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1.
J Sports Sci ; 38(1): 13-20, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597515

RESUMO

Cross-sectional study aimed to analyse differences in cognitive performance across fitness components categories (cardiorespiratory fitness [CRF], speed-agility and muscular fitness [MF]) and weight status in children, and to determine whether physical fitness mediates the association between body mass index (BMI) and cognitive performance. Fitness components and BMI were measured using standard procedures in 630 children aged 5-to-7 years from the provinces of Cuenca and Ciudad Real, Spain. BADyG was used to assess cognitive performance. We used ANCOVA models to test mean differences in cognition scores by BMI and fitness categories. Hayes's PROCESS macro was used for mediation analyses. Children with normal weight scored better in spatial factor and general intelligence than their overweight/obese peers (p < 0.05), but differences were attenuated when controlling for CRF (p > 0.05). Children with better results in CRF and speed-agility scored better in all cognitive dimensions even after controlling for BMI (p < 0.05). Similarly, children with high MF obtained better scores in verbal factor (p < 0.05). All fitness components acted as mediators of the relationship between BMI and general intelligence (p < 0.05). These findings highlight the crucial role of fitness in minimising the negative effect of excess weight on children's cognition.Abbreviations: BMI: Body mass index; CRF: Cardiorespiratory fitness; MF: Muscular fitness; BADyG E1: Battery of general and differential aptitudes; SES: Socioeconomic status; SD: Standard deviation; IE: Indirect effect.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/psicologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Inteligência/fisiologia , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/fisiopatologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Classe Social
2.
Dev Neurorehabil ; 23(1): 31-38, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684786

RESUMO

Background: Childhood overweight and obesity, in addition to weight stigma, can result in numerous physical and psychosocial conditions. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are at a higher risk of developing overweight/obesity than their typically developing peers, yet we know little about what matters to them with regards to weight and their bodies.Methods: Eight semi-structured interviews were conducted with youth with ASD. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a phenomenological approach within an interpretive paradigm.Results: Participants mostly showed little concern about their weight. Participants highly valued moving their bodies and reported feeling good about their bodies.Discussion: Findings suggest that children with ASD may be more engaged in healthcare discussions focusing on growth and health rather than size and weight. This approach can also reduce stigmatizing discussions.


Assuntos
Atitude , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
3.
PLoS Med ; 16(11): e1002971, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In countries undergoing rapid economic transition such as China, rates of increase in childhood obesity exceed that in the West. However, prevention trials in these countries are inadequate in both quantity and methodological quality. In high-income countries, recent reviews have demonstrated that school-based prevention interventions are moderately effective but have some methodological limitations. To address these issues, this study evaluated clinical- and cost- effectiveness of the Chinese Primary School Children Physical Activity and Dietary Behaviour Changes Intervention (CHIRPY DRAGON) developed using the United Kingdom Medical Research Council complex intervention framework to prevent obesity in Chinese primary-school-aged children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this cluster-randomised controlled trial, we recruited 40 state-funded primary schools from urban districts of Guangzhou, China. A total of 1,641 year-one children with parent/guardian consent took part in baseline assessments prior to stratified randomisation of schools (intervention arm, 20 schools, n = 832, mean age = 6.15 years, 55.6% boys; control arm n = 809, mean age = 6.14 years, 53.3% boys). The 12-month intervention programme included 4 school- and family-based components delivered by 5 dedicated project staff. We promoted physical activity and healthy eating behaviours through educational and practical workshops, family activities, and supporting the school to improve physical activity and food provision. The primary outcome, assessed blind to allocation, was between-arm difference in body mass index (BMI) z score at completion of the intervention. A range of prespecified, secondary anthropometric, behavioural, and psychosocial outcomes were also measured. We estimated cost effectiveness based on quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), taking a public sector perspective. Attrition was low with 55 children lost to follow up (3.4%) and no school dropout. Implementation adherence was high. Using intention to treat analysis, the mean difference (MD) in BMI z scores (intervention - control) was -0.13 (-0.26 to 0.00, p = 0.048), with the effect being greater in girls (MD = -0.18, -0.32 to -0.05, p = 0.007, p for interaction = 0.015) and in children with overweight or obesity at baseline (MD = -0.49, -0.73 to -0.25, p < 0.001, p for interaction < 0.001). Significant beneficial intervention effects were also observed on consumption of fruit and vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages and unhealthy snacks, screen-based sedentary behaviour, and physical activity in the intervention group. Cost effectiveness was estimated at £1,760 per QALY, with the probability of the intervention being cost effective compared with usual care being at least 95% at a willingness to pay threshold of £20,000 to 30,000 per QALY. There was no evidence of adverse effects or harms. The main limitations of this study were the use of dietary assessment tools not yet validated for Chinese children and the use of the UK value set to estimate QALYS. CONCLUSIONS: This school- and family-based obesity prevention programme was effective and highly cost effective in reducing BMI z scores in primary-school-aged children in China. Future research should identify strategies to enhance beneficial effects among boys and investigate the transferability of the intervention to other provinces in China and countries that share the same language and cultures. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN Identifier ISRCTN11867516.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Análise Custo-Benefício , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/tendências , Instituições Acadêmicas , Comportamento Sedentário
4.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1574, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have reported that improvement of dietary habits through increased whole grain foods consumption at an early age has the potential to lead to betterment in lifelong health and wellness. The GReat-Child Trial™ was a 12-week quasi-experimental study with 6 months follow-up investigating a multi-component whole grain intervention, which consisted of behavioral, personal and environmental factors based on Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the GReat-Child Trial™, as well as to determine the changes in knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of whole grains consumption among overweight/obese children. METHODS: Two schools in Kuala Lumpur with similar socio-demographic characteristics were assigned as intervention (IG) and control (CG), respectively. Inclusion criteria were healthy Malaysian overweight/obese children aged 9 to 11 years who had no serious co-morbidity. Children who reported consuming whole grain foods in their 3-day diet-recall during recruitment were excluded. A total of 63 children (31 IG; 32 CG) completed the intervention. KAP questionnaire was self-administered at baseline [T0] and post intervention (at 3rd [T1] and 9th month [T2]). The baseline differences between the IG and CG across socio-demographics and scores of KAP toward whole grains were determined using chi-square and t-test, respectively. ANCOVA was performed to determine the effect of the GReat-Child Trial™ on KAP towards whole grains at post-intervention and follow-up. Baseline variables were considered as covariates. RESULTS: The IG attained significantly higher scores in knowledge (mean difference = 4.23; 95% CI: 3.82, 4.64; p < 0.001), attitudes (mean difference = 7.39; 95% CI: 6.36, 8.42; p < 0.001) and practice (mean difference = 6.13; 95% CI: 4.49, 7.77; p < 0.001) of whole grain consumption compared to the CG, after adjusting for confounders. The IG reported significantly higher scores in knowledge (mean difference = 6.84; 95% CI: 6.53, 7.15; p < 0.001), attitudes (mean difference = 9.16; 95% CI: 8.08, 10.24; p < 0.001) and practice (mean difference = 8.03; 95% CI: 5.34, 10.73; p < 0.001) towards whole grains at T2 compared to T0. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that this intervention made a positive impact on improving children's KAP on whole grains. We anticipate the GReat-Child Trial™ to be a program that could be incorporated into school interventions to improve whole grain consumption among Malaysian children for obesity prevention.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Grãos Integrais , Criança , Cognição , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Teoria Social
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(38): e17274, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Weight status and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are rising public health concerns. An increasing number of reports indicate that individuals with ASD may have unhealthy weight status, but the evidence is mixed. To understand the weight status in individuals with ASD and provide strategies for prevention and intervention, we describe the protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at assessing the prevalence of obesity, overweight, and underweight in ASD. METHODS: A broad range of key bibliographic databases including MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, Cochrane, and ISI Web of Science will be searched to identify studies reporting the prevalence of obesity, overweight, and underweight in patients with ASD. Retrieved records will be independently screened by 2 authors and relevant estimates will be extracted from studies reporting data on obesity, overweight, and underweight prevalence among individuals with ASD. The assessment of study quality will be conducted primarily using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale and checklist proposed by the Joanna Briggs Institute. Prevalence estimates of obesity and overweight will be separately pooled using random-effects model. The pooled estimates will be summarized and presented by regional groupings. Subgroup analysis will be conducted for variables (such as study setting, participants' age, and geographical region) across studies, depending on data availability. Between-study heterogeneity will be assessed using the I statistic and explored through subgroup analyses. This systematic review and meta-analysis will be reported following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses checklist and the meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology statements guidelines for meta-analysis and systematic reviews of observational studies. RESULTS: In this study, we will outline details of the aims and methods on the meta-analysis of weight status of individuals with ASD. CONCLUSION: The results of this study will summarize the current data of weight status of individuals with ASD. REGISTRATION: PROSPERO-National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42019130790).


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Peso Corporal , Criança , Humanos , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/complicações , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Magreza/complicações , Magreza/psicologia
6.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 19(3): 209-217, sept. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184967

RESUMO

Background/Objective: In recent decades, the prevalence of childhood obesity has increased, with the major implications for public health. However, the factors that contribute to obesity in children are still poorly understood. The present study aimed to investigate the role of parental reflective functioning (PRF) in childhood obesity. Method: In a cross-sectional design, 120 sets of parents of 60 children (n = 30 with obesity, age range 6-11) were recruited by local paediatricians. Parents completed the Parental Reflective Functioning Questionnaire. Children's and parents’ weight (assessed by BMI), as well as their socio-economic status (SES), were assessed to explore the contribution of PRF in the prediction of children's weight, controlling for parents’ weight and SES. Results: t-test showed significant differences with medium effect sizes in BMI, SES and PRF between parents of children with and without obesity. The best model resulted from hierarchical multiple regression analyses and showed that mothers’ PRF predicted children's BMI above and beyond the prediction by parents’ BMI and SES. Conclusions: Low maternal PRF could be an important target for intervention strategies, highlighting the need to consider parental responses to children's emotions in the treatment of childhood obesity, particularly in parents with low SES and high BMI


Antecedentes/Objetivo: En las últimas décadas la prevalencia de la obesidad infantil ha aumentad, teniendo implicaciones relevantes por la salud pública, pero hay todavía poca comprensión de los factores que contribuyen a la misma. La finalidad del estudio es investigar el papel de la función reflectiva parental (PRF) en la obesidad infantil. Método: En un estudio transversal, 120 parejas de padres de 60 niños (30 con obesidad, con edades entre 6 y 11 años) fueron reclutados por pediatras locales. Los padres tuvieron que rellenar el Parental Reflective Functioning Questionnaire. El peso de los niños y de los padres (BMI), así como el estado socio-económico (SES) fueron evaluados para explorar la contribución del PRF a la predicción del peso de los niños, en relación al peso parental y al SES. Resultados: El t-test ha mostrado diferencias significativa entre padres de niños con y sin obesidad en BMI, SES y PRF. El mejor modelo resultado de los análisis de regresión múltiple jerárquica ha mostrado que el PRF materno puede predecir el BMI de los niños más que el BMI paterno y el SES. Conclusiones: Un PRF materno bajo podría representar una diana importante para estrategias de intervención


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 13(4): 2495-2501, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405667

RESUMO

Childhood obesity prevalence is shooting up at a phenomenal rate worldwide, leading to long-term devastating consequences. A great number of studies have investigated factors contributing to the increase in BMI of children and adolescents. School-based, home-based and clinic-based solutions have been suggested as possible viable strategies, among which school-based interventions is believed to produce a noticeable effect on a massive scale. However, the question of whether school interventions, especially school education exert significant impact on childhood obesity or not, is left with mixing results. This article aims to holistically review the relationship between school education and childhood obesity. Various factors are covered, including health education, nutrition education, school nutrition, physical education, teachers' awareness, teaching practice and school stress, In all, school education is not the answer to childhood obesity but just part of it. More attempts from other stakeholders (parents, community, policy makers, researchers, etc.) should be made in order to solve this complicated puzzle.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde/métodos , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Humanos
8.
Eat Behav ; 34: 101316, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419769

RESUMO

There is growing evidence of an association between the relative reinforcing value of food (RRVF; how hard a child is willing to work for a food versus a non-food reinforcer) and weight across many life stages, but few studies have examined this association among preschool age children. This study investigated the association between the RRVF (measured as the food reinforcing ratio (FRR)) and body mass index (BMI) z-score and percent fat mass (%FM), in 3 year-old children. The sample was comprised of 33 children who were 3 years of age (36-47 months). Children selected their favourite food reinforcer (cookie) and non-food (audiobook) reinforcer to be used in the FRR task, which was delivered using a sequential progressive fixed ratio reward schedule. Child height, weight and percent body fat using bioelectrical impedance analysis were assessed by trained research staff. Linear regression analyses showed that FRR was significantly and positively associated with BMI z-scores. FRR was not significantly associated with %FM. Findings from this study support the RRVF as a potential risk factor in the development of childhood obesity. Longitudinal research involving larger sample sizes would strengthen future research exploring associations between RRVF and body composition in preschool age children.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Recompensa , Peso Corporal , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Fatores de Risco
11.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262065

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine if the associations between eating competence (EC) and eating behaviors that were found in a USA sample of predominantly Hispanic parents of 4th grade youth could be replicated in a USA sample of predominantly non-Hispanic white parents of 4th graders. Baseline responses from parents (n = 424; 94% white) of youth participating in a year-long educational intervention were collected using an online survey. Validated measures included the Satter Eating Competence Inventory (ecSI 2.0TM), in-home fruit/vegetable (FV) availability, healthful eating behavior modeling, and FV self-efficacy/outcome expectancies (SE/OE). Data were analyzed with general linear modeling and cluster analyses. The findings replicated those from the primarily Hispanic sample. Of the 408 completing all ecSI 2.0TM items, 86% were female, 65% had a 4-year degree or higher, and 53% were EC (ecSI 2.0TM score ≥ 32). Compared with non-EC parents, EC modeled more healthful eating, higher FV SE/OE, and more in-home FV availability. Behaviors clustered into those striving toward more healthful practices (strivers; n = 151) and those achieving them (thrivers; n = 255). Striver ecSI 2.0TM scores were lower than those of thrivers (29.6 ± 7.8 vs. 33.7 ± 7.6; p < 0.001). More EC parents demonstrated eating behaviors associated with childhood obesity prevention than non-EC parents, encouraging education that fosters parent EC, especially in tandem with youth nutrition education.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Comportamento Alimentar , Pais/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/etnologia , Colorado/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Obesidade Pediátrica/etnologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/fisiopatologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recomendações Nutricionais , Fatores de Risco
12.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340578

RESUMO

Childhood obesity is a growing concern worldwide. Though multifactorial, the family environment exerts significant influence on children's eating habits. Grandparents are increasingly involved as caregivers and they can significantly influence their grandchildren's eating habits. Yet, literature on this topic is lacking. This exploratory sequential mixed methods study (qualitative interview and interviewer-administered questionnaire) aims to understand grandparents' knowledge, attitudes, and practices on the feeding of their grandchildren in Singapore. A total of 11 interview participants and 396 questionnaire respondents with at least one grandchild, aged 12 years and below were included. Qualitative interviews informed the questionnaire development. Responses to interview questions about knowledge, attitudes, and practices revealed sub-themes such as knowledge on the impact of feeding, attitude toward feeding role, and challenges to feeding. Of the 396 participants, 35% were primary caregivers (defined as the person who spends the most time with the grandchild and performs most of the caregiving tasks). Nutritional knowledge was fair (median score 5/8), with misconceptions centered around healthy feeding practices. Grandparents who were primary caregivers, female, Malay, and younger than 70 years old believed that they played an important role in feeding their grandchild (p < 0.05). Overall, 47.2% of the grandparents rarely or never set a maximum limit on the amount of unhealthy food eaten, of which 77.1% are non-primary caregivers. In comparison, primary caregivers tend to set a maximum limit to the amount of unhealthy food their grandchildren eat and choose a wide variety of food (p < 0.05). These findings support the need for further improvement of grandparents' feeding knowledge and practices as part of tackling childhood obesity.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Comportamento Alimentar , Avós/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Obesidade Pediátrica/fisiopatologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Recomendações Nutricionais , Singapura
13.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340602

RESUMO

The aim of this review was to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among European children aged 2-7 years from 2006 to 2016 and to analyze these estimations by gender, country, and food group consumption. We searched CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Web of Science databases from their inception until 27 February 2019 including cross-sectional studies and baseline measurements of cohort studies with overweight and obesity defined according to the International Obesity Task Force criteria. Both the inverse-variance fixed-effects method and the DerSimonian and Laird random effects method were used to determinate pooled prevalence estimates and their respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 32 studies (n = 197,755 children) with data from 27 European countries were included. Overall, the pooled prevalence estimates of overweight/obesity in European children (aged 2-7 years) during the period 2006-2016 was 17.9% (95% CI: 15.8-20.0), and the pooled prevalence estimate of obesity was 5.3% (95% CI: 4.5-6.1). Southern European countries showed the highest prevalence of excess weight. Additional measures to address the obesity epidemic in early life should be established, especially in European countries where the prevalence of excess weight is very high.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Ingestão de Energia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Obesidade Pediátrica/fisiopatologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Prevalência , Recomendações Nutricionais , Fatores de Risco
14.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 13(3): 2190-2197, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235156

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) program on weight reduction among Iranian adolescents who are overweight. METHODS: Using a randomized controlled trial design, 55 adolescents who were overweight (mean [SD] age = 14.64 [1.69] years; zBMI = 2.18 [0.65]) were recruited in the CBT program and 55 in the treatment as usual (TAU; mean age = 14.88 [1.50]; zBMI = 2.09 [0.57]) group. All the participants completed several questionnaires (Child Dietary Self-Efficacy Scale; Weight Efficacy Lifestyle questionnaire; Physical Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale; Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory; and self-reported physical activity and diet) and had their anthropometrics measured (height, weight, waist and hip circumferences, and body fat). RESULTS: The CBT group consumed significantly more fruits and juice, vegetables, and dairy in the 6-month follow-up as compared with the TAU group (p-values <0.001). The CBT group consumed significantly less sweet snacks, salty snacks, sweet drinks, sausages/processed meat, and oils in the six-month follow-up compared with the TAU group (p-values<0.001). Additionally, the waist circumference, BMI, waist-hip ratio, and fat mass were significantly decreased in the CBT group in the six-month follow-up compared with the TAU group (p-values<0.005). The CBT group significantly improved their psychosocial health, physical activity, and health-related quality of life (p-values<0.001). CONCLUSION: The CBT program showed its effectiveness in reducing weight among Iranian adolescents who were overweight. Healthcare providers may want to adopt this program to treat excess weight problems among adolescents.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Dieta/psicologia , Dieta/normas , Sobrepeso/terapia , Obesidade Pediátrica/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Adolescente , Peso Corporal , Terapia por Exercício , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Psicologia do Adolescente , Perda de Peso
15.
Clin Obes ; 9(5): e12326, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232524

RESUMO

Our overall objective was to describe the parent-child, romantic, and family dynamics of adult weight management program (WMP) patients, and associations with children's and partners' weight status. First, we determined if family functioning mediated the effect between parent-child feeding practices and perceived child weight status, and romantic relationship anxiety and avoidance and perceived partner weight status. Second, we assessed if perceived child and partner weight status moderated the associations between family functioning and parent-child feeding practices and romantic relationship anxiety and avoidance, respectively. Patients (N=203) who resided with a child and partner from two WMPs completed assessments of parent-child feeding practices (Child Feeding Questionnaire), romantic relationship anxiety and avoidance (Relationship Structures Questionnaire), family functioning (Family Assessment Device General Functioning Scale), and perceived child and partner weight status. Bivariate analyses determined differences in weight status and relationship dynamics and family functioning, and mediation and moderation analyses were conducted to answer the two research questions. Family functioning was not a mediator between romantic relationship dynamics and partner weight status or parent-child dynamics and child weight status. Lower family functioning was associated with higher parent-child restrictive feeding practices, only among children with overweight/obesity. Similarly, lower family functioning was associated with higher anxiety and avoidance in romantic relationships, only for partners with overweight/obesity. Patients with children and/or partners with overweight/obesity reported more impaired family dynamics and functioning, compared to patients with children and/or partners with a healthy weight status.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Adulto , Estatura , Manutenção do Peso Corporal , Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Int J Eat Disord ; 52(8): 904-913, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179569

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Parents' comments about their adolescents' weight have been linked with adolescents' disordered eating, but we know little about the personal and contextual conditions that promote or mitigate the effects of parents' perceptions on adolescents' weight concerns. This study examined whether the prospective association between parents' perceptions of adolescents' weight and adolescents' weight concerns differed as a function of exposure to interparental conflict or adolescent gender. METHOD: Participants were 386 adolescents (52% female; ages 11-18 years; predominately Caucasian/European American) from 197 families (i.e., up to two adolescents per family) and their parents. Two-parent families with a firstborn child in 8th, 9th, or 10th grade and a secondborn child 1-4 years younger were recruited to participate in a short-term longitudinal study of adolescent development and family relationships. Annual home interviews were conducted with adolescents and parents. Multilevel models tested whether parents' perceptions of adolescents' weight predicted adolescents' weight concerns one year later and whether interparental conflict and youth gender moderated this prospective association. RESULTS: A significant three-way interaction revealed that when interparental conflict was low, increases in fathers' but not mothers' perceptions of daughters' overweight predicted increases in daughters' weight concerns the following year. In contrast, females exposed to high interparental conflict reported elevated weight concerns the following year regardless of parents' perceptions. Results for males were not significant. DISCUSSION: Findings highlight the role of personal and family context characteristics in the development of weight concerns and the value of addressing family processes within preventive interventions for adolescent females' weight concerns.


Assuntos
Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Percepção , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Compr Child Adolesc Nurs ; 42(sup1): 226-233, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192711

RESUMO

This study aims to explore mothers' experiences in caring for overweight children under five years of age. This study used a descriptive phenomenology approach, with in-depth interviews with ten mothers who had overweight children under five years of age (2-5 years) selected by purposive sampling. The data was then analyzed using thematic analysis based on Collaizi's approach. This study produced eight themes illustrating that mothers were not only unaware of the children's overweight condition, but even felt more pleased to have overweight kids. This caused mothers not to give the optimum effort in limiting their children's food intake. The low awareness mothers had towards their children's overweight condition indicated the need for an intervention program that focuses on overweight children under five years of age to empower the family and increase family awareness in managing obesity early.


Assuntos
Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/complicações , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pré-Escolar , Empatia , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa
18.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146440

RESUMO

Differences in postprandial insulin, glucose, and/or free fatty acid concentrations, following the consumption of breakfast, have been demonstrated to be dependent on habitual breakfast patterns. This study examined the effects of habitual breakfast patterns on postprandial appetite, satiety, and hormonal responses along with daily food intake following the consumption of normal-protein (NP) vs. higher-protein (HP) breakfasts in overweight adolescents. Thirty-seven girls (age: 19 ± 1 year; BMI: 29.0 ± 3.4 kg/m2) participated in the semi-randomized crossover design study. Participants were grouped according to whether they habitually skipped (SKIP, n = 18) or consumed breakfast (CONSUME, n = 19), and consumed a NP (350 kcal; 13 g protein) or HP (350 kcal; 35 g protein) breakfast for 3 days/pattern. On day 4, breakfast was provided, and appetite questionnaires and blood samples were collected throughout an 8 h testing day. Daily food intake was also assessed. Regardless of habitual breakfast patterns, the consumption of HP breakfast led to greater daily fullness (29,030 ± 6,010 min × mm) vs. NP breakfast (26,910 ± 5580 min × mm; p = 0.03). Daily protein consumption was greater (98 ± 15 g vs. 78 ± 15 g), and carbohydrate consumption was lower (331 ± 98 g vs. 367 ± 94 g) with HP vs. NP (both, p < 0.001). No other differences were observed. These data suggest that the recommendation to consume a HP breakfast for improved satiety and ingestive behavior is appropriate for overweight adolescent girls, regardless of habitual breakfast patterns.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Regulação do Apetite , Desjejum , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Alimentar , Obesidade Pediátrica/dietoterapia , Resposta de Saciedade , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Missouri , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Obesidade Pediátrica/fisiopatologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 7(6): e13828, 2019 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing in China, and the effect of mobile phone short message service (SMS) interventions to prevent early childhood obesity needs to be evaluated. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the effect of an SMS intervention on the prevention of obesity in young children. METHODS: A quasi-experimental design SMS intervention was carried out in 4 community health centers (CHCs) in Shanghai, China. A total of 2 CHCs were assigned to the intervention group, and 2 CHCs were assigned to the control group. Mothers in the intervention group received weekly SMS messages on breastfeeding and infant feeding from the third trimester to 12 months postpartum. The primary outcomes were children's body mass index (BMI), BMI z-score, and weight-for-length z-score at 12 and 24 months. Factors associated with higher BMI and weight-for-length z-score at 24 months were also assessed. RESULTS: A total of 582 expectant mothers were recruited at the beginning of the third gestational trimester. 477 (82.0%) and 467 (80.2%) mothers and their children were followed up to 12 and 24 months postpartum, respectively. There were no significant differences in children's BMI, BMI z-score, and weight-for-length z-score at 12 and 24 months between the 2 groups. Factors associated with higher BMI, BMI z-score, and weight-for-length z-score at 24 months included higher birth weight, introduction of solid foods before 4 months, and taking a bottle to bed at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: The SMS intervention did not show a significant effect on children's BMI, BMI z-score, or weight-for-length z-score at 12 and 24 months. Introduction of solid foods before 4 months and taking a bottle to bed at 12 months were significantly and positively correlated with a higher BMI, BMI z-score, and weight-for-length z-score at 24 months. Further studies with more rigorous design are needed to evaluate the effect of SMS interventions on preventing early childhood obesity.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Mensagem de Texto/normas , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pré-Escolar , China , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Mensagem de Texto/instrumentação , Mensagem de Texto/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
J Am Assoc Nurse Pract ; 31(6): 344-351, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: As the incidence of global obesity increases, concerns about adverse health outcomes in adolescents continues to rise. The complexity and expense of this problem require early recognition and specific preventive treatments. Knowledge of genetics and determinants of food choices contributing to adolescent obesity warrants further examination. The primary goal was to appraise the literature from the past decade (2007-2017) on the current state of food choice and genetic determinants of adolescent overweight/obesity in the United States. The secondary goal was to determine trends in the literature and areas for future research. METHODS: A systematic review of research studies in the United States from 2007 to 2017 was completed. Database searches were conducted using CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO, PsycArticles, PubMed, Scopus, Academic Search Complete, Web of Science, BIOSIS, and the Cochrane Library. A total of 535 studies were selected. Of these, 283 studies focused on determinants of food choices and 165 studies focused on genetic factors. CONCLUSIONS: A total of 41 full-text articles included in this literature review contained studies limited exclusively to adolescents. Stress factors related to food choices demonstrated a new trend being explored. The need for precision health, the application of genetic information, could uncover ways food choices affect adolescent obesity. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The etiology of adolescent obesity requires that nurses gain knowledge of genetics and food choice determinants to inform personalized treatments for adolescents, which may establish effective interventions that promote healthy weight achievement.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Comportamento de Escolha , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/genética , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
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