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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(46): 1057-1061, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751324

RESUMO

Obesity negatively affects children's health because of its associations with cardiovascular disease risk factors, type 2 diabetes, asthma, fatty liver disease, victimization stemming from social stigma and bullying, and poor mental health (e.g., anxiety and depression) (1). Children who have overweight or obesity in early childhood are approximately four times as likely to have overweight or obesity in young adulthood as their normal weight peers (2). Obesity prevalence is especially high among children from low-income families (3). In 2010, the overall upward trend in obesity prevalence turned downward among children aged 2-4 years enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), a program of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA); prevalence decreased significantly in all racial/ethnic groups and in 34 of the 56 WIC state or territory agencies during 2010-2014 (4). A more recent study among young children enrolled in WIC reported that the overall obesity prevalence decreased from 15.9% in 2010 to 13.9% in 2016 and statistically significant decreases were observed in all age, sex, and racial/ethnic subgroups (3). However, this study did not provide obesity trends at the state level. In collaboration with USDA, CDC used data from the WIC Participant and Program Characteristics (WIC PC) to update state-specific trends through 2016. During 2010-2016, modest but statistically significant decreases in obesity prevalence among children aged 2-4 years enrolled in WIC occurred in 41 (73%) of 56 WIC state or territory agencies. Comprehensive approaches that create positive changes to promote healthy eating and physical activity for young children from all income levels,* strengthen nutrition education and breastfeeding support among young children enrolled in WIC, and encourage redemptions of healthy foods in WIC food packages could help maintain or accelerate these declining trends.


Assuntos
Assistência Alimentar/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(41): e17490, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593113

RESUMO

Lifestyle in preschool children is associated with the onset of childhood obesity. However, the effect of environmental factors in childcare facilities on lifestyle and obesity in preschool children is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of environmental factors in childcare facilities on the association between obesity and individual lifestyle in preschool children.Subjects included 2902 infants, aged 4 to 6 years old in Kitakyushu City, Japan. A stratified multilevel analysis was conducted with 2 strata: factors related to individual lifestyle and maternal factors as the individual level and factors related to the childcare facility as the environmental level. Two-level multilevel regression analysis was conducted with the presence or absence of obesity.The proportion of infants with obesity was 4.2%. The childhood obesity was significantly associated with the mastication, nutritional methods during infancy, absence of breakfast, presence of skipping meals due to overeating of snacks, usual play activity, screen time on weekdays, maternal body mass index, and maternal weight increase during pregnancy at the individual level. On the other hand, childhood obesity had a significantly negative association with the receiving snacks in facilities by using multilevel analysis.The present study revealed that establishing and maintaining environmental factors in childcare facilities may play important roles in the prevention of obesity from early childhood.


Assuntos
Creches , Meio Ambiente , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exercício , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Refeições , Análise Multinível , Análise Multivariada , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
4.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 976-981, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484264

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the association of both maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) with childhood overweight and adiposity in preschool children. Methods: A total of 4 303 preschool children aged 3-5 years were enrolled in our study during June and November 2016 in Guangzhou. Children defined as overweight and obesity were according to the criteria of WHO while weight status during maternal pre-pregnancy was using the China Adult Reference. Gestational weight gain was defined according to the Institute of Medicine guidelines. Results: After adjusting the possible confounding factors, results from the logistic regression analysis showed that both maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity would increase the risk for both childhood overweight and obesity (OR=1.820, 95%CI: 1.368-2.422). The analysis of covariance results also showed that both maternal overweight and obesity before pregnancy and excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy increased the BMI Z-score in children. Maternal GWG over the recommended level were associated with both the childhood overweight and obesity (OR=1.296, 95%CI: 1.007-1.667). Joint associations of pre-pregnancy BMI and inappropriate GWG were also noticed in the study. Stratified analysis was conducted in three groups according to the pre-pregnancy BMI of the mothers. Result showed that there was no statistical difference in the risks of either overweight or obesity in children (P>0.05). However, when compared to mothers with adequate pre-pregnancy higher BMI and adequate GWG, under the combination of high pre-pregnancy BMI and excessive GWG, their adverse effects on childhood overweight and obesity were much higher (OR=1.574, 95%CI: 1.029-2.409). Conclusions: Both high pre-pregnancy BMI and inappropriate GWG were associated with greater BMI of their offspring. Pregnant women should follow the appropriate weight gain program and help their children to prevent from becoming obese.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etnologia , Gravidez
5.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) is an important data source for assessing the occurrence of underweight, overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in Germany. However, to assess trends over time, it must be considered that methodological changes in the calculation of prevalences have been necessary and that the reference system has been revised. OBJECTIVE: Are the effects of the methodological changes in weighting factors and reference systems so important that they significantly influence the available prevalence estimates and statements on trends over time? MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data are based on valid measurements of body height and weight from the KiGGS baseline survey (2003-2006, 7531 boys and 7215 girls) and from KiGGS Wave 2 (2014-2017, 1762 boys and 1799 girls). The participants were aged between 3 and 17 years. Prevalences (%, 95% CI) of underweight, overweight and obesity for the KiGGS baseline survey were calculated depending on the reference system and different weighting factors used. RESULTS: The statements on the temporal trend in the prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obesity remain valid even when methodological changes are taken into account. Only among 16- and especially 17-year-old girls, can a noticeable difference due to the altered reference system be noted. DISCUSSION: With regard to the trend examined here, the methodological changes can be neglected, as long as no small subgroups are analysed. However, this conclusion cannot be generalised; the effects of methodological changes must be re-examined for each study question.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(32): e16825, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393416

RESUMO

Observational studies have reported that childhood obesity is positively associated with risks of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and coronary artery disease (CAD) in adults; however, whether this association is causal is still unclear. In the present study, we conducted the 2-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) studies to investigate whether childhood obesity is causally associated with T2D and CAD in adults.Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that significantly associated with childhood obesity were used as instrumental variables. The 2-sample MR analyses were performed with the summary-level data of large-sample genome-wide association studies to evaluate the causal effects of childhood obesity on adult T2D and CAD and the levels of cardiometabolic traits.The 2-sample MR analyses suggested that each 1-unit increase in the log-odds of having childhood obesity was causally associated with an increased risk of adult T2D (odds ratio [OR] = 1.16, 95% confidential interval [CI] = 1.06-1.28; P = 1.0 × 10) and CAD (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.02-1.12; P = 4.0 × 10) based on the inverse-variance weighted method. The MR analyses also suggested that childhood obesity was positively associated with the levels of adult body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist and hip ratio, log-transformed fasting glucose, log-transformed homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) of insulin resistance (%), and triglycerides. The childhood obesity was negatively associated with the adult high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level; however, there was no evidence of a causal association between childhood obesity and the levels of fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose, HbA1c (%), log-transformed HOMA of ß-cell function (%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or total cholesterol in adults.In conclusion, a genetic predisposition to childhood obesity was associated with an increased risk of adult T2D and CAD, providing causal relations between childhood obesity and the risks of T2D and CAD in adults; however, the results need to be validated with larger-scale intervention studies.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/genética , Glicemia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
7.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 63(4): 411-416, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365629

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is gradually increasing in both developed and developing countries. Obesity, for instance, can present multifactorial causes that interact with each other. Among the important factors, parental obesity plays a prominent role in the onset of obesity during childhood and teenage years through genetics and ambient aspects. This study aims to verify the possible existence of an association between overweight/obesity of schoolchildren and cardiovascular risk (CVR) factors for their parents. SUBJETCS AND METHODS: For this purpose, a cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 1,243 children and adolescents, aged between 7 and 17. Out of the total number of participants, 563 (45.3%) were boys who were selected across 19 schools in the urban and rural areas of Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). The overweight/obesity status of the schoolchildren was evaluated through their body mass index (BMI). Additionally, a self-reference questionnaire was employed to measure their parents' CVR. RESULTS: The results of this study revealed that students with overweight/obesity have a higher probability of having a father with hypertension (OR = 1.49; p = 0.038) and obesity (OR = 2.36; p = 0.002) and a mother with obesity (OR = 1.72; p = 0.016). CONCLUSION: To conclude, this study confirms a relationship between overweight/obesity of schoolchildren with CVR for their parents.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Pais , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1055, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood overweight/obesity has become a major public health concern globally because of its adverse health consequences and escalating prevalence. The factors underlying the disease conditions manifested during adulthood commonly originate in childhood. Nepal is going through a transition where under-nutrition co-exists with obesity; however, there is a lack of well-documented information on childhood overweight or obesity in Nepal. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence and associated factors of childhood overweight/obesity among urban primary school children. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from May to October of 2017. Behavioral data were collected using a structured self-administered questionnaire with parents of children aged 6-13 years old in grades 1-5 studying in private schools of Lalitpur district in Nepal. Study participants were selected using two-stage cluster random sampling from 10 private schools. Height and weight measurements of 575 children were taken and BMI-for-age-sex was calculated using WHO AnthroPlus. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Associated factors were examined using Chi-square tests followed by multivariate logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: The study found that out of 575 students, 107 (18.6%) were overweight and 41 (7.1%) were obese. Among 328 male children, 62 (19.0%) were overweight and 35 (10.6%) were obese. Likewise, among 247 female children, 45 (18.2%) were overweight and 6 (2.4%) were obese. Male children (aOR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.38-3.53), children of mothers with a high school (aOR = 3.13, 95% CI: 1.39-7.12) or university level of education (aOR = 3.09, 95% CI: 1.23-7.70) and children of mothers in a professional field (aOR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.02-4.05) had a greater likelihood of being overweight/obese. Likewise, students consuming energy-dense less nutrient food (aOR = 2.92, 95% CI: 1.66-5.12), lacking active travel to and from school (aOR = 2.38, 95% CI: 1.12-4.79) and those having sedentary behaviors (aOR = 3.01, 95% CI: 1.20-7.29) were likely to be overweight/obese. CONCLUSIONS: More than one-quarter of the children in urban Lalitpur were found to be overweight/obese. High junk food consumption and sedentary activity were found to be significantly associated with childhood overweight/obesity. School health and awareness programs aiming to reduce the intake of energy-dense foods and promote an active lifestyle including active transportation to school among children are imperative. Future studies to objectively measure the type and amount of food intake and physical activity of students are recommended.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nepal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1157, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study contributes to the limited number of studies that have explored the impact of not meeting the recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, screen time, fruit and vegetable consumption and sleep on overweight and obesity among adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of data from the 2015 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS), a provincially representative survey of students in publically funded schools in Ontario, Canada, was conducted. This study included self-reported data from students aged 11-17 years (n = 9866). The main outcome variable was overweight or obesity, classified using WHO BMI cut-points. Four independent variables for healthy weight behaviours were examined: (1) moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (≥ 60 mins vs. < 60 mins everyday over the last seven days); (2) screen time (< 2 h daily vs. ≥ 2 h daily); (3) fruit and vegetable consumption (≥ 5 times/day vs. < 5 times/day); (4) sleep (adequate based on guidelines vs. inadequate). Covariates included sex, age, Subjective Social Status (SSS), parental education and ethnicity. Binomial and multinomial logistic regression models were fitted to determine whether not meeting the recommendations for healthy weight behaviours was associated with overweight or obesity status. RESULTS: Only 2% of students in Ontario met the recommendations for all four healthy weight behaviours and 33% of students did not meet any of the four recommendations. In both the binomial and multinomial models, not meeting the recommendations for MVPA was the only significant healthy weight behaviour associated with both overweight and obesity (AOR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.03-1.62), and solely obesity (AOR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.05-1.99). Males, students with lower SSS ratings, and students with parents with an education of 'High School' or less were also at significantly greater odds of being obese. CONCLUSION: Findings from this study show that inadequate levels of MVPA is a critical behavioural predictor of obesity status in adolescents between the ages of 11-17 years, after controlling for differences in screen time, fruit and vegetable consumption, sleep, and demographics. Findings from this study could have implications toward policies and programs targeted at reducing obesity, and increasing the physical activity rates of adolescents.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício/fisiologia , Feminino , Frutas , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Masculino , Ontário/epidemiologia , Tempo de Tela , Autorrelato , Sono , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Verduras
10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1062, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 17% of children in the U.S. are obese. Children that are overweight or obese are also more likely to be obese as adults and suffer from various chronic diseases and premature death. Maternal obesity can affect the weight status of her offspring through intrauterine mechanisms like excessive gestational weight gain (GWG). Current literature shows a positive association between maternal weight status and GWG on child obesity, yet the direct and indirect effects have not been decomposed or quantified. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of maternal obesity on child obesity, mediated by GWG, which is a modifiable risk factor. METHODS: The study participants were a birth cohort of offspring from women who received prenatal care in the Duke/Durham Regional health care system in Durham, NC between 2005 and 2009. Anthropomorphic data was collected via electronic medical records (EMRs) during each voluntary visit to a health care facility. The exposure of interest was maternal obesity, measured by pre-pregnancy body mass index, the mediator was GWG, dichotomized into excessive and not excessive based on maternal prenatal BMI, and the outcome was child obesity at age 4, measured as BMI z-scores from the last recorded height and weight. A counterfactual theory-based product method analysis estimated the mediated effects of GWG, adjusted for maternal race, socioeconomic status, and smoking status. RESULTS: Of the 766 children, 25% were overweight or obese, and among all mothers, 25 and 31% were overweight and obese, respectively. Maternal BMI was associated with an overall increase of 0.04 in offspring z-score. The proportion of the effect of maternal obesity on child age 4 obesity mediated by GWG was 8.1%. CONCLUSION: GWG, in part, mediated the relationship between maternal BMI and childhood adiposity. Even when the mediator is fixed, children are at an increased risk of a higher BMI if the mother is obese. These findings highlight an important public health education opportunity to stress the impact of a pre-pregnancy weight and excessive GWG on the risk of child obesity for all mothers.


Assuntos
Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
11.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 28(2): 83-90, ago. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183649

RESUMO

Childhood overweight and obesity is a continued problem. Children above the 90th percentile for BMI are particularly susceptible to cardiovascular health risks. There remains a minimal understanding of theory-based psychological predictors of physical activity and weight change in children. This research incorporated data from a subsample of after-school care enrollees above the 90th BMI percentile (Mage=10.1 years) who participated in either 4-day/week (n = 21) or 3-day/week (n = 24) versions of a 45 min/session, cognitive-behaviorally based physical activity/health behavior-change program over a full school year, or a control condition of usual care (n = 14). For the cognitive-behavioral groups only, significant improvements were found in self-regulation, mood, and physical activity. Their BMI increases of 0.12 and 0.11 kg/m2, respectively, were significantly less than the 0.90 kg/m2 rise expected through maturation. Theory-based regression models uniformly confirmed significant associations of changes in self-regulation and physical activity (R2s = .22-.25). However, within separate analyses, entry of changes in (a) self-efficacy and mood into a multiple regression equation, (b) self-efficacy as a mediator, and (c) mood as a moderator, did not increase predictive accuracies. The significant association of changes in physical activity and BMI was stronger in the heavier children. Findings will be useful for large-scale intervention applications and refinements


El sobrepeso y la obesidad infantil suponen un problema continuo. Los niños que superan el percentil 90 de índice de masa corporal (IMC) son especialmente propensos a riesgos en la salud cardiovascular. Apenas se conocen los predictores teóricos de la actividad física y del cambio de peso en los niños. Esta investigación incorpora datos de una submuestra de niños inscritos en atención extraescolar que superan el percentil 90 en IMC (media de edad de 10.1 años), que participaron en dos modalidades de un programa cognitivo-conductual de cambio en comportamiento de la actividad física y la salud de una duración de un año escolar con sesiones de 45 minutos 4 días por semana (n = 21) o 3 días por semana (n = 24). Además, se incluía un grupo control de cuidados habituales (n = 14). Únicamente se hallaron avances significativos en los grupos cognitivo-conductuales en autorregulación, estado de ánimo y actividad física. El aumento de su IMC de 0.12 y 0.11 kg/m2 respectivamente era menor (de modo significativo) que el aumento de 0.90 kg/m2 que se espera en virtud de la maduración. Los modelos de regresión confirmaron de forma consistente una asociación significativa de los cambios en autorregulación y actividad física (R2 = .22-.25). No obstante, en análisis separados, la introducción de cambios en a) autoeficacia y estado de ánimo en la ecuación de regresión múltiple, b) autoeficacia como mediador y c) el estado de ánimo como moderador no aumentaron la precisión predictiva. La asociación significativa de los cambios en la actividad física y el IMC era más estrecha en los niños con más peso. Los resultados serán de utilidad en las aplicaciones y el perfeccionamiento de la intervención a gran escala


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Masculino , Feminino , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/organização & administração , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Análise de Dados , Análise de Variância
12.
S D Med ; 72(4): 168-173, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity prevalence is higher among rural populations than urban, including youth. Reduced physical activity levels are associated with childhood obesity. It could be assumed that the obesity disparity between rural and urban children is attributable, in part, to differences in physical activity levels; however, previous research quantifying and comparing physical activity levels between rural and urban youth are mixed. Lifestyle may be more important than geographic location in determining physical activity levels. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare sex and lifestyle group (Hutterite vs. non-Hutterite) differences in physical activity in a free-living, rural pediatric population. METHODS: Youth (n=58) were instructed to wear accelerometers for seven days. Mean percent time in light, moderate or vigorous activity during waking hours was calculated. Two-way ANOVAs and multiple regression models were used for analyses. RESULTS: Percent time in vigorous activity was significantly greater for Hutterite males than Hutterite females, and Hutterite males had greater percent time in vigorous activity and moderate plus vigorous activity than non-Hutterite males. CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence to support differences in rural lifestyles to be associated with differences in physical activity levels between children living in the same geographic location, particularly among males. Active transportation and having a safe environment for unstructured outdoor play may account for activity and lifestyle differences between the two rural groups.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida , Obesidade Pediátrica , População Rural , Adolescente , Criança , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana
13.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(7): 839-843, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357808

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the casual effect of childhood obesity on adulthood coronary artery disease (CAD) using Mendelian randomization (MR) method. Methods: Data on BMI of children aged 2-10 years in 2015 were downloaded from Early Growth Genetics Consortium and Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits Consortium. Twenty-seven genetic variants related to children's BMI were selected as instrumental variables (IVs), and the associations between IVs and CAD were extracted from a Meta-analysis of the genome-wide association study of CAD cases published in UK Biobank 2015. We used MR-Egger regression to test whether there was the pleiotropy of the selected SNPs. In the present MR methods, we conducted MR analyses by using mode-based estimate method as primary method for summary-level of associations to estimate the causal association between childhood obesity and CAD. Results: The intercept term estimated for CAD from MR-Egger method suggested that the selected SNPs don't exert pleiotropy with a 95%CI including the null (-0.008-0.018). In addition, we found evidence that support the effect of childhood obesity on CAD risk: a 1 s increase in children BMI (kg/m(2)), and the risk of suffering from CAD in adulthood increased by an average of 37% (OR=1.37, 95%CI: 1.09-1.72). Conclusion: This study provides a causal association between childhood obesity and CAD risk.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Metanálise como Assunto , Obesidade Pediátrica/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
14.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(7): 680-685, 2019 Jul 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288337

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the joint effect of abdominal obesity in childhood and adulthood on adult hypertension. Methods: Based on the data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS, 1993-2011), a total of 1 431 subjects who were investigated in both childhood (6 to17 years old) and young adulthood (18 to 35 years old) were selected for the analysis. According to waist circumference (WC) status (normal WC or abdominal obesity) in childhood and adulthood, all subjects were categorized into 4 groups. The multinomial logistic regression model was used to analyze the joint effect of abdominal obesity in childhood and adulthood on adult hypertension and pre-hypertension. Results: Compared to the subjects (n=1 057) who had normal WC in both childhood and adulthood, subjects with abdominal obesity in childhood but with normal WC (n=45) in adulthood didn't have significantly increased risk of hypertension (OR=1.52, 95%CI: 0.19-12.06). In contrast, those who had normal WC in childhood and abdominal obesity in adulthood (n=289) had increased risk of hypertension (OR=6.48, 95%CI: 3.60-11.66). In addition, subjects with persistent abdominal obesity from childhood to adulthood (n=40) had the highest risk of hypertension (OR=15.98, 95%CI: 5.39-47.35). There was a similar trend for the association of abdominal obesity in childhood and adulthood with adult pre-hypertension, with the corresponding OR (95%CI) of 1.28 (0.66-2.49), 2.90 (2.17-3.89) and 3.49 (1.65-7.40), respectively. Conclusion: The joint effect of abdominal obesity in childhood and adulthood increased the risk of adult hypertension and pre-hypertension. There was no statistical significance for subjects who had abdominal obesity in childhood but had normal WC in adulthood when compared to those with normal WC in both childhood and adulthood.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(7): 686-691, 2019 Jul 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288338

RESUMO

Objective: To examine the association of joint effect of overweight (including obesity) and elevated blood pressure (BP) with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in children. Methods: A convenient cluster sampling method was used to conduct a cross-sectional survey from November 2017 to January 2018 in a primary school in Huantai County, Zibo City, Shandong Province. A total of 1 319 children aged 6-11 years old who had complete data on anthropometric indices and variables collected using a questionnaire were included in the study. LVH was defined as left ventricular mass index (LVMI) ≥90 th percentile for sex and age of this population. Based on weight status (yes vs. no) and elevated BP status (yes vs. no), all participants were divided into four subgroups (normal weight and normal BP, normal weight and elevated BP, overweight and normal BP, overweight and elevated BP). LVMI levels or prevalence of LVH across four subgroups were compared. The multivariate logistic regression model was used to examine the association of joint effect between overweight and elevated BP with LVH in children. Results: The age of children was (8.4±1.6) years, and boys accounted for 53.3% (n=703). There were significant differences in LVMI levels and prevalence of LVH across four subgroups (P<0.05); Children with both overweight and elevated BP (n=184) had the highest LVMI levels and prevalence of LVH [LVMI: (30.69±0.32) g/m(2.7); the prevalence of LVH: 24.46%]. After the adjustment for potential covariates, compared to children with both normal weight and normal BP (n=657), the risk of LVH in children with elevated BP alone (n=136) was not increased [OR (95%CI) was 0.89 (0.30-2.62)]. Children with overweight alone (n=342) [OR (95%CI) was 5.69(3.39-9.55)] and those with both overweight and elevated BP [OR (95%CI) was 9.45 (5.47-16.33)] were at higher risk of LVH. Conclusion: The joint effect between overweight and elevated BP could be highly correlated with LVH in children.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 32(6): 393-405, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262385

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe frequency and quantity of total dairy consumption of Chinese children and adolescents and explore the associations between dairy consumption and nutrition status, including stunting, wasting, overweight, and obesity. METHODS: Participants included 28,250 children and adolescents aged 6-17 years old. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) including 100 kinds of food was used to collect information about frequency and quantity of dairy consumption. Determination of stunting was with a height cutoff value for age and gender, and determination for wasting, overweight, and obesity was with BMI for age and gender. RESULTS: Of the total sample, 36.1% of children aged 6-17 reported consuming dairy food more than once per day (⪖ 1/day). The average total dairy intake of all the participants was 126.7 g/day. For boys, dairy consumption had an inverse correlation with stunting and wasting after controlling for confounders. For girls, dairy consumption was negatively associated with stunting and obesity after controlling for confounders as above. CONCLUSION: Dairy consumption in Chinese children and adolescents was relatively lower than that in developed countries, and was negatively associated with stunting and wasting for boys and with stunting and obesity for girls.


Assuntos
Laticínios/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Emaciação/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais
17.
Public Health ; 173: 75-82, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255961

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Many children are insufficiently active, and children with a migration background appear to be even less active and at a higher risk of developing obesity. This study evaluated the weight status, and the frequencies and intensities of objectively assessed physical activity (PA) of children with and without a migration background. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: PA was assessed objectively for 6 days in 273 children (aged 7.1 ± 0.6 years). In total, 74 children (27%) were classified as having a migration background. PA was grouped in light and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) intensities. Body mass index (BMI) percentiles (BMIPCT) were determined. RESULTS: Children without a migration background spent more time in MVPA compared with children with a migration background (138.2 ± 62.6 vs 121.7 ± 54.9 min, respectively; P < 0.01). On weekends, time in MVPA decreased significantly for all children (112.3 ± 66.0 min, P < 0.01), especially for children with a migration background (97.7 ± 56.7 min, P < 0.01). Children with a migration background displayed significantly higher BMIPCT than children without a migration background (55.7 ± 29.6 vs 44.3 ± 26.8, respectively; P < 0.01) and were significantly more often overweight and/or obese (13.5% vs 8.5%, respectively; P < 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Children with a migration background are less physically active and more often overweight, resulting in higher risks of developing secondary diseases. The results of this study should be considered when designing interventions to increase PA in children with a migration background. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS), DRKS-ID: DRKS00000494.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício , Acelerometria , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas
18.
Georgian Med News ; (289): 62-67, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215881

RESUMO

Objective - to conduct an analysis and synthesis of scientific literature on the problem of overweight and obesity in children, national and foreign scientific sources, international and national statistical databases, on recommendations of international strategic documents on prevention of obesity among children, legal acts on prevention of obesity among children in Ukraine. The analysis of international research and recommendations on the prevention of obesity in children. Methods of research: bibliosemantic, epidemiological, content analysis, conceptual modeling. The current state of the system of prevention of obesity in children is characterized by imperfections and disadvantages: imperfect approaches of statistical reporting, which impedes the decisions on the prevention of diseases associated with overweight; the low level of diagnosis of obesity in children as evidenced by the significantly lower prevalence of obesity among the children of Ukraine compared to European countries, statistical processing on the prevalence of overweight in children in Ukraine is not performed. Existing approaches of obesity prevention in Ukraine do not take into account current recommendations and approaches developed on the basis of proven effectiveness. Implementation of the developed model of socio-medical monitoring of obesity in children allows screening and detection of children at risk of developing overweight and obesity, to form differentiated prevention programs, to prognose the risks of diseases associated with overweight, provide guidance on the medical care to a specialized level of schoolchildren at risk of developing of obesity, as well as conditions associated with overweight and obesity.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Sobrepeso , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Ucrânia/epidemiologia
19.
Clin Ter ; 170(3): e223-e230, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173054

RESUMO

Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health chal-lenges of this century. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. In the WHO European Region one child out of 3, is overweight or obese. Over 60% of children who are overweight before puberty will be overweight in early adulthood. Children and adolescents, aged 5-19 have shown rising obesity rates in almost all nations, including where the situation was far from alarming 40 years ago. Several nations have seen the prevalence almost double: Israel has gone from 5.8% in 1975 to 11.9% in 2016, Andorra from 6.2% to 12.8%, and Malta from 7.4% to 13.4%. Analyzing overweight and obesity, we can see that they follow similar trends and patterns. In 1975 the majority of European countries had a prevalence less than 10% and obesity less than 5%, while no European country had overweight prevalence higher than 30% and obe-sity higher than 10%. In 2016 the trend reversed, showing a worrying increase in the number of European countries with a high prevalence of overweight (over 30%) and obesity (over 10%) (Fig. 1)(29). Starting from the analysis of epidemiological data on obesity in the WHO European Region, the paper analyzes the adopted prevention programs in order to assess their effectiveness and figure out the best strategies to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity. The WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative reported that children tend to overeat and not to do enough physical exercise. Different preventive programs have identified different areas of action and corresponding measures: consumption of healthy foods, physical exercise, care before conception and during pregnancy, early childhood, school age children, weight management, monitoring and evaluation. Primary prevention is essential to reduce obesity incidence: it is easier to act on the adoption of healthy eating habits than intervene with diets on children who already have weight issues. Working on pre-vention programs represents an investment for the future of children's health. By simply acting on prevention, particularly on body weight reduction, it could be possible to tackle the spreading of correlated di-seases. Therefore, prevention programs ought to be prioritized priority at a national and international level.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Europa (Continente) , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
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