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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5262, 2020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067453

RESUMO

Lifestyle, mainly dietary, interventions are first-line treatment for women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but the optimal diet remains undefined. We combined a hyperandrogenized PCOS mouse model with a systematic macronutrient approach, to elucidate the impact of dietary macronutrients on the development of PCOS. We identify that an optimum dietary macronutrient balance of a low protein, medium carbohydrate and fat diet can ameliorate key PCOS reproductive traits. However, PCOS mice display a hindered ability for their metabolic system to respond to diet variations, and varying macronutrient balance did not have a beneficial effect on the development of metabolic PCOS traits. We reveal that PCOS traits in a hyperandrogenic PCOS mouse model are ameliorated selectively by diet, with reproductive traits displaying greater sensitivity than metabolic traits to dietary macronutrient balance. Hence, providing evidence to support the development of evidence-based dietary interventions as a promising strategy for the treatment of PCOS, especially reproductive traits.


Assuntos
Nutrientes/metabolismo , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nutrientes/análise , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/dietoterapia
2.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239673, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027289

RESUMO

This study used high throughput, image-based phenotyping (HTP) to distinguish growth patterns, detect facilitation and interpret variations to nutrient uptake in a model mixed-pasture system in response to factorial low and high nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) application. HTP has not previously been used to examine pasture species in mixture. We used red-green-blue (RGB) imaging to obtain smoothed projected shoot area (sPSA) to predict absolute growth (AG) up to 70 days after planting (sPSA, DAP 70), to identify variation in relative growth rates (RGR, DAP 35-70) and detect overyielding (an increase in yield in mixture compared with monoculture, indicating facilitation) in a grass-legume model pasture. Finally, using principal components analysis we interpreted between species changes to HTP-derived temporal growth dynamics and nutrient uptake in mixtures and monocultures. Overyielding was detected in all treatments and was driven by both grass and legume. Our data supported expectations of more rapid grass growth and augmented nutrient uptake in the presence of a legume. Legumes grew more slowly in mixture and where growth became more reliant on soil P. Relative growth rate in grass was strongly associated with shoot N concentration, whereas legume RGR was not strongly associated with shoot nutrients. High throughput, image-based phenotyping was a useful tool to quantify growth trait variation between contrasting species and to this end is highly useful in understanding nutrient-yield relationships in mixed pasture cultivations.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura/métodos , Variação Biológica da População/genética , Variação Biológica da População/fisiologia , Biomassa , Fabaceae/genética , Pradaria , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Poaceae/genética , Solo
3.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13435, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869472

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effects of chitosan and whole raw soybean on nutrient intake, apparent digestibility, nitrogen utilization, microbial protein synthesis, blood metabolites, feeding behavior, ruminal fermentation, digesta kinetics, and reticular flow of nutrients of buffaloes. Four ruminally-cannulated Murrah buffaloes (351 ± 15 kg of initial BW) were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were arranged as 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: the first factor was whole raw soybean (WRS), and the second factor was chitosan (CHI) with or without their inclusion in diets. Intake and apparent digestibility of ether extract (p < .01; p = .04, respectively), non-fiber carbohydrates intake (p = .03) and apparent ruminal digestibility of dry matter (p = .01) were affected by diets. An interaction effect or tendency was observed for microbial nitrogen (p = .09), concentrations, ruminal ammonia nitrogen (p = .05), total volatile fatty acid (p = .03). Association of chitosan with whole raw soybean has potential effects as a modulator of rumen fermentation; therefore, chitosan can be applied as an alternative non-ionophore for Murrah buffaloes.


Assuntos
Búfalos/fisiologia , Quitosana/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Fermentação , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Soja , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Masculino , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas
4.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 91(0): e1-e6, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896135

RESUMO

The influence of varying dietary protein and energy levels on the relative growth of body components of ostriches was evaluated over a 244-day growth period. One hundred twenty 1-day-old ostrich chicks were randomly assigned to 15 pens. Three varying energy regimes (high, medium and low) and five protein levels (1-5) were supplied ad libitum to each pen. A randomly selected bird from each pen was slaughtered at 1, 35, 63, 103, 159, 168 and 244 days of age. Each bird was weighed, stunned, exsanguinated, defeathered and eviscerated. Individual body components were dissected and weighed at every slaughter age. Proximate analysis was performed on these components, which were ground with the remainder of the carcass, excluding gut content, but including blood and feathers. Based on the analysis of ostrich feathers and the known mass of the feathers, the protein mass contribution of the feathers was deducted from the protein accretion of the bird. All the data were transformed to natural logarithms and regressed against the featherless body protein growth. Intercepts and slopes were compared to determine differences in growth rate ascribed to nutrient densities. Neither dietary energy nor dietary protein level had a significant effect on the relative growth of the measured components in this study. Allometric coefficients were established, which could be helpful to improve the accuracy of simulation modelling attempts for ostrich nutrition.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Ingestão de Energia , Nutrientes/análise , Struthioniformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4791, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963229

RESUMO

The ability to absorb ingested nutrients is an essential function of all metazoans and utilizes a wide array of nutrient transporters found on the absorptive enterocytes of the small intestine. A unique population of patients has previously been identified with severe congenital malabsorptive diarrhea upon ingestion of any enteral nutrition. The intestines of these patients are macroscopically normal, but lack enteroendocrine cells (EECs), suggesting an essential role for this rare population of nutrient-sensing cells in regulating macronutrient absorption. Here, we use human and mouse models of EEC deficiency to identify an unappreciated role for the EEC hormone peptide YY in regulating ion-coupled absorption of glucose and dipeptides. We find that peptide YY is required in the small intestine to maintain normal electrophysiology in the presence of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, a potent stimulator of ion secretion classically produced by enteric neurons. Administration of peptide YY to EEC-deficient mice restores normal electrophysiology, improves glucose and peptide absorption, diminishes diarrhea and rescues postnatal survival. These data suggest that peptide YY is a key regulator of macronutrient absorption in the small intestine and may be a viable therapeutic option to treat patients with electrolyte imbalance and nutrient malabsorption.


Assuntos
Células Enteroendócrinas/metabolismo , Absorção Intestinal/fisiologia , Transporte de Íons/fisiologia , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Animais , Enterócitos , Glucose/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas , Humanos , Intestino Delgado , Intestinos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Peptídeo YY , Receptores dos Hormônios Gastrointestinais/metabolismo , Receptores de Peptídeo Intestinal Vasoativo/metabolismo , Trocador 3 de Sódio-Hidrogênio , Água/metabolismo
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111030, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750587

RESUMO

This study examined the effect of Red-S3B textile dye on soil microbial activities, uptake of the dye by wheat plants and growth on the dye-contaminated soil. Moreover, pressmud (PM) application was investigated for its alleviative effect on wheat yield and dye uptake by plants. Preliminarily, soil was spiked with a wide concentration range (0, 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg kg-1 soil) of Red-S3B dye and wheat was grown for 42-days. The dye did not suppress the activities of soil enzymes and growth of wheat seedlings at 100 mg kg-1; however, beyond this level the dye had a linear negative effect on these attributes. With 1000 mg dye kg-1 soil, wheat seedling biomass, viable microbial count, soil respiration, dehydrogenase, phosphatase, and urease activities decreased by 84%, 33%, 45%, 69%, 24%, and 11%, respectively as compared to uncontaminated soil. Moreover, phosphorus and potassium content in wheat shoot decreased, while the nitrogen content increased in Red-S3B contaminated soil. In the subsequent pot experiment, PM application (12.5 g kg-1 soil) was assessed to alleviate the adverse effect of moderately toxic level of Red-S3B dye (500 mg kg-1 soil) on wheat growth and yield. Root and straw biomass, and grain yield of wheat decreased by 13, 19 and 12%, respectively in Red-S3B contaminated soil as compared to uncontaminated soil. However, PM application to dye-contaminated soil retrieved the dye-induced reduction in root and straw biomass and grain yield to become statistically (p ≤ 0.05) at par with control plants. The color of Red-S3B was clearly visible in spikes depicting that plants absorbed Red-S3B but probably could not metabolize it. Amending the dye-contaminated soil with PM decreased Red-S3B content in awns from 78 to 37 mg kg-1. Hence, it is concluded that Red-S3B textile dye is highly toxic to soil microbes and wheat plants at levels exceeding 100 mg kg-1 soil. Soil application of PM alleviates the adverse effect of Red-S3B dye on wheat growth through reducing its uptake by plants.


Assuntos
Compostos Azo/efeitos adversos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Corantes/efeitos adversos , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/efeitos adversos , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostagem , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238042, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841280

RESUMO

Long-term chemical fertilizer input causes soil organic matter losses, structural compaction, and changes in soil water and nutrient availability, which have been subdued in the most of dry farmland in China. The concept of "more efficiency with less fertilizer input" has been proposed and is urgently needed in current agriculture. Application of chemical fertilizer combined with organic manure (OM) could be a solution for soil protection and sustainable production of dry-land maize (Zea mays. L). Field research over three consecutive years on the Loess Plateau of China was conducted to evaluate the integrated effects of chemical fertilizer strategies and additional OM input on soil nutrients availability and water use in maize. The results showed that, after harvest, soil bulk density decreased significantly with OM application, concomitant with 11.9, 18.7 and 97.8% increases in topsoil total nitrogen, organic matter, and available phosphorus contents, respectively, compared with those under equal chemical NPK input. Water use in the 1.0-1.5 m soil profile was improved, therefore, the soil conditions were better for maize root growth, leaf area and shoot biomass of individual maize plants increased significantly with OM application. Optimized NPK strategies increased grain yield and water use efficiency by 18.5 and 20.6%, respectively, compared to only chemical NP input. Furthermore, additional OM input promoted yield and water use efficiency by 8.9 and 5.8%, respectively. Addition of OM promotes sustainable soil and maize grain productivity as well as friendly soil environmental management of dry land farming.


Assuntos
Esterco/análise , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos/farmacologia , Solo/química , Água/análise , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomassa , China , Fertilizantes/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Zea mays/metabolismo
8.
J Anim Sci ; 98(9)2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780110

RESUMO

The objective was to study the effects of microencapsulated organic acids (OA) and essential oils (EO) on growth performance, immune system, gut barrier function, nutrient digestion and absorption, and abundance of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4 (ETEC F4) in the weaned piglets challenged with ETEC F4. Twenty-four ETEC F4 susceptible weaned piglets were randomly distributed to 4 treatments including (1) sham-challenged control (SSC; piglets fed a control diet and challenged with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)); (2) challenged control (CC; piglets fed a control diet and challenged with ETEC F4); (3) antibiotic growth promoters (AGP; CC + 55 mg·kg-1 of Aureomycin); and (4) microencapsulated OA and EO [P(OA+EO); (CC + 2 g·kg-1 of microencapsulated OA and EO]. The ETEC F4 infection significantly induced diarrhea at 8, 28, 34, and 40 hr postinoculation (hpi) (P < 0.05) in the CC piglets. At 28 d postinoculation (dpi), piglets fed P(OA+EO) had a lower (P < 0.05) diarrhea score compared with those fed CC, but the P(OA+EO) piglets had a lower (P < 0.05) diarrhea score compared with those fed the AGP diets at 40 dpi. The ETEC F4 infection tended to increase in vivo gut permeability measured by the oral gavaging fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 70 kDa (FITC-D70) assay in the CC piglets compared with the SCC piglets (P = 0.09). The AGP piglets had higher FITC-D70 flux than P(OA+EO) piglets (P < 0.05). The ETEC F4 infection decreased mid-jejunal VH in the CC piglets compared with the SCC piglets (P < 0.05). The P(OA+EO) piglets had higher (P < 0.05) VH in the mid-jejunum than the CC piglets. The relative mRNA abundance of Na+-glucose cotransporter and B0AT1 was reduced (P < 0.05) by ETEC F4 inoculation when compared with the SCC piglets. The AGP piglets had a greater relative mRNA abundance of B0AT1 than the CC piglets (P < 0.05). The ETEC F4 inoculation increased the protein abundance of OCLN (P < 0.05), and the AGP piglets had the lowest relative protein abundance of OCLN among the challenged groups (P < 0.05). The supplementation of microencapsulated OA and EO enhanced intestinal morphology and showed anti-diarrhea effects in weaned piglets challenged with ETEC F4. Even if more future studies can be required for further validation, this study brings evidence that microencapsulated OA and EO combination can be useful within the tools to be implemented in strategies for alternatives to antibiotics in swine production.


Assuntos
Diarreia/veterinária , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ácidos Carboxílicos/farmacologia , Clortetraciclina/farmacologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Composição de Medicamentos/veterinária , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Feminino , Imunidade , Jejuno/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos , Desmame
9.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000757, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833957

RESUMO

In eukaryotes, conserved mechanisms ensure that cell growth is coordinated with nutrient availability. Overactive growth during nutrient limitation ("nutrient-growth dysregulation") can lead to rapid cell death. Here, we demonstrate that cells can adapt to nutrient-growth dysregulation by evolving major metabolic defects. Specifically, when yeast lysine-auxotrophic mutant lys- encountered lysine limitation, an evolutionarily novel stress, cells suffered nutrient-growth dysregulation. A subpopulation repeatedly evolved to lose the ability to synthesize organosulfurs (lys-orgS-). Organosulfurs, mainly reduced glutathione (GSH) and GSH conjugates, were released by lys- cells during lysine limitation when growth was dysregulated, but not during glucose limitation when growth was regulated. Limiting organosulfurs conferred a frequency-dependent fitness advantage to lys-orgS- by eliciting a proper slow growth program, including autophagy. Thus, nutrient-growth dysregulation is associated with rapid organosulfur release, which enables the selection of organosulfur auxotrophy to better tune cell growth to the metabolic environment. We speculate that evolutionarily novel stresses can trigger atypical release of certain metabolites, setting the stage for the evolution of new ecological interactions.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Lisina/farmacologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/genética , Evolução Biológica , Glucose/metabolismo , Glucose/farmacologia , Lisina/deficiência , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Ribossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1265: 153-165, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761575

RESUMO

Severe undernutrition and famine continue to be a worldwide concern, as cases have been increasing in the past 5 years, particularly in developing countries. The occurrence of nutrient restriction (NR) during pregnancy affects fetal growth, leading to small for gestational age (SGA) or intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) offspring. During adulthood, SGA and IUGR offspring are at a higher risk for the development of metabolic syndrome. Skeletal muscle is particularly sensitive to prenatal NR. This tissue plays an essential role in oxidation and glucose metabolism because roughly 80% of insulin-mediated glucose uptake occurs in muscle, and it represents around 40% of body weight. Alterations in myofiber number, hypertrophy and myofiber type composition, decreased protein synthesis, lower mitochondrial content and activity of oxidative enzymes, and increased accumulation of intramuscular triglycerides are among the described programming effects of maternal NR on skeletal muscle. Together, these features would add to a phenotype that is prone to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Insights from diverse animal models (i.e. ovine, swine, and rodent) have provided valuable information regarding the molecular mechanisms behind those altered developmental pathways. Understanding those molecular signatures supports the development of efficient treatments to counteract the effects of maternal NR on skeletal muscle, and its negative implications for postnatal health.


Assuntos
Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/embriologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Nutrientes/deficiência , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Síndrome Metabólica , Obesidade , Gravidez
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237775, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813739

RESUMO

Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus is the third most commonly farmed finfish species in the world, accounting for nearly 5% of global aquaculture production. In the past few decades much of the success of this species has been attributed to the development and distribution of Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT). Despite the increasing availability of GIFT, the productivity of small-scale farming remains highly variable, particularly in developing nations. Commercial fish-feed pellets can increase fish farm productivity; however, many small-scale farmers rely on other means of feeding fish due to the high cost and limited availability of commercial fish feed pellets. Therefore, understanding how locally-sourced feeds affect the production of GIFT is an important step towards improving feeding practices, particularly for farmers with low financial capital. This study used stable isotope analysis (SIA) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to compare the effects of a locally-sourced vegetable-based diet and commercial pellet-based diets on the relative condition, nutrient assimilation patterns and gastrointestinal microbiota of GIFT. GIFT fed a locally-sourced diet were smaller, and in a significantly poorer condition than those fed with commercial fish feeds. SIA showed no differences in dietary carbon between the two diets; however, δ13C, poor fish condition and the abundance of specific bacterial taxa (of such as Fusobacteria) were correlated. SIA revealed that GIFT fed locally-sourced diets that predominantly consisted of vegetables were significantly enriched in δ15N despite a perceived lack of dietary protein. This enrichment suggests that GIFT fed a locally-sourced diet may be supplementing their diet via cannibalism, a behaviour representative of poor farming practice. Overall this study highlights the need to increase the availability of suitable GIFT feeds in developing nations. The development a low-cost feed alternative could improve the success of small-scale GIFT farmers in PNG, increasing both food and income security within the region.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/metabolismo , Aquicultura/métodos , Ciclídeos/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/microbiologia , Aquicultura/economia , Aquicultura/organização & administração , Canibalismo , Ciclídeos/genética , Ciclídeos/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Suplementos Nutricionais/economia , Eficiência Organizacional/economia , Fazendas/economia , Fazendas/organização & administração , New South Wales , Nutrientes/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0232811, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614852

RESUMO

In the present work, the olive mill solid waste (OMSW)-derived biochar (BC) was produced at various pyrolytic temperatures (300-700°C) and characterized to investigate its potential negative versus positive application effects on pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and nutrients (P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu) availability in a calcareous loamy sand soil. Therefore, a greenhouse pot experiment with maize (Zea mays L.) was conducted using treatments consisting of a control (CK), inorganic fertilizer of NPK (INF), and 1% and 3% (w/w) of OMSW-derived BCs. The results showed that BC yield, volatile matter, functional groups, and zeta potential decreased with pyrolytic temperature, whereas BC pH, EC, and its contents of ash and fixed carbon increased with pyrolytic temperature. The changes in the BC properties with increasing pyrolytic temperatures reflected on soil pH, EC and the performance of soil nutrients availability. The BC application, especially with increasing pyrolytic temperature and/or application rate, significantly increased soil pH, EC, NH4OAc-extractable K, Na, Ca, and Mg, and ammonium bicarbonate-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (AB-DTPA)-extractable Fe and Zn, while AB-DTPA-extractable Mn decreased. The application of 1% and 3% BC, respectively, increased the NH4OAc-extractable K by 2.5 and 5.2-fold for BC300, by 3.2 and 8.0-fold for BC500, and by 3.3 and 8.9-fold for BC700 compared with that of untreated soil. The results also showed significant increase in shoot content of K, Na, and Zn, while there was significant decrease in shoot content of P, Ca, Mg, and Mn. Furthermore, no significant effects were observed for maize growth as a result of BC addition. In conclusion, OMSW-derived BC can potentially have positive effects on the enhancement of soil K availability and its plant content but it reduced shoot nutrients, especially for P, Ca, Mg, and Mn; therefore, application of OMSW-derived BC to calcareous soil might be restricted.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/farmacologia , Nutrientes/análise , Olea/química , Areia/química , Solo/química , Carvão Vegetal/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Minerais/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/metabolismo
13.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(9): 2461-2470, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607724

RESUMO

The present study was aimed to study the effect of bacteria inhabiting in buffalo dung on nutritional properties of soil and plant. Three beneficial bacteria Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter xiangfangensis were isolated from buffalo dung to evaluate for their effects individually as well as in consortium. The combined effect of P. mirabilis and P. aeruginosa showed a significant enhancement in different biological parameters of Foeniculum vulgare such as primary branch (99.32%), secondary branch (98.32%), number of umbels (87.62%), number of umbellets (99.85%), number of seeds (104.94%), grain yield (62.38%), biological yield (35.99%), and harvest index (19.48%). Consortium of these potent bacteria also enhanced proximate constituents such as total ash (49.79%), ether extract (63.06%), crude fibre (48.91%), moisture content (33.40%), dry matter (31.45%), acid insoluble ash (33.20%), and crude protein (40.73%). A highly significant correlation (p ≤ 0.01) was found between nitrogen (r = 0.97), phosphorous (r = 0.95), and potassium (r = 0.97) contents of soil. This research enhances the knowledge of the effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria on nutrient properties of soil and fennel which deliver a new index for healthier use in organic agricultural practices.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Fezes/microbiologia , Foeniculum/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Animais , Búfalos , Nitrogênio/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Nutrientes/análise , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Potássio/análise , Potássio/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Solo/química
14.
Nature ; 583(7815): 303-309, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612236

RESUMO

Mammalian cells reorganize their proteomes in response to nutrient stress through translational suppression and degradative mechanisms using the proteasome and autophagy systems1,2. Ribosomes are central targets of this response, as they are responsible for translation and subject to lysosomal turnover during nutrient stress3-5. The abundance of ribosomal (r)-proteins (around 6% of the proteome; 107 copies per cell)6,7 and their high arginine and lysine content has led to the hypothesis that they are selectively used as a source of basic amino acids during nutrient stress through autophagy4,7. However, the relative contributions of translational and degradative mechanisms to the control of r-protein abundance during acute stress responses is poorly understood, as is the extent to which r-proteins are used to generate amino acids when specific building blocks are limited7. Here, we integrate quantitative global translatome and degradome proteomics8 with genetically encoded Ribo-Keima5 and Ribo-Halo reporters to interrogate r-protein homeostasis with and without active autophagy. In conditions of acute nutrient stress, cells strongly suppress the translation of r-proteins, but, notably, r-protein degradation occurs largely through non-autophagic pathways. Simultaneously, the decrease in r-protein abundance is compensated for by a reduced dilution of pre-existing ribosomes and a reduction in cell volume, thereby maintaining the density of ribosomes within single cells. Withdrawal of basic or hydrophobic amino acids induces translational repression without differential induction of ribophagy, indicating that ribophagy is not used to selectively produce basic amino acids during acute nutrient stress. We present a quantitative framework that describes the contributions of biosynthetic and degradative mechanisms to r-protein abundance and proteome remodelling in conditions of nutrient stress.


Assuntos
Nutrientes/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Aminoácidos/deficiência , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Autofagia , Linhagem Celular , Homeostase , Humanos , Proteólise , Proteoma/biossíntese , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica , Purinas/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
15.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(15): 8243-8254, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720681

RESUMO

Tandem transcription interference occurs when the act of transcription from an upstream promoter suppresses utilization of a co-oriented downstream promoter. Because eukaryal genomes are liberally interspersed with transcription units specifying long non-coding (lnc) RNAs, there are many opportunities for lncRNA synthesis to negatively affect a neighboring protein-coding gene. Here, I review two eukaryal systems in which lncRNA interference with mRNA expression underlies a regulated biological response to nutrient availability. Budding yeast SER3 is repressed under serine-replete conditions by transcription of an upstream SRG1 lncRNA that traverses the SER3 promoter and elicits occlusive nucleosome rearrangements. SER3 is de-repressed by serine withdrawal, which leads to shut-off of SRG1 synthesis. The fission yeast phosphate homeostasis (PHO) regulon comprises three phosphate acquisition genes - pho1, pho84, and tgp1 - that are repressed under phosphate-replete conditions by 5' flanking lncRNAs prt, prt2, and nc-tgp1, respectively. lncRNA transcription across the PHO mRNA promoters displaces activating transcription factor Pho7. PHO mRNAs are transcribed during phosphate starvation when lncRNA synthesis abates. The PHO regulon is de-repressed in phosphate-replete cells by genetic manipulations that favor 'precocious' lncRNA 3'-processing/termination upstream of the mRNA promoters. PHO lncRNA termination is governed by the Pol2 CTD code and is subject to metabolite control by inositol pyrophosphates.


Assuntos
Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Saccharomycetales/genética , Schizosaccharomyces/genética , Transcrição Genética , Homeostase , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Fosfoglicerato Desidrogenase/genética , Fosfoglicerato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro , Regulon , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomycetales/metabolismo , Schizosaccharomyces/metabolismo , Proteínas de Schizosaccharomyces pombe/genética , Proteínas de Schizosaccharomyces pombe/metabolismo
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236100, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702020

RESUMO

Feed constitutes 50-70% of total production costs of tilapia, one of the most widely cultured finfishes in the world. We evaluated reduced-feeding strategies for improving production efficiency of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). In a 12-week pond trial, fish were fed daily, every other day, every third day, or not at all. Ponds were fertilized to enhance natural foods. In a fifth group fish were fed daily without pond fertilization. Fish fed daily with or without pond fertilization and fish fed every other day had higher specific growth rates, survivability, and net production than the other two treatments. Fish feed efficiency and benefit to cost ratio was highest for treatments fed in a pulsatile manner (i.e. fed every other day or every third day) with fish fed on alternate days providing the best net return among all groups. Fish fed on alternate days had more moderate gene expression levels of intestinal nutrient transporters which may allow for a more balanced and efficient nutrient uptake. Fecal microbe analyses identified 145 families of prokaryotic and 132 genera of eukaryotic organisms in tilapia. The highest diversity of prokaryotes was found in fish fed either every other day or daily in fertilized ponds and the highest diversity of eukaryotes was found in fish fed every other day. These studies indicate feeding Nile tilapia on alternate days along with weekly pond fertilization has no deleterious effects on growth, survivability, or production versus daily feeding regimes, but enhances feed efficiency by 76% and provides the greatest net return on investments. Our studies also suggest for the first time that combining alternate-day feeding with pond fertilization produces the greatest microbial biodiversity in the intestine that could contribute to enhanced feed efficiency and overall health of tilapia.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Aquicultura , Biodiversidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Tilápia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tilápia/microbiologia , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Tilápia/genética
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234611, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649667

RESUMO

Perennial vegetables are a neglected and underutilized class of crops with potential to address 21st century challenges. They represent 33-56% of cultivated vegetable species, and occupy 6% of world vegetable cropland. Despite their distinct relevance to climate change mitigation and nutritional security, perennial vegetables receive little attention in the scientific literature. Compared to widely grown and marketed vegetable crops, many perennial vegetables show higher levels of key nutrients needed to address deficiencies. Trees with edible leaves are the group of vegetables with the highest levels of these key nutrients. Individual "multi-nutrient" species are identified with very high levels of multiple nutrients for addressing deficiencies. This paper reports on the synthesis and meta-analysis of a heretofore fragmented global literature on 613 cultivated perennial vegetables, representing 107 botanical families from every inhabited continent, in order to characterize the extent and potential of this class of crops. Carbon sequestration potential from new adoption of perennial vegetables is estimated at 22.7-280.6 MMT CO2-eq/yr on 4.6-26.4 Mha by 2050.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Sequestro de Carbono/fisiologia , Verduras/metabolismo , Biodiversidade , Carbono/metabolismo , Mudança Climática , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Nutrientes/análise , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(27): 15504-15510, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571954

RESUMO

Earth system models (ESMs) project that global warming suppresses biological productivity in the Subarctic Atlantic Ocean as increasing ocean surface buoyancy suppresses two physical drivers of nutrient supply: vertical mixing and meridional circulation. However, the quantitative sensitivity of productivity to surface buoyancy is uncertain and the relative importance of the physical drivers is unknown. Here, we present a simple predictive theory of how mixing, circulation, and productivity respond to increasing surface buoyancy in 21st-century global warming scenarios. With parameters constrained by observations, the theory suggests that the reduced northward nutrient transport, owing to a slower ocean circulation, explains the majority of the reduced productivity in a warmer climate. The theory also informs present-day biases in a set of ESM simulations as well as the physical underpinnings of their 21st-century projections. Hence, this theoretical understanding can facilitate the development of improved 21st-century projections of marine biogeochemistry and ecosystems.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Aquecimento Global , Modelos Teóricos , Água do Mar/química , Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos da radiação , Oceano Atlântico , Atmosfera/análise , Atmosfera/química , Planeta Terra , Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Gases de Efeito Estufa/efeitos adversos , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Nitratos/análise , Nitratos/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Luz Solar , Movimentos da Água
19.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1475(1): 64-77, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557680

RESUMO

Approximately 15% of pregnant women vape electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), exposing the fetus to a range of toxic compounds, including nicotine and by-products of e-cigarette liquid (e-liquid) pyrolysis. Owing to the recent emergence of these products, research mainly focuses on immediate users, and not on in utero exposure. Therefore, this study aimed to understand the impact of intrauterine e-cigarette vapor (e-vapor) exposure, with and without nicotine, on liver metabolic markers in the male offspring. E-vapor was generated using an e-cigarette filled with tobacco-flavored e-liquid (18 or 0 mg/mL nicotine). Female Balb/c mice were exposed to e-vapor for 6 weeks before mating, through gestation and lactation, without direct exposure to the offspring. Livers and plasma from dams and male offspring (13 weeks old) were examined. Exposure to nicotine-free e-vapor promoted metabolic changes and liver damage in both the dams and their offspring. Furthermore, exposure to nicotine-containing e-vapor did not cause liver damage but induced hepatic steatosis in the adult offspring. Therefore, maternal vaping is detrimental to both the dams and their offspring, with nicotine providing a potential protective effect.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Fígado/patologia , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Área Sob a Curva , Autofagia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Mitofagia , Estresse Oxidativo , Gravidez , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
20.
J Anim Sci ; 98(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497179

RESUMO

Forty pigs [10.7 ± 1.2 kg initial body weight (BW) at 6 wk of age] were used in a 21-d study to evaluate the effects of supplemental xylanase (Hostazym X 100, Huvepharma, Inc., Peachtree City, GA) in nursery diets on digesta viscosity, nutrient digestibility, health of the small intestine, and growth performance when supplemented with corn distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Pigs were individually housed and randomly allotted to four treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (n = 20/factor, 0% or 30% DDGS and 0 or 1,500 endo-pentosanase unit/kg xylanase as two factors) based on sex and initial BW. Feed intake and BW were recorded weekly. On day 15 of the study, TiO2 in diets (0.3%) was used as an indigestible marker to calculate apparent ileal digestibility (AID). Plasma samples were collected on day 19 to measure tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), malondialdehyde, and peptide YY. On day 21, all pigs were euthanized to collect tissues from duodenum, jejunum, and colon to measure morphology, TNF-α, and malondialdehyde concentrations. Distal jejunal digesta were collected to measure viscosity. Ileum digesta were collected to measure AID of nutrients. During the entire period, supplemental xylanase increased (P < 0.05) average daily gain (ADG; 616 to 660 g/d) of nursery pigs, whereas DDGS (0 or 30%) did not affect ADG. On week 3, average daily feed intake (ADFI) was increased (P < 0.05) when fed DDGS (1,141 to 1,267 g/d) and there was an interaction (P < 0.05) between two factors indicating that supplemental xylanase decreased ADFI when DDGS was used in a diet. Use of DDGS increased (P < 0.05) viscosity [1.86 to 2.38 centipoise (cP)], whereas supplemental xylanase reduced (P < 0.05) viscosity (2.27 to 1.96 cP) of jejunal digesta. The AID of dry matter (DM) and gross energy (GE) were improved (P < 0.05) by supplemental xylanase. Plasma TNF-α was decreased (P < 0.05, 108.5 to 69.9 pg/mL) by supplemental xylanase. Use of DDGS reduced (P < 0.05) villus height:crypt depth ratio (1.46 to 1.27), whereas supplemental xylanase increased (P < 0.05) the crypt depth (360 to 404 µm) in duodenum. In conclusion, feeding a diet with 30% DDGS to nursery pigs for 3 wk had no negative effect on growth performance, whereas reduced AID of DM and GE, increased TNF-α level in colon tissue, and reduced the ratio of villus height to crypt depth. Dietary supplementation of xylanase reduced digesta viscosity improving AID of nutrients, reduced inflammatory response, and altered intestinal morphology, collectively improving ADG of nursery pigs regardless of the use of DDGS in a diet.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/farmacologia , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Íleo/fisiologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Masculino , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Zea mays
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