with 288 oyster individuals in another wide populations. These were the most important candidate loci for oyster breeding. Among 24 genes in the 100-kb regions of the leading SNP loci, cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) contained a non-synonymous SNP and displayed higher expressions in high glycogen content individuals. This might enhance the gluconeogenesis process by the transcriptionally regulating the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose 6-phosphatase (G6Pase). Also, for amino acids content, 417 clustered significant SNPs were identified. After genetic network analysis, three node SNP regions were identified to be associated with glycogen, protein, and Asp content, which might explain their significant correlation. CONCLUSION: Overall, this study provides insights into the genetic correlation among complex traits, which will facilitate future oyster functional studies and breeding through molecular design.


Assuntos
Crassostrea/genética , Crassostrea/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Genótipo , Glicogênio/biossíntese , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas/metabolismo
15.
J Anim Sci ; 97(9): 3958-3971, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351440

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of supplementing late gestation sow diets with processed or unprocessed oat or wheat straw on physiology, early lactation feed intake, and offspring performance. One hundred fifty gestating sows were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 dietary treatments (30 sows per diet) from day 86 of gestation until farrowing. Treatments, arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial plus a control, were a standard gestation diet (control) or control supplemented with 10% wheat or oat straw, processed or unprocessed. Sows were fed a standard lactation diet postfarrowing. The processed straws were produced by high-pressure compaction at 80 °C. On day 101 of gestation (day 15 of the trial), blood samples were collected from a subset of sows (n = 8 per treatment) through ear vein catheters and analyzed for insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), prolactin, glucose, and urea concentrations. Fecal samples were collected on days 103 to 104 of gestation to determine nutrient digestibility, and feeding motivation was investigated on day 104. Litter characteristics and sow feed intake were recorded for 7 d postfarrowing. Three piglets per litter were selected at weaning, fed standard diets, and followed to market. Treatment had no effect on feeding motivation, piglet characteristics at birth, estimated milk production, and offspring BW at market or carcass quality. Processed straw improved DM digestibility and energy content and the effect was greater with oat straw (straw × processing effect, P < 0.05). Pre- and postprandial glucose concentrations tended to decrease (P < 0.10) with processing of wheat, but not oat straw, and this effect was more apparent in the preprandial samples. Preprandial prolactin concentration increased with oat but decreased with wheat straw, whereas postprandial IGF-1 and prolactin concentration increased with processing of wheat, but not oat straw (straw × processing, P < 0.05). Sow lactation feed intake improved (P < 0.05) with oat straw supplementation relative to wheat straw. Piglet weaning weight increased (P < 0.05) with oat straw supplementation and processing improved (P < 0.05) nursery exit BW. However, straw supplementation, regardless of processing, had no effect on offspring BW at market or carcass quality. Overall, oat straw supplementation had a greater impact on sow physiology and provided benefits for sows in late gestation, and there was some indication that further benefits could be obtained through mild processing.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ingestão de Alimentos , Carne Vermelha/normas , Suínos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Avena , Peso Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Feminino , Lactação , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Parto , Folhas de Planta , Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum , Desmame
16.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 73(5): 360-373, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342788

RESUMO

Deoxynivalenol (DON), a mycotoxin synthesised by the Fusarium, is known to affect the growth of pigs. This effect can be attenuated with sodium meta-bisulphite (SBS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of SBS with antioxidant blend on nutrient digestibility in pigs fed a diet contaminated naturally with DON. Six crossbred castrated pigs fitted surgically with single-T cannulas in the distal ileum received one of four barley-corn-soybean diets with or without SBS. After 8 d of feeding, faeces and ileal digesta were collected for 2 d. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of the dry matter (DM), energy, nutrients and DON, and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, acid detergent fibre (ADF), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), energy and DON were evaluated. The AID of phosphorus, calcium and some amino acids was increased (p < 0.05) in the DON diets whereas the ATTD of DM and energy tended to decrease (p = 0.064 and p = 0.071). SBS reduced the AID of DM, energy, ADF, ether extract, phosphorus and DON (p < 0.05) but had no effect on the ATTD of DM, energy, fibre or DON. These results show that DON improved the AID of some nutrients but tended to reduce the ATTD of energy, which could explain, although anorexia is the main effect of DON on live weight gain, the reported negative effect of DON on pig growth. Finally, SBS with antioxidant blend had reduced AID of some nutrients and intestinal absorption of DON.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Sulfitos/metabolismo , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Tricotecenos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Íleo/fisiologia , Masculino , Sulfitos/administração & dosagem , Sus scrofa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tricotecenos/administração & dosagem
17.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 258-268, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336156

RESUMO

A 12-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of multi-strain probiotics (MSP) in a low fish meal (FM) diet on overall performance, gut microbiota, selected non-specific immune responses and antioxidant enzyme activities of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) juveniles. A total of 225 healthy olive flounders (initial mean body weight, 13.5 ±â€¯0.01 g) were randomly separated into 3 groups of 75 fish, each group having three replicates of 25 fish; first group was fed with a FM-based control diet (Con), 2nd group was fed with a low-FM diet containing a blend of plant and animal protein meals replacing 30% of the FM protein (FM30), and 3rd group was fed with the FM30 diet supplemented with 108-109 CFU kg-1 of the MSP (Pro). With the exception of lipid retention, which was significantly lower in fish fed the FM30 diet compared to the other two treatments, no other statistically significant differences were recorded with respect to any of the other growth and nutrient utilization parameters. Myeloperoxidase and lysozyme activities of fish fed the Pro diet were much higher and significantly different than those of fish fed the FM30 diet. Glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly higher in Pro- than in Con-fed fish, which, in turn, was significantly higher than FM30-fed fish. Expression of immune-related genes including IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α was markedly upregulated in livers of the fish fed Pro diet compared to those fed the Con and FM30 diets. Furthermore, supplementation of MSP in FM30 diet enriched the Lactobacillus abundance in the fish gut as well as predictive gene functions in relation to lipid and carbohydrate metabolisms. These data suggested that the MSP could reduce the potential adverse effects of the low-FM diet and might be used as a healthy immunostimulant for olive flounder.


Assuntos
Linguados/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Probióticos/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Linguados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Linguados/metabolismo , Linguados/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória
18.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 278-287, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349013

RESUMO

In order to illustrate the immunometabolic changes of fish during bacterial infection, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) was injected with Flavobacteriumcolumnare(F.columnare) and then the immune response, nutrient metabolism and related signaling pathways were assayed from 6 h post injection (hpi) to 7 days post injection (dpi). After F.columnare injection, gill lamellae showed obvious fusion and higher mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The mRNA expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-8 in the head kidney were also significantly upregulated at 6 hpi and 3 dpi. Moreover, the expression of IgZ in the gill was significantly upregulated at 3 dpi and 7 dpi, while the expression of IgM in the head kidney was significantly upregulated at 1 dpi and 3 dpi after F.columnare injection. During bacterial infection, the systematic nutrient metabolism was also significantly affected. Hepatic glycolysis, indicated by GK mRNA expression and PK activity, was significantly upregulated at 1 dpi, while glucogenesis, indicated by PEPCK mRNA expression and enzyme activity, was significantly increased at later time, which resulted in the decreased hepatic glycogen content at 1dpi but increased glycogen content at 7 dpi in the experimental group. LPL, which catalyzed the lipid catabolism, showed decreased mRNA expression and enzyme activity at 6 hpi, while ACC, which was rate-limiting of FA synthesis, was significantly increased at 6 hpi, 3 dpi and 7 dpi. During this process, the nutrient sensing signaling was also significantly affected. TOR signaling in grass carp was significantly activated while ERK signaling was significantly inhibited after F.columnare infection, both of which might function as the sensor and regulator of fish immunometabolic changes.


Assuntos
Carpas/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/veterinária , Imunidade Inata/genética , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Carpas/genética , Carpas/metabolismo , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/imunologia , Flavobacterium/fisiologia
19.
Vet Parasitol ; 271: 14-21, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303198

RESUMO

Foraging behavior by parasitized herbivores can be interpreted as a decision-making process where individuals are faced with trading-off the ingestion of nutrients with the ingestion of potentially medicinal -and toxic- plant secondary compounds. We determined how parasitized sheep prioritize selection of crude protein, energy and a medicinal plant secondary compound (quebracho tannins-QT). Foraging preferences were tested in 40 lambs before experiencing a parasitic infection (Phase 1), during an infection (Phase 2; 10,000 L3Haemonchus contortus per lamb) and after chemotherapy (Phase 3). Lambs were assigned to four groups (10 lambs/group) such that animals in Group 1 (Control) could choose between foods of high (HEP) or low (LEP) energy to protein ratios. The other groups received the same choice, but QT were added (4%) to HEP (Group 2), to LEP (Group 3) or to both foods (Group 4). All groups under a parasitic infection (Phase 2) increased their preference for HEP (from 0.44 to 0.66 ±â€¯0.042; P < 0.05) and intake of digestible energy (from 0.106 to 0.126 ±â€¯0.007 Mcal/kg BW; P < 0.05) relative to Phase 1, a pattern that remained during Phase 3. Only lambs receiving QT in HEP increased their intake of QT from Phase 1 to Phase 2 (P < 0.05). Fecal egg counts and blood parameters revealed a parasitic infection (P < 0.05) in Phase 2 that subsided in Phase 3, although no differences were detected among groups (P > 0.05). The importance of protein nutrition on parasitized animals has been highlighted before, but these results suggest that lambs prioritized the ingestion of energy-dense over protein-dense foods or medicinal condensed tannins when challenged by gastrointestinal parasitism. Consumption of medicinal tannins represented a side-effect of the preference manifested for energy-dense foods during testing.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Dieta/veterinária , Ovinos/fisiologia , Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Taninos/metabolismo
20.
J Anim Sci ; 97(9): 3758-3767, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304970

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of ancient grain and grain-free carbohydrate sources on extrusion process, nutrient utilization, and palatability by dogs. Two maintenance dog diets were formulated with same proportions of carbohydrates: 1) ancient grain diet (AG) with spelt, millet, and sorghum; and 2) grain-free diet (GF) which had potato, peas, and tapioca starch. Experimental diets were extruded over 5 replicates in a completely randomized experimental design. Digestibility was carried out with 12 dogs in a switch-back experimental design. The GF diet required 22.6 and 25.9% more (P < 0.05) specific mechanical energy and in-barrel moisture input, respectively, than AG to produce kibbles out of the extruder with similar bulk density (P > 0.05). After drying, GF kibbles were less dense and more expanded, but harder than AG kibbles (P < 0.05). Dogs preferred GF over AG in the palatability assessment of uncoated kibbles. Apparent nutrient digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, gross energy, crude protein, and crude fat were not affected by treatment (P > 0.05). However, total dietary fiber (TDF) digestibility was 31.9% greater for dogs fed GF (P < 0.05). Moreover, wet fecal output was higher, and fecal dry matter was lower for dogs under GF (P < 0.05). The results demonstrated that GF and AG diets behaved differently during extrusion, but were similarly utilized by dogs, with exception of TDF. Thus, fiber content of grain-free diets should be monitored to maximize fecal quality.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Carboidratos/análise , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Cães/fisiologia , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Grão Comestível , Fezes , Feminino , Masculino
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