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1.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 32(1): e271, 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289386

RESUMO

Introducción: El síndrome de ovario poliquístico se asocia con frecuencia a alteraciones cardiometabólicas; y su asociación con el fenotipo hipertrigliceridemia-obesidad abdominal ha sido poco estudiada en Cuba. Objetivo: Identificar la frecuencia del fenotipo hipertrigliceridemia-obesidad abdominal en mujeres de edad mediana con síndrome de ovario poliquístico y su asociación con la resistencia a la insulina, trastornos del metabolismo de la glucosa y ateroesclerosis subclínica. Método: Estudio descriptivo, transversal, en 30 mujeres. Se tomaron variables clínicas: edad, peso, talla, índice de masa corporal, circunferencia de cintura y cadera, índice cintura/cadera, tensión arterial, además de concentraciones de glucosa, insulina, colesterol total, triglicéridos, HDL-c y LDL-c, e índice HOMA-IR. La aterosclerosis subclínica se evaluó por doppler carotideo y ecocardiograma (hipertrofia ventricular izquierda y grasa epicárdica). El fenotipo hipertrigliceridemia-obesidad abdominal se definió como triglicéridos elevados (≥ 1,7 mmol/L) y circunferencia de la cintura ≥ 80 cm. Resultados: La frecuencia del fenotipo hipertrigliceridemia-obesidad abdominal fue 43,3 por ciento (13/30). Los valores medios de circunferencia abdominal, tensión arterial, así como de glucemia (p < 0,003), insulinemia (p = 0,028), triglicéridos (p < 0,0001), e índice HOMA-IR (p = 0,012) fueron más elevados en el grupo de mujeres con esa condición. A pesar de no haber diferencias significativas la frecuencia de mujeres con incremento del grosor íntima-media carotídeo y de grasa epicárdica fue superior en aquellas con el fenotipo. Conclusiones: La presencia del fenotipo hipertrigliceridemia-obesidad abdominal es frecuente en mujeres con síndrome de ovario poliquístico, y se asocia con alteraciones del metabolismo de la glucosa y la resistencia a la insulina. Este pudiera ser utilizado en la práctica clínica como un marcador de riesgo para alteraciones cardiometabólicas(AU)


Introduction: The polycystic ovary syndrome is frequently associated to cardiometabolic alterations; and its relation with the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype has been poorly studied in Cuba. Objective: Identify the frequency of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype in middle age women with polycystic ovary syndrome and its association with insulin resistance, disorders in the glucose metabolism and subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional study in 30 women. As clinical variables there were used: age, weight, size, body mass index, waist-hip circumference, waist/hip index, blood pressure; glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-c and LDL-c concentrations, and HOMA-IR index. Subclinical atherosclerosis was assessed by a carotid doppler and an echocardiogram (left ventricular hypertrophy and epicardial fat). The hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype was defined as high triglycerides levels (≥ 1.7 mmol/L) and CC ≥ 80 cm. Results: The frequency of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype was 43.3 percent (13/30). The mean values of abdominal circumference, blood pressure, as well as glycemia (p < 0.003), insulinaemia (p = 0.028), triglycerides (p < 0.0001), and HOMA-IR index (p = 0.012) were higher in the group of women with that condition. Although there were not significant differences, the frequency of women with increase of the carotid intima-media thickness and epicardical fat was higher in those with the phenotype. Conclusions: The presence of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype is frequent in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome, and it is associated with alterations of the glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. This can be used in the clinical practice as a marker of risk for cardiometabolic alterations(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/diagnóstico , Hipertrigliceridemia/diagnóstico , Obesidade Abdominal/etiologia , Resistência à Insulina , Índice de Massa Corporal , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais
2.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 899: 173978, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691164

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome is linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular complications by a mechanism involving mainly decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and impaired NO-soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)- cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signalling (NO-sGC-cGMP). To further develop this scientific point, this study aimed to investigate the effects of long-term treatment with BAY 41-2272 (a sGC stimulator) on cardiovascular reactivity of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) as a model of metabolic syndrome. SHR were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group, cafeteria diet (CD)-fed group and CD-fed group treated daily with BAY 41-2272 (5 mg/kg) by gastric gavage for 12 weeks. In vivo measurements of body weight, abdominal circumference, blood pressure and glucose tolerance test were performed. At the end of the feeding period, ex vivo cumulative concentration-response curves were performed on isolated perfused heart (isoproterenol (0.1 nM - 1 µM)) and thoracic aorta (phenylephrine (1 nM-10 µM), acetylcholine (1 nM-10 µM), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) (0.1 nM-0.1 µM)). We showed that chronic CD feeding induced abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, glucose intolerance and exacerbated arterial hypertension in SHR. Compared to control group, CD-fed group showed a decrease in ß-adrenoceptor-induced cardiac inotropy, in coronary perfusion pressure and in aortic contraction to phenylephrine. While relaxing effects of acetylcholine and SNP were unchanged. BAY 41-2272 long-term treatment markedly prevented arterial hypertension development and glucose intolerance, enhanced the α1-adrenoceptor-induced vasoconstriction, and restored cardiac inotropy and coronary vasodilation. These findings suggest that BAY 41-2272 may be a potential novel drug for preventing metabolic and cardiovascular complications of metabolic syndrome.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Ativadores de Enzimas/farmacologia , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Guanilil Ciclase Solúvel/metabolismo , Animais , Aorta Torácica/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta Torácica/enzimologia , Aorta Torácica/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/enzimologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Circulação Coronária/efeitos dos fármacos , GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ativação Enzimática , Intolerância à Glucose/enzimologia , Intolerância à Glucose/etiologia , Intolerância à Glucose/fisiopatologia , Intolerância à Glucose/prevenção & controle , Hipertensão/enzimologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Hipertrigliceridemia/enzimologia , Hipertrigliceridemia/etiologia , Hipertrigliceridemia/fisiopatologia , Hipertrigliceridemia/prevenção & controle , Preparação de Coração Isolado , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/enzimologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Obesidade Abdominal/enzimologia , Obesidade Abdominal/etiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Obesidade Abdominal/prevenção & controle , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Vasoconstrição/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Nutr Hosp ; 38(2): 328-336, 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586992

RESUMO

Introduction: Introduction: the simultaneous increase in the prevalence of cardiometabolic diseases and in the consumption of ultraprocessed foods (UPF) suggests a possible relationship between UPF and cardiometabolic risk (CMR). Objective: to evaluate the association between food consumption, according to the degree of processing, and CMR in young adults. Methods: this is a comparative cross-sectional study in 120 Brazilian young adults aged 18-25 years, categorized by the presence of CMR. Food consumption was investigated using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and classified according to the extent of food processing. Food groups and tertiles in grams of unprocessed, minimally processed (MPF), processed and ultra-processed foods (UPF) were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The associations of food consumption, according to level of processing (MPF and UPF), with CMR components were evaluated using logistic regression models. Results: a high caloric contribution of UPF was observed in the diet of this study population. The total energy intake from lipids in all foods (p = 0.04) and in UPF (p = 0.03) was greater in the group with CMR. A greater consumption of UPF was a risk factor for abdominal obesity (OR = 1.09; 95 % CI = 1.00-1.18) while a greater consumption of MPF was protective for LDL-c alterations independently of sex, physical activity, and alcohol intake (OR = 0.70; 95 % CI = 0.50-0.98). Conclusions: UPF contributed to a greater caloric intake from fat in the CMR, and was a risk factor for abdominal obesity. MPF was an independent protective factor for LDL-c alterations.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Composição Corporal , Brasil , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Energia , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto Jovem
4.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(3): 695-705, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33437204

RESUMO

Gradual weight gain in modern people and a lowering onset age of metabolic disease are highly correlated with the intake of sugary drinks and sweets. Long-term excessive fructose consumption can lead to hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and accumulation of visceral fat. Abdominal obesity is more severe in females than in males. In this study, we used a high-fructose-diet-induced model of obesity in female mice. We investigated the effects of aquatic exercise training on body weight and body composition. After 1 week of acclimatization, female ICR mice were randomly divided into two groups: a normal group (n=8) fed standard diet (control), and a high-fructose diet (HFD) group (n=24) fed a HFD. After 4 weeks of induction followed by 4 weeks of aquatic exercise training, the 24 obese mice were divided into 3 groups (n=8 per group): HFD with sedentary control (HFD), HFD with aquatic strength exercise training (HFD+SE), and HFD with aquatic aerobic exercise training (HFD+AE). We conducted serum biochemical profile analysis, weighed the white adipose tissue, and performed organ histopathology. After 4 weeks of induction and 4 weeks of aquatic exercise training, there was no significant difference in body weight among the HFD, HFD+SE and HFD+AE groups. Serum triglyceride (TG), AST, ALT, and uric acid level were significantly lower in the HFD+SE and HFD+AE groups than in the HFD group. The weight of the perirenal fat pad was significantly lower in the HFD+AE group than in the HFD group. Hepatic TG and total cholesterol (TC) were significantly lower in the HFD+AE group than in the other groups. Long-term intake of a high-fructose diet can lead to obesity and increase the risk of metabolic disease. Based on our findings, we speculate that aquatic exercise training can effectively promote health and fitness. However, aquatic aerobic exercise training appears to have greater benefits than aquatic strength exercise training.


Assuntos
Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Obesidade Abdominal/reabilitação , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Natação/fisiologia , Gordura Abdominal/patologia , Animais , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Camundongos , Obesidade Abdominal/sangue , Obesidade Abdominal/etiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/patologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia
5.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 208-216, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33305629

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between childhood parental smoking exposure and the risk of overweight/obesity from childhood to adulthood. METHODS: This study leverages the data from two longitudinal population based cohort studies, the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study between years 1980-2011/2012 (YFS; N = 2,303; baseline age 3-18 years) and the Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project between years 1989-2009/2010 (STRIP; N = 632; baseline age 7 months). Weight, height and waist circumference were measured from childhood to adulthood. Overweight/obesity was defined as body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 in adults and using the Cole criteria in children. Central obesity was defined as waist circumference > 100/90 cm in men/women and as a waist-to-height ratio > 0.50 in children. Statistical analyses were adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, smoking, birth weight, parental ages, diet and physical activity. RESULTS: Childhood parental smoking exposure was associated with increased risk for life-course overweight/obesity (YFS: RR1.13, 95%CI 1.02-1.24; STRIP: RR1.57, 95%CI 1.10-2.26) and central obesity (YFS: RR1.18, 95%CI 1.01-1.38; STRIP: RR1.45, 95%CI 0.98-2.15). CONCLUSIONS: Childhood exposure to parental smoking is associated with increased risk of overweight/obesity over the life-course. KEY MESSAGES Exposure to parental smoking in childhood was associated with increased risk of overweight/obesity, central obesity and adiposity measured by skinfold thickness from childhood to adulthood.


Assuntos
Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Exposição Paterna/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Abdominal/etiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Pais , Turquia/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura
6.
J Obes ; 2020: 3848256, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33376604

RESUMO

This cross-sectional investigation studied differences in insulin resistance across levels of physical activity in 6,500 US adults who were randomly selected as part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Another important objective was to determine the influence of abdominal obesity on the physical activity and insulin resistance relationship. MET-minutes were utilized to quantify total activity based on participation in 48 different physical activities. Two strategies were employed to categorize levels of physical activity: one was based on relative MET-minutes (quartiles), and the other approach was based on the US physical activity guidelines. Insulin resistance was indexed using the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA). Abdominal obesity was indexed using waist circumference. Effect modification was tested by dividing waist circumferences into sex-specific quartiles and then evaluating the relationship between physical activity and HOMA-IR within each quartile separately. Results showed that relative physical activity level was associated with HOMA-IR after controlling for demographic and demographic and lifestyle covariates (F = 11.5, P < 0.0001 and F = 6.0, P=0.0012, respectively). Adjusting for demographic and demographic and lifestyle covariates also resulted in significant relationships between guideline-based activity and HOMA-IR (F = 8.0, P < 0.0001 and F = 4.9, P=0.0017, respectively). However, statistically controlling for differences in waist circumference with the other covariates nullified the relationship between total physical activity and HOMA-IR. Effect modification testing showed that when the sample was delimited to adults with abdominal obesity (Quartile 4), relative (F = 5.6, P=0.0019) and guideline-based physical activity (F = 3.7, P=0.0098) and HOMA-IR were significantly associated. Physical activity and HOMA-IR were not related within the other three quartiles. In conclusion, it appears that differences in physical activity may play a meaningful role in insulin resistance in those with abdominal obesity, but total activity does not seem to account for differences in insulin resistance among US adults with smaller waists.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade Abdominal/sangue , Obesidade Abdominal/etnologia , Obesidade Abdominal/etiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081027

RESUMO

The rates of metabolic syndrome are increasing in parallel with the increasing prevalence of obesity, primarily due to its concomitant insulin resistance. This is particularly concerning for women, as the years around menopause are accompanied by an increase in visceral obesity, a strong determinant of insulin resistance. A fall in estrogens and increase in the androgen/estrogen ratio is attributed a determining role in this process, which has been confirmed in other physiological models, such as polycystic ovary syndrome. A healthy lifestyle, with special emphasis on nutrition, has been recommended as a first-line strategy in consensuses and guidelines. A consistent body of evidence has accumulated suggesting that the Mediterranean diet, with olive oil as a vital component, has both health benefits and acceptable adherence. Herein, we provide an updated overview of current knowledge on the benefits of olive oil most relevant to menopause-associated metabolic syndrome, including an analysis of the components with the greatest health impact, their effect on basic mechanisms of disease, and the state of the art regarding their action on the main features of metabolic syndrome.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Dieta Mediterrânea , Envelhecimento Saudável , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Menopausa , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição/fisiologia , Azeite de Oliva , Idoso , Androgênios/metabolismo , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Abdominal/etiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/metabolismo , Obesidade Abdominal/terapia
8.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113961

RESUMO

In this study, we examined the associations between the consumption of foods derived from crops subsidized under the 2008 United States (US) Farm Bill and cardiometabolic risk factors and whether the magnitude of these associations has changed since the 2002 US Farm Bill. Four federal databases were used to estimate daily consumption of the top seven subsidized commodities (corn, soybeans, wheat, rice, sorghum, dairy, and livestock) and to calculate a subsidy score (0-1 scale) for Americans' daily dietary intake during 2009-2014, with a higher score indicative of a higher proportion of the diet derived from subsidized commodities. The cardiometabolic risk factors included obesity, abdominal adiposity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and dysglycemia. Linear and logistic regression models were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, the poverty-income ratio, the smoking status, educational attainment, physical activity, and daily calorie intake. During 2009-2014, adults with the highest subsidy score had higher probabilities of obesity, abdominal adiposity, and dysglycemia compared to the lowest subsidy score. After the 2002 Farm Bill (measured using data from 2001-2006), the subsidy score decreased from 56% to 50% and associations between consuming a highly-subsidized diet and dysglycemia did not change (p = 0.54), whereas associations with obesity (p = 0.004) and abdominal adiposity (p = 0.002) significantly attenuated by more than half. The proportion of calories derived from subsidized food commodities continues to be associated with adverse cardiometabolic risk factors, though the relationship with obesity and abdominal adiposity has weakened in recent years.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/provisão & distribuição , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Financiamento Governamental/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Agricultura/legislação & jurisprudência , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/etiologia , Grão Comestível/provisão & distribuição , Feminino , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/etiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/etiologia , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J Med Sci ; 17(16): 2585-2593, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029101

RESUMO

Objectives: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that elevates the individual risk of cardiovascular diseases. These abnormalities are also known to alter bone remodelling. Therefore, MetS may be associated with osteoporosis. This study aims to determine the association between MetS and its components and bone mineral density (BMD) assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) among Malaysians. Methods: 400 Malaysians aged ≥ 40 years (52.5% women) residing in Klang Valley, Malaysia, were recruited. Subjects' demographic and lifestyle details were collected using a questionnaire, and blood pressure and body anthropometry were measured. Subjects' lumbar spine and total hip BMD were measured by DXA. Their fasting blood was collected for blood glucose level and lipid profile analysis. Regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between MetS or its components and BMD. Results: Subjects with MetS had higher BMD compared to subjects without MetS in models unadjusted for BMI (spine p=0.008; hip p<0.001). This difference was attenuated with BMI adjustment (spine p=0.625; hip p=0.478). Waist circumference was associated positively with BMD in models unadjusted for BMI (spine p=0.012; hip p<0.001), but the association became negative with BMI adjustment (spine p=0.044; hip p=0.021). Systolic blood pressure was associated positively with total hip BMD (p=0.019) but BMI adjustment attenuated the relationship (p=0.080). Triglyceride level was associated with osteoporosis in a fully adjusted model (p=0.001). Overall, MetS was associated with osteoporosis (p=0.019) but lifestyle (p=0.188) and BMI adjustment attenuated the relationship (p=0.904). Conclusion: MetS is positively associated with BMD, and this relationship is predominantly mediated by BMI. Although MetS is not a significant risk factor for osteoporosis, the inverse relationship between waist circumference, a marker of central obesity, and BMD highlights the need to prevent adiposity to improve metabolic and skeletal health.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Abdominal/etiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Osteoporose/etiologia , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura
10.
Nutrients ; 12(8)2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784758

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption has been associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors. The aim of this study was to assess, for the first time in the literature, the prospective association between UPF consumption and the incidence of abdominal obesity (AO) in older adults. METHODS: The study sample consists of 652 participants in the Seniors Study on Nutrition and Cardiovascular Risk in Spain: Seniors-ENRICA-1 study, (mean age 67, 44% women). At baseline, standardized anthropometric measurements were collected (including abdominal circumference). After a median follow-up of six years, the abdominal circumference was measured again, and the incidence of abdominal obesity (AO) was calculated, defined as an abdominal perimeter ≥102 cm in men and ≥88 cm in women. At baseline, dietary information was collected using a computerized and validated dietary history. Information was obtained on the usual diet in the previous year. A total number of 880 foods were classified according to their degree of processing following the NOVA classification. Foods or drinks formulated mostly or entirely from substances derived from foods, with little or no presence of the unaltered original food were classified as UPF. For each participant, the percentage of energy from UPF was derived and sex-specific tertiles were calculated. Logistic regression models were built and adjusted for sociodemographic, lifestyle, morbidity, and drug treatment variables. RESULTS: Among those participants without AO at baseline, 177 developed AO during follow-up. The average consumption of UPF was 17% of total energy (7% in the first tertile; 29% in the third tertile). The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for incident AO risk when compared to the lowest tertile was: 1.55 (0.99-2.44) for the second tertile of UPF consumption and 1.62 (1.04-2.54) for the third tertile; p for linear trend: 0.037. Results remained statistically significant after adjusting for potential dietary confounding factors such as fiber consumption, the intake of very long chain omega-3 fatty acids and adherence to the Mediterranean diet. CONCLUSIONS: A higher UPF consumption is positively associated with incident AO in older adults in Spain. These findings extend the current evidence of the detrimental effect of UPF consumption on cardiometabolic health.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Manipulação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Idoso , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Obesidade Abdominal/etiologia , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura
11.
Nutrients ; 12(8)2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32752111

RESUMO

The relatively high levels of vegetable consumption have highlighted the need to examine the association between phytochemical intake and disease prevention. We examined the association between the phytochemical index (PI) and obesity/abdominal obesity among Korean adults. We analyzed the data of 57,940 adults aged ≥ 19 years obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We calculated PI using the 24 h recall data, and multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression models. Dose-response patterns were analyzed using restricted cubic spline regression. After multivariable adjustment, a higher PI was found to be associated with a lower prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity; this association was notable in women (obesity, OR: 0.86, CI: 0.78-0.94, p for trend = 0.01; abdominal obesity, OR: 0.81, CI: 0.73-0.90, p for trend < 0.001). Spline regression showed linearity of the associations between PI and obesity/abdominal obesity in women. Our findings suggested that maintaining a phytochemical-rich diet may help to prevent obesity and abdominal obesity, especially in women, as an increased PI corresponded to lower prevalence of obesity. This study, using evidence-based data, highlighted the importance of consuming plant-derived foods to prevent obesity.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Vegetariana/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Adulto , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/etiologia , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(15): e015668, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696704

RESUMO

Background A 2018 American Heart Association science advisory indicated that, pending further research, artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) may be an appropriate initial replacement for sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) during transition to unsweetened beverages (USBs). Methods and Results We randomly assigned 203 adults (121 males, 82 females; 91.6% retention), who habitually consumed SSBs, to 3 groups and delivered free SSBs, ASBs, or USBs to their homes for 12 months. Outcomes included serum triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (primary), body weight, and sweet taste preference (experimental assessment, 0%-18% sucrose solutions). Change in serum triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio was not different between groups. Although overall change in weight also was not different between groups, we found effect modification (P=0.006) by central adiposity. Among participants in the highest tertile of baseline trunk fat but not other tertiles, weight gain was greater (P=0.002) for the SSB (4.4±1.0 kg, estimate±SE) compared with ASB (0.5±0.9 kg) or USB (-0.2±0.9 kg) group. Both sweetness threshold (-1.0±0.2% m/v; P=0.005) and favorite concentration (-2.3±0.4% m/v; P<0.0001) decreased in the USB group; neither changed in the SSB group. In the ASB group, sweetness threshold did not change, and favorite concentration decreased (-1.1±0.5% m/v; P=0.02). Pairwise comparison between the ASB and USB groups indicated a difference in sweetness threshold (P=0.015). Conclusions Replacing SSBs with noncaloric beverages for 12 months did not affect serum triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio. Among individuals with central adiposity, replacing SSBs with either ASBs or USBs lowered body weight. However, USBs may have the most favorable effect on sweet taste preference. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; unique identifier: NCT01295671.


Assuntos
Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Composição Corporal , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/efeitos adversos , Edulcorantes/efeitos adversos , Paladar , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso Corporal , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Abdominal/etiologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32575803

RESUMO

Chronobiological aspects controlled by CLOCK genes may influence obesity incidence. Although there are studies that show an association between the expression of these genes and energy intake, waist circumference or abdominal obesity phenotypes, interactions with appetite have been insufficiently investigated in relation to chrononutrition. The objective was to identify interactions between CLOCK genetic variants involved in appetite status. A total of 442 subjects (329 women, 113 men; aged 18 to 65 years) were recruited. Anthropometric, dietary and lifestyle data were collected by trained nutritionists. Participants were classified according to their appetite feelings with a Likert scale. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine associations of the type genotype x appetite status on adiposity-related variables. p values were corrected by the Bonferroni method. A significant influence was found concerning the effects of appetite on waist circumference with respect to rs3749474 CLOCK polymorphism (p < 0.001). An additive model analysis (adjusted by age, gender, exercise and energy intake) showed that risk allele carriers, increased the waist circumference around 14 cm (ß = 14.1, CI = 6.3-22.0) by each increment in the level of appetite. The effects of appetite on waist circumference may be partly modulated by the rs3749474 CLOCK polymorphism.


Assuntos
Gordura Abdominal/metabolismo , Apetite , Proteínas CLOCK/genética , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Obesidade Abdominal/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Circunferência da Cintura , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Regulação do Apetite , Fenômenos Cronobiológicos , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade Abdominal/etiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
14.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 33(4): 227-237, 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438960

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to assess the association of waist circumference (WC) with all-cause mortality among Chinese adults. Methods: The baseline data were from Shanxi Province of 2002 China Nutrition and Health Survey. The death investigation and follow-up visit were conducted from December 2015 to March 2016. The visits covered up to 5,360 of 7,007 participants, representing a response rate of 76.5%. The Cox regression model and floating absolute risk were used to estimate hazard ratio and 95% floating CI of death by gender and age groups (≥ 60 and < 60 years old). Sensitivity analysis was performed by excluding current smokers; participants with stroke, hypertension, and diabetes; participants who accidentally died; and participants who died during the first 2 years of follow-up. Results: This study followed 67,129 person-years for 12.5 years on average, including 615 deaths. The mortality density was 916 per 100,000 person-years. Low WC was associated with all-cause mortality among men. Multifactor-adjusted hazard ratios ( HR) were 1.60 (1.35-1.90) for WC < 75.0 cm and 1.40 (1.11-1.76) for WC ranging from 75.0 cm to 79.9 cm. Low WC (< 70.0 cm and 70.0-74.9 cm) and high WC (≥ 95.0 cm) groups had a high risk of mortality among women. The adjusted HRs of death were 1.43 (1.11-1.83), 1.39 (1.05-1.84), and 1.91 (1.13-3.22). Conclusion: WC was an important predictor of death independent of body mass index (BMI). WC should be used as a simple rapid screening and predictive indicator of the risk of death.


Assuntos
Mortalidade , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Obesidade Abdominal/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
15.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 33(2): 133-137, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131960

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine the association between famine exposure in different stages of life and the risk of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity in laterlife. A total of 12,458 participants were categorized into non-exposure and four direct exposures, including fetal, childhood, adolescence, and adult exposure. Only risk of being overweight or obesity in adolescence exposure [odds ratio ( OR), 1.45; 95% confidence interval ( CI), 1.08-1.94] was significantly higher than in non-exposure. Childhood ( OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.05-1.54) and adolescence ( OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.15-2.05) exposures had significantly an increased risk of abdominal obesity compared with non-exposure. Additionally, different famine severity exposures had different influences on the development of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity. Famine exposure in adolescence, which was a behavior formative period, can increase the risk of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity in adulthood, specifically in famine severely affect area.


Assuntos
Fome Epidêmica , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Feto/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/etiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nutrients ; 12(3)2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210070

RESUMO

Poor diet quality and obesity, especially abdominal obesity, have been associated with systemic inflammation. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) is an available and inexpensive inflammation biomarker. The aim of the present study was to determine the association of dietary patterns and obesity with an inflammatory state. A group of 1747 Spanish noninstitutionalized older adults individuals were included, and a food-frequency questionnaire was applied. The Global Food Score (GFS) and Healthy Eating Index for Spanish population (SHEI) were calculated. Weight, height and waist (WC) and hip circumferences were measured, and BMI, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) determined. In addition, body-fat percentage was measured by bioimpedance. NLR was calculated (NLR ≥ p80: 2.6; 2.8 and 2.4 as inflammatory status in the entire population, men and women, respectively). The men with inflammatory status presented significative higher values of WC, WHtR, WHR, and body-fat percentage (101.82 ± 10.34 cm, 0.61 ± 0.06, 0.98 ± 0.06, and 31.68 ± 5.94%, respectively) than those with better inflammatory status (100.18 ± 10.22 cm, 0.59 ± 0.06, 0.97 ± 0.07, and 30.31 ± 6.16%, respectively). Those males with worse inflammatory state had lower scores for protein foods (OR = 0.898 (0.812-0.993); p = 0.037). The women with NLR ≥ 2.4 had higher WHtR and WHR (0.62 ± 0.09 and 0.91 ± 0.09) than those with NLR < 2.4 (0.60 ± 0.08 and 0.90 ± 0.08). In multiple linear regression analysis, NLR was positively related with WHtR and negatively related with SHEI score (ß = 0.224 ± 0.094; R2 = 0.060; p < 0.05 and ß = -0.218 ± 0.101; R2 = 0.061; p < 0.05), adjusting by sex, age, marital status, education level, smoking, hours of sleeping and inflammatory diseases. In women, the higher the SHEI and GFS scores were and the better meeting the aims of cereal and vegetable servings, the less the odds of inflammatory status (OR = 0.970 (0.948-0.992); p = 0.008; OR = 0.963 (0.932-0.995); p = 0.024; OR = 0.818 (0.688-0.974); p = 0.024 and OR = 0.829 (0.730-0.942); p = 0.004, respectively). WHtR and quality of diet is related to the inflammation status in older adults regardless to the sex.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Contagem de Leucócitos , Linfócitos , Neutrófilos , Valor Nutritivo , Obesidade Abdominal/diagnóstico , Obesidade Abdominal/etiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Circunferência da Cintura , Razão Cintura-Estatura
17.
Endocrinology ; 161(2)2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036385

RESUMO

Increased visceral adiposity and hyperglycemia, 2 characteristics of metabolic syndrome, are also present in conditions of excess glucocorticoids (GCs). GCs are hormones thought to act primarily via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). GCs are commonly prescribed for inflammatory disorders, yet their use is limited due to many adverse metabolic side effects. In addition to GR, GCs also bind the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), but there are many conflicting studies about the exact role of MR in metabolic disease. Using MR knockout mice (MRKO), we find that both white and brown adipose depots form normally when compared with wild-type mice at P5. We created mice with adipocyte-specific deletion of MR (FMRKO) to better understand the role of MR in metabolic dysfunction. Treatment of mice with excess GCs for 4 weeks, via corticosterone in drinking water, induced increased fat mass and glucose intolerance to similar levels in FMRKO and floxed control mice. Separately, when fed a high-fat diet for 16 weeks, FMRKO mice had reduced body weight, fat mass, and hepatic steatosis, relative to floxed control mice. Decreased adiposity likely resulted from increased energy expenditure since food intake was not different. RNA sequencing analysis revealed decreased enrichment of genes associated with adipogenesis in inguinal white adipose of FMRKO mice. Differentiation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) showed modestly impaired adipogenesis in MRKO MEFs compared with wild type, but this was rescued upon the addition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonist or PPARγ overexpression. Collectively, these studies provide further evidence supporting the potential value of MR as a therapeutic target for conditions associated with metabolic syndrome.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipogenia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/etiologia , Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/metabolismo , Animais , Metabolismo Energético , Glucocorticoides , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Obesidade Abdominal/metabolismo , PPAR gama
18.
Diabetes Metab J ; 44(1): 143-157, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soybean food consumption has been considered as a possible way to lower incidence of cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) among Asians. However, results from studies investigating its efficacy on CMS in Asians have been inconsistent. METHODS: We analyzed the association between soybean intake frequency and prevalence of CMS based on data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007 to 2011. Data of 9,287 women aged 20 to 64 years were analyzed. Food frequency questionnaire was used to assess soybean food consumption frequency. General linear model and multivariable logistic regression model were used to examine the association of soybean intake quintile with CMS and its risk factors. Least square means of metabolic factors mostly showed no significant relevance except liver indexes. RESULTS: Compared to participants in the 1st quintile (<2 times/week of soybean food), odds ratios (OR) for CMS and abdominal obesity (AO) in the 4th quintile (8.5 times/week17 times/week and CMS varied depending on soybean food items.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Dieta/métodos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Isoflavonas/administração & dosagem , Obesidade Abdominal/etiologia , Alimentos de Soja , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Análise de Regressão , República da Coreia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
19.
Am J Hum Biol ; 32(3): e23364, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769123

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between motor competence (MC) and central obesity in preschool children. METHODS: The sample comprised of 472 children aged 3 to 5 years (4.58 ± 0.70 years, 248 boys) from Recife, Brazil. MC was assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) was calculated and a cutoff of 0.5 was used to define central obesity. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between MC and WHtR ≥ 0.5. RESULTS: The prevalence of central obesity (WHtR) was 54.0% and 46.4% for boys and girls, respectively. Older children (OR = 0.61; CI = 0.44-0.84; P < .01) and those with higher MC in locomotor skills (OR = 0.96; CI = 0.93-0.99; P < .01) were less likely to present WHtR ≥ 0.5. Sex and object control skills were not associated with WHtR ≥ 0.5. CONCLUSIONS: To reduce the risks of central obesity in children, health practitioners should focus on increasing competence in locomotor skills since preschool years.


Assuntos
Atividade Motora , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Abdominal/etiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Prevalência
20.
J Obstet Gynaecol ; 40(1): 77-82, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304805

RESUMO

In this case-control study, 60 patients with Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) referred to the Nursing and Midwifery Center of Khorramabad, were selected as the case group and 90 non-PCOS patients as the control group. Demographic information and anthropometric indices of each person were collected. The Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) were completed. After at least 12 h of fasting, 7 mL of blood samples were taken from the patients. There was no statistically significant difference observed in the mean of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) between the two groups. However, a statistically significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) and some dietary antioxidants levels (mean in case group: vit C = 34/2 mg, vit E = 7/7 mg, Se = 84/6 µg, Zn = 7/5 mg, beta-carotene = 762/8 µg, mean in control group: vit C = 72/5 mg, vit E = 10/6 mg, Se = 91/0 µg, Zn = 10/6 mg, beta-carotene = 1609/5 µg).IMPACT STATEMENTWhat is already known on this subject? Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine abnormalities and is considered as the main cause of infertility. Some studies have evaluated the link between dietary intakes and oxidative stress markers in PCOS patients. It is well known that about 40-50% of individuals with PCOS are obese and that leads to an increase in lipid catabolism and production of free radicals and oxidative stress.What the results of this study add? The aim of the present study was to compare the level of dietary antioxidants and oxidative stress markers including TAC, MDA and abdominal obesity prevalence in PCOS patients with healthy individuals.What the implications are of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? We hope that our study can be influential in the field of PCOS. Furthermore, our findings have indicated a statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of MDA and some dietary antioxidants levels. This result might be encouraging in using antioxidant in patients with PCOS.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Malondialdeído/sangue , Obesidade Abdominal/sangue , Obesidade Abdominal/etiologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/complicações , Prevalência
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