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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 167-174, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nowadays a significant amount of land contaminated with toxic elements is being used for agriculture, posing a serious risk of crop contamination and toxicity. Several methodologies are being used to remediate soil contamination, including the use of amendments such as biochar. This work evaluated the effects of biochar combined with different fertirrigations (water, a conventional fertilizer solution, or a fertilizer solution with a commercial biostimulant derived from leonardite) on the availability of toxic elements and nutrients for pepper cultivated in a soil contaminated with As, Cd, Pb, and Zn. RESULTS: Irrigation with fertilizer solutions improved plant growth regardless of the biochar amendment. Biochar decreased the bioavailability of Cu and Pb in soil and the Cu content in pepper leaves. Combined with fertilization, biochar also decreased plant As and Pb content. Biochar combined with biostimulant decreased the bioavailable content of Cd in soil and its uptake by pepper plants. CONCLUSION: The use of biochar and biostimulant presented advantages for plant production in a non-suitable scenario of nutrient scarcity and contamination. © 2021 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Capsicum/metabolismo , Carvão Vegetal/química , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Fertilizantes/análise , Nutrientes/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Adsorção , Transporte Biológico , Cádmio/química , Cádmio/metabolismo , Capsicum/química , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chumbo/análise , Chumbo/química , Chumbo/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Zinco/química , Zinco/metabolismo
2.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684336

RESUMO

Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages worldwide and caffeine is known to improve performance in physical exercise. Some substances in coffee have a positive effect on glucose metabolism and are promising for post-exercise muscle glycogen recovery. We investigated the effect of a coffee beverage after exhaustive exercise on muscle glycogen resynthesis, glycogen synthase activity and glycemic and insulinemic response in a double-blind, crossover, randomized clinical trial. Fourteen endurance-trained men performed an exhaustive cycle ergometer exercise to deplete muscle glycogen. The following morning, participants completed a second cycling protocol followed by a 4-h recovery, during which they received either test beverage (coffee + milk) or control (milk) and a breakfast meal, with a simple randomization. Blood samples and muscle biopsies were collected at the beginning and by the end of recovery. Eleven participants were included in data analysis (age: 39.0 ± 6.0 years; BMI: 24.0 ± 2.3 kg/m2; VO2max: 59.9 ± 8.3 mL·kg-1·min-1; PPO: 346 ± 39 W). The consumption of coffee + milk resulted in greater muscle glycogen recovery (102.56 ± 18.75 vs. 40.54 ± 18.74 mmol·kg dw-1; p = 0.01; d = 0.94) and greater glucose (p = 0.02; d = 0.83) and insulin (p = 0.03; d = 0.76) total area under the curve compared with control. The addition of coffee to a beverage with adequate amounts of carbohydrates increased muscle glycogen resynthesis and the glycemic and insulinemic response during the 4-h recovery after exhaustive cycling exercise.


Assuntos
Atletas , Café/química , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Resistência Física , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Glicogênio Sintase/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684387

RESUMO

Eating disorders and obesity are important health problems with a widespread global epidemic. Adiponectin (AdipoQ), the most abundant adipokine in the plasma, plays important roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis, glucose metabolism and lipid metabolism. Plasma adiponectin concentration is negatively associated with obesity and binge eating disorder. There is a growing interest in the appetite regulation function of adiponectin. However, the effect of AdipoQ on feeding behavior is controversial and closely related to nutritional status and food composition. In this review, we summarize the literatures about the discovery, structure, tissue distribution, receptors and regulation of nutritional status, and focus on the biological function of adiponectin in the regulation of food intake in the central and peripheral system.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/metabolismo , Regulação do Apetite , Animais , Jejum/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Receptores de Adiponectina/metabolismo
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502487

RESUMO

Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are an important group of drugs of several generations, ranging from the oldest phenobarbital (1912) to the most recent cenobamate (2019). Cannabidiol (CBD) is increasingly used to treat epilepsy. The outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in 2019 created new challenges in the effective treatment of epilepsy in COVID-19 patients. The purpose of this review is to present data from the last few years on drug-drug interactions among of AEDs, as well as AEDs with other drugs, nutrients and food. Literature data was collected mainly in PubMed, as well as google base. The most important pharmacokinetic parameters of the chosen 29 AEDs, mechanism of action and clinical application, as well as their biotransformation, are presented. We pay a special attention to the new potential interactions of the applied first-generation AEDs (carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital and primidone), on decreased concentration of some medications (atazanavir and remdesivir), or their compositions (darunavir/cobicistat and lopinavir/ritonavir) used in the treatment of COVID-19 patients. CBD interactions with AEDs are clearly defined. In addition, nutrients, as well as diet, cause changes in pharmacokinetics of some AEDs. The understanding of the pharmacokinetic interactions of the AEDs seems to be important in effective management of epilepsy.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Canabidiol/uso terapêutico , Interações Medicamentosas , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Anticonvulsivantes/química , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacocinética , COVID-19/virologia , Canabidiol/química , Canabidiol/farmacocinética , Carbamazepina/química , Carbamazepina/farmacocinética , Carbamazepina/uso terapêutico , Clobazam/química , Clobazam/farmacocinética , Clobazam/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/patologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5432, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521825

RESUMO

The relative importance of evolutionary history and ecology for traits that drive ecosystem processes is poorly understood. Consumers are essential drivers of nutrient cycling on coral reefs, and thus ecosystem productivity. We use nine consumer "chemical traits" associated with nutrient cycling, collected from 1,572 individual coral reef fishes (178 species spanning 41 families) in two biogeographic regions, the Caribbean and Polynesia, to quantify the relative importance of phylogenetic history and ecological context as drivers of chemical trait variation on coral reefs. We find: (1) phylogenetic relatedness is the best predictor of all chemical traits, substantially outweighing the importance of ecological factors thought to be key drivers of these traits, (2) phylogenetic conservatism in chemical traits is greater in the Caribbean than Polynesia, where our data suggests that ecological forces have a greater influence on chemical trait variation, and (3) differences in chemical traits between regions can be explained by differences in nutrient limitation associated with the geologic context of our study locations. Our study provides multiple lines of evidence that phylogeny is a critical determinant of contemporary nutrient dynamics on coral reefs. More broadly our findings highlight the utility of evolutionary history to improve prediction in ecosystem ecology.


Assuntos
Antozoários/fisiologia , Peixes/fisiologia , Cadeia Alimentar , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Filogenia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Ciclo do Carbono/fisiologia , Região do Caribe , Recifes de Corais , Peixes/classificação , Humanos , Ciclo do Nitrogênio/fisiologia , Nutrientes/química , Filogeografia , Polinésia
6.
Mol Cell ; 81(18): 3731-3748, 2021 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547236

RESUMO

Nutrient supply and demand delineate cell behavior in health and disease. Mammalian cells have developed multiple strategies to secure the necessary nutrients that fuel their metabolic needs. This is more evident upon disruption of homeostasis in conditions such as cancer, when cells display high proliferation rates in energetically challenging conditions where nutritional sources may be scarce. Here, we summarize the main routes of nutrient acquisition that fuel mammalian cells and their implications in tumorigenesis. We argue that the molecular mechanisms of nutrient acquisition not only tip the balance between nutrient supply and demand but also determine cell behavior upon nutrient limitation and energetic stress and contribute to nutrient partitioning and metabolic coordination between different cell types in inflamed or tumorigenic environments.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico/fisiologia , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Homeostase/fisiologia , Humanos , Proteínas Carreadoras de Solutos/metabolismo
7.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 37(10): 167, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468874

RESUMO

Rhizosphere microbial communities are dynamic and play a crucial role in diverse biochemical processes and nutrient cycling. Soil type and cultivar modulate the composition of rhizosphere microbial communities. Changes in the community composition significantly alter microbial function and ecological process. We examined the influence of soil type on eubacterial and diazotrophic community abundance and microbial metabolic potential in chickpea (cv. BG 372 and cv. BG 256) rhizosphere. The total eubacterial and diazotrophic community as estimated through 16 S rDNA and nifH gene copy numbers using qPCR showed the soil type influence with clear rhizosphere effect on gene abundance. PLFA study has shown the variation in microbial community structure with different soil types. Differential influence of soil types and cultivar on the ratio of Gram positive to Gram negative bacteria was observed with most rhizosphere soils corresponding to higher ratios than bulk soil. The rhizosphere microbial activities (urease, dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and beta-glucosidase) were also assessed as an indicator of microbial metabolic diversity. Principal component analysis and K-means non-hierarchical cluster mapping grouped soils into three categories, each having different soil enzyme activity or edaphic drivers. Soil type and cultivar influence on average substrate utilization pattern analyzed through community level physiological profiling (CLPP) was higher for rhizosphere soils than bulk soils. The soil nutrient studies revealed that both soil type and cultivar influenced the available N, P, K and organic carbon content of rhizosphere soil. Our study signifies that soil type and cultivar jointly influenced soil microbial community abundance and their metabolic potential in chickpea rhizosphere.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Cicer/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/química , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Cicer/microbiologia , Microbiota , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Nutrientes/análise , Filogenia , Rizosfera
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445112

RESUMO

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroid phytohormones that are known to regulate plant growth and nutrient uptake and distribution. However, how BRs regulate nutrient uptake and balance in legume species is not fully understood. Here, we show that optimal BR levels are required for soybean (Glycine max L.) seedling growth, as treatments with both 24-epicastasterone (24-epiCS) and the BR biosynthesis inhibitor propiconazole (PPZ) inhibit root growth, including primary root elongation and lateral root formation and elongation. Specifically, 24-epiCS and PPZ reduced the total phosphorus and potassium levels in the shoot and affected several minor nutrients, such as magnesium, iron, manganese, and molybdenum. A genome-wide transcriptome analysis identified 3774 and 4273 differentially expressed genes in the root tip after brassinolide and PPZ treatments, respectively. The gene ontology (GO) analysis suggested that genes related to "DNA-replication", "microtubule-based movement", and "plant-type cell wall organization" were highly responsive to the brassinolide and PPZ treatments. Furthermore, consistent with the effects on the nutrient concentrations, corresponding mineral transporters were found to be regulated by BR levels, including the GmPHT1s, GmKTs, GmVIT2, GmZIPs, and GmMOT1 genes. Our study demonstrates that optimal BR levels are important for growth and mineral nutrient homeostasis in soybean seedlings.


Assuntos
Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Homeostase/fisiologia , Minerais/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/metabolismo , Colestanóis/metabolismo , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Esteroides Heterocíclicos/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360913

RESUMO

Deficiency of the placental hormone chorionic somatomammotropin (CSH) can lead to the development of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). To gain insight into the physiological consequences of CSH RNA interference (RNAi), the trophectoderm of hatched blastocysts (nine days of gestational age; dGA) was infected with a lentivirus expressing either a scrambled control or CSH-specific shRNA, prior to transfer into synchronized recipient sheep. At 90 dGA, umbilical hemodynamics and fetal measurements were assessed by Doppler ultrasonography. At 120 dGA, pregnancies were fitted with vascular catheters to undergo steady-state metabolic studies with the 3H2O transplacental diffusion technique at 130 dGA. Nutrient uptake rates were determined and tissues were subsequently harvested at necropsy. CSH RNAi reduced (p ≤ 0.05) both fetal and uterine weights as well as umbilical blood flow (mL/min). This ultimately resulted in reduced (p ≤ 0.01) umbilical IGF1 concentrations, as well as reduced umbilical nutrient uptakes (p ≤ 0.05) in CSH RNAi pregnancies. CSH RNAi also reduced (p ≤ 0.05) uterine nutrient uptakes as well as uteroplacental glucose utilization. These data suggest that CSH is necessary to facilitate adequate blood flow for the uptake of oxygen, oxidative substrates, and hormones essential to support fetal and uterine growth.


Assuntos
Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/genética , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/metabolismo , Hemodinâmica/genética , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Lactogênio Placentário/deficiência , Lactogênio Placentário/genética , Interferência de RNA , Ovinos/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Animais , Blastocisto/metabolismo , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/diagnóstico por imagem , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/diagnóstico por imagem , Feto/metabolismo , Idade Gestacional , Glucose/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Masculino , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Ultrassonografia Doppler/métodos , Útero/metabolismo
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5178, 2021 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462441

RESUMO

Animals maintain metabolic homeostasis by modulating the activity of specialized organs that adjust internal metabolism to external conditions. However, the hormonal signals coordinating these functions are incompletely characterized. Here we show that six neurosecretory cells in the Drosophila central nervous system respond to circulating nutrient levels by releasing Capa hormones, homologs of mammalian neuromedin U, which activate the Capa receptor (CapaR) in peripheral tissues to control energy homeostasis. Loss of Capa/CapaR signaling causes intestinal hypomotility and impaired nutrient absorption, which gradually deplete internal nutrient stores and reduce organismal lifespan. Conversely, increased Capa/CapaR activity increases fluid and waste excretion. Furthermore, Capa/CapaR inhibits the release of glucagon-like adipokinetic hormone from the corpora cardiaca, which restricts energy mobilization from adipose tissue to avoid harmful hyperglycemia. Our results suggest that the Capa/CapaR circuit occupies a central node in a homeostatic program that facilitates the digestion and absorption of nutrients and regulates systemic energy balance.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Homeostase , Hormônios de Inseto/metabolismo , Longevidade , Masculino , Neuropeptídeos/genética , Oligopeptídeos/metabolismo , Ácido Pirrolidonocarboxílico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Pirrolidonocarboxílico/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Transdução de Sinais
11.
Infect Immun ; 89(11): e0034321, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424752

RESUMO

The ability of Enterococcus faecalis to colonize host anatomical sites is dependent on its adaptive response to host conditions. Three glycosyl hydrolase gene clusters, each belonging to glycosyl hydrolase family 18 (GH18) (ef0114, ef0361, and ef2863), in E. faecalis were previously found to be upregulated under glucose-limiting conditions. The GH18 catalytic domain is present in proteins that are classified as either chitinases or ß-1,4 endo-ß-N-acetylglucosaminidases (ENGases) based on their ß-1,4 endo-N-acetyl-ß-d-glucosaminidase activity, and ENGase activity is commonly associated with cleaving N-linked glycoprotein, an abundant glycan structure on host epithelial surfaces. Here, we show that all three hydrolases are negatively regulated by the transcriptional regulator carbon catabolite protein A (CcpA). Additionally, we demonstrate that a constitutively active CcpA variant represses the expression of CcpA-regulated genes irrespective of glucose availability. Previous studies showed that the GH18 catalytic domains of EndoE (EF0114) and EfEndo18A (EF2863) were capable of deglycosylating RNase B, a model high-mannose-type glycoprotein. However, it remained uncertain which glycosidase is primarily responsible for the deglycosylation of high-mannose-type glycoproteins. In this study, we show by mutation analysis as well as a dose-dependent analysis of recombinant protein expression that EfEndo18A is primarily responsible for deglycosylating high-mannose glycoproteins and that the glycans removed by EfEndo18A support growth under nutrient-limiting conditions in vitro. In contrast, IgG is representative of a complex-type glycoprotein, and we demonstrate that the GH18 domain of EndoE is primarily responsible for the removal of this glycan decoration. Finally, our data highlight the combined contribution of glycosidases to the virulence of E. faecalis in vivo.


Assuntos
Enterococcus faecalis/metabolismo , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/fisiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/fisiologia , Biofilmes , Domínio Catalítico , Enterococcus faecalis/genética , Enterococcus faecalis/patogenicidade , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Manose/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Ribonucleases/metabolismo , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição
12.
Nature ; 597(7875): 263-267, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408323

RESUMO

Fructose consumption is linked to the rising incidence of obesity and cancer, which are two of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality globally1,2. Dietary fructose metabolism begins at the epithelium of the small intestine, where fructose is transported by glucose transporter type 5 (GLUT5; encoded by SLC2A5) and phosphorylated by ketohexokinase to form fructose 1-phosphate, which accumulates to high levels in the cell3,4. Although this pathway has been implicated in obesity and tumour promotion, the exact mechanism that drives these pathologies in the intestine remains unclear. Here we show that dietary fructose improves the survival of intestinal cells and increases intestinal villus length in several mouse models. The increase in villus length expands the surface area of the gut and increases nutrient absorption and adiposity in mice that are fed a high-fat diet. In hypoxic intestinal cells, fructose 1-phosphate inhibits the M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase to promote cell survival5-7. Genetic ablation of ketohexokinase or stimulation of pyruvate kinase prevents villus elongation and abolishes the nutrient absorption and tumour growth that are induced by feeding mice with high-fructose corn syrup. The ability of fructose to promote cell survival through an allosteric metabolite thus provides additional insights into the excess adiposity generated by a Western diet, and a compelling explanation for the promotion of tumour growth by high-fructose corn syrup.


Assuntos
Frutose/farmacologia , Xarope de Milho Rico em Frutose/farmacologia , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Enzimática , Feminino , Frutoquinases/metabolismo , Frutose/metabolismo , Xarope de Milho Rico em Frutose/metabolismo , Hipóxia/dietoterapia , Hipóxia/patologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Piruvato Quinase/metabolismo
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299281

RESUMO

Placental development is modified in response to maternal nutrient restriction (NR), resulting in a spectrum of fetal growth rates. Pregnant sheep carrying singleton fetuses and fed either 100% (n = 8) or 50% (NR; n = 28) of their National Research Council (NRC) recommended intake from days 35-135 of pregnancy were used to elucidate placentome transcriptome alterations at both day 70 and day 135. NR fetuses were further designated into upper (NR NonSGA; n = 7) and lower quartiles (NR SGA; n = 7) based on day 135 fetal weight. At day 70 of pregnancy, there were 22 genes dysregulated between NR SGA and 100% NRC placentomes, 27 genes between NR NonSGA and 100% NRC placentomes, and 22 genes between NR SGA and NR NonSGA placentomes. These genes mediated molecular functions such as MHC class II protein binding, signaling receptor binding, and cytokine activity. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed significant overrepresentation of genes for natural-killer-cell-mediated cytotoxicity in NR SGA compared to 100% NRC placentomes, and alterations in nutrient utilization pathways between NR SGA and NR NonSGA placentomes at day 70. Results identify novel factors associated with impaired function in SGA placentomes and potential for placentomes from NR NonSGA pregnancies to adapt to nutritional hardship.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Dietoterapia/métodos , Feto/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Peso Fetal/fisiologia , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Placenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Placenta/patologia , Gravidez , Ovinos , Transcriptoma
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299371

RESUMO

Wine can be defined as a complex microbial ecosystem, where different microorganisms interact in the function of different biotic and abiotic factors. During natural fermentation, the effect of unpredictable interactions between microorganisms and environmental factors leads to the establishment of a complex and stable microbiota that will define the kinetics of the process and the final product. Controlled multistarter fermentation represents a microbial approach to achieve the dual purpose of having a less risky process and a distinctive final product. Indeed, the interactions evolved between microbial consortium members strongly modulate the final sensorial properties of the wine. Therefore, in well-managed mixed fermentations, the knowledge of molecular mechanisms on the basis of yeast interactions, in a well-defined ecological niche, becomes fundamental to control the winemaking process, representing a tool to achieve such objectives. In the present work, the recent development on the molecular and metabolic interactions between non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces yeasts in wine fermentation was reviewed. A particular focus will be reserved on molecular studies regarding the role of nutrients, the production of the main byproducts and volatile compounds, ethanol reduction, and antagonistic actions for biological control in mixed fermentations.


Assuntos
Fermentação/fisiologia , Vinho/microbiologia , Leveduras/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Humanos , Microbiota/fisiologia , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Saccharomyces/metabolismo
15.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2314: 247-260, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34235656

RESUMO

Non-replicating persistence (NRP) is a functional adaptation that mycobacteria undergo in response to the stresses of the granuloma, facilitating antibiotic tolerance and long-term infection. These stresses, or NRP-inducing factors, include hypoxia, nutrient deprivation, and nitric oxide assault, which mycobacteria are well evolved to tolerate through a series of metabolic and physiological adaptations producing the NRP state. Most attempts to replicate these conditions in vitro have focused on only one of these factors at a time for ease and simplicity, but as a result, do not necessarily produce physiologically relevant phenotypes. Here, we provide the methods for two different in vitro NRP strategies that are useful for drug susceptibility testing and high-throughput screening.


Assuntos
Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem , Estresse Fisiológico , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299134

RESUMO

All organisms confront the challenges of maintaining metabolic homeostasis in light of both variabilities in nutrient supplies and energetic costs of different physiologies and behaviors. While all cells are nutrient sensitive, only relative few cells within Metazoans are nutrient sensing cells. Nutrient sensing cells organize systemic behavioral and physiological responses to changing metabolic states. One group of cells present in the arthropods, is the adipokinetic hormone producing cells (APCs). APCs possess intrinsic nutrient sensors and receive contextual information regarding metabolic state through other endocrine connections. APCs express receptors for different hormones which modulate APC physiology and the secretion of the adipokinetic hormone (AKH). APCs are functionally similar to alpha cells in the mammalian pancreas and display a similar physiological organization. AKH release results in both hypertrehalosemia and hyperlipidemia through high affinity binding to the AKH receptor (AKHR). Another hallmark of AKH signaling is heightened locomotor activity, which accompanies starvation and is thought to enhance foraging. In this review, we discuss mechanisms of nutrient sensing and modulation of AKH release. Additionally, we compare the organization of AKH/AKHR signaling in different taxa. Lastly, we consider the signals that APCs integrate as well as recent experimental results that have expanded the functional repertoire of AKH signaling, further establishing this as both a metabolic and stress hormone.


Assuntos
Homeostase , Hormônios de Inseto/metabolismo , Nutrientes/análise , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Oligopeptídeos/metabolismo , Ácido Pirrolidonocarboxílico/análogos & derivados , Estresse Fisiológico , Animais , Humanos , Ácido Pirrolidonocarboxílico/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
17.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 354: 109317, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225032

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study was to control the fermentation time and nitrite content of suancai prepared with Lactobacillus plantarum. According to analyses of the consumption amount and rate of nutrients, growth-stimulating nutrients, essential nutrients and nutrients accelerating the fermentation process of suancai, Asp, Thr, Glu, Cys, Tyr, Mg2+, Mn2+ and inosine were selected as additions to suancai prepared with L. plantarum. The fermentation time and nitrite content of suancai supplemented with nutrients and prepared with L. plantarum were shortened by 2 days and 5 days and reduced by approximately 0.1-fold and 0.7-fold, respectively, compared with unsupplemented suancai prepared with L. plantarum at 25 °C and 10 °C. The fermentation time and nitrite content of suancai supplemented with nutrients and prepared with L. plantarum were shortened by 6 days and 15 days and reduced by approximately 0.17-fold and 0.8-fold, respectively, compared with suancai undergoing spontaneous fermentation at 25 °C and 10 °C. Furthermore, no significant differences were observed in sensory properties in suancai. The results of this study indicated that certain nutrients accelerated the growth of L. plantarum and reduced the fermentation time and nitrite content of suancai prepared with L. plantarum. These findings help to establish a foundation for the practical use of nutrients to control the fermentation of suancai.


Assuntos
Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados , Lactobacillus plantarum , Nutrientes , Fermentação , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/análise , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Nitritos/análise , Nutrientes/metabolismo
18.
Nature ; 595(7865): 58-65, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194019

RESUMO

The natural world provides many examples of multiphase transport and reaction processes that have been optimized by evolution. These phenomena take place at multiple length and time scales and typically include gas-liquid-solid interfaces and capillary phenomena in porous media1,2. Many biological and living systems have evolved to optimize fluidic transport. However, living things are exceptionally complex and very difficult to replicate3-5, and human-made microfluidic devices (which are typically planar and enclosed) are highly limited for multiphase process engineering6-8. Here we introduce the concept of cellular fluidics: a platform of unit-cell-based, three-dimensional structures-enabled by emerging 3D printing methods9,10-for the deterministic control of multiphase flow, transport and reaction processes. We show that flow in these structures can be 'programmed' through architected design of cell type, size and relative density. We demonstrate gas-liquid transport processes such as transpiration and absorption, using evaporative cooling and CO2 capture as examples. We design and demonstrate preferential liquid and gas transport pathways in three-dimensional cellular fluidic devices with capillary-driven and actively pumped liquid flow, and present examples of selective metallization of pre-programmed patterns. Our results show that the design and fabrication of architected cellular materials, coupled with analytical and numerical predictions of steady-state and dynamic behaviour of multiphase interfaces, provide deterministic control of fluidic transport in three dimensions. Cellular fluidics may transform the design space for spatial and temporal control of multiphase transport and reaction processes.


Assuntos
Células/metabolismo , Microfluídica/instrumentação , Microfluídica/métodos , Absorção Fisico-Química , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Gases/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transpiração Vegetal , Gravação de Videodisco , Água/metabolismo
19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5561734, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34195268

RESUMO

Mineral malnutrition as a prevalent public health issue can be alleviated by increasing the intake of dietary minerals from major staple crops, such as rice. Identification of the gene responsible for mineral contents in rice would help breed cultivars enriched with minerals through marker-assisted selection. Two segregating populations of backcross inbred lines (BIL) were employed to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for macronutrient contents in brown and milled rice, BC1F5, and BC2F4:5 derived from an interspecific cross of Xieqingzao B (Oryza sativa) and Dongxiang wild rice (O. rufipogon). Phenotyping the populations was conducted in multiple locations and years, and up to 169 DNA markers were used for the genotyping. A total of 17 QTLs for P, K, Na, Ca, and Mg contents in brown and milled rice distributed on eight regions were identified in the BC1F5 population, which is explained to range from 5.98% to 56.80% of phenotypic variances. Two regions controlling qCa1.1 and qCa4.1 were validated, and seven new QTLs for Ca and Mg contents were identified in the BC2F4:5 population. 18 of 24 QTLs were clustered across seven chromosomal regions, indicating that different mineral accumulation might be involved in common regulatory pathways. Of 24 QTLs identified in two populations, 16 having favorable alleles were derived from O. rufipogon and 10 were novel. These results will not only help understand the molecular mechanism of macronutrient accumulation in rice but also provide candidate QTLs for further gene cloning and grain nutrient improvement through QTL pyramiding.


Assuntos
Nutrientes/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Especificidade da Espécie , Alelos , Cálcio/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos/ultraestrutura , Cromossomos de Plantas , Clonagem Molecular , Cruzamentos Genéticos , DNA de Plantas/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Magnésio/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Polimorfismo Genético , Potássio/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo
20.
Cells ; 10(6)2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203610

RESUMO

Estimating costs of ejaculate production is challenging. Metabolic investment in ejaculates may come at the expense of other physiological functions and may negatively affect future reproduction and/or survival. These trade-offs are especially likely to occur under constrained resource pools (e.g., poor nutrition). Here, we investigated costs of ejaculate production via trade-offs in the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. We experimentally increased rates of ejaculate production, while keeping an unmanipulated group, in adult males kept at high and low feeding regimes and tested the effects of our treatments on (i) somatic maintenance (i.e., changes in male body mass), (ii) future reproduction (i.e., the likelihood of producing a spermatophore and the viability of its sperm), and (iii) lifetime survival and longevity. We predicted investment in ejaculates to impinge upon all measured responses, especially in low-fed individuals. Instead, we only found negative effects of food limitation, suggesting low or undetectable costs of spermatophore production. High mating rates may select for males to maximize their capacity of ejaculate production, making ejaculate traits less prone to trade-offs with other fitness-related life history traits. Nevertheless, males were impaired due to nutrient deficiency in producing viable ejaculates, suggesting condition-dependent costs for ejaculate production.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Gryllidae/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Animais , Ejaculação/fisiologia , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Gryllidae/metabolismo , Masculino , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Sêmen , Espermatozoides/fisiologia
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