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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e211359, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1252506

RESUMO

Aim: To evaluate the effects of an intervention for the prevention of obesity on the prevalence of dental caries disease in Spanish children. Methods: Two cities participated intervention study nested in a cohort IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary and lifestyle induced health effects in children and infants): Huesca, where there was a 2-year intervention, which encouraged less sugar consumption; and Zaragoza (control). The prevalence of caries was evaluated by examining the 1st permanent molars in the 7-11 age range, using the ICDAS (International Caries Detection and Assessment System). These teeth erupt at 6 years of age and at the baseline (2007-2008) were free of caries because they were not present in the oral cavity. As outcomes, white spots were selected, combining the ICDAS criteria 1 and 2, and untreated caries, combining criteria 4, 5 and 6. Their association with socioeconomic variables, BMI (Body Mass Index), frequency of sugar intake, sex and parents' perceptions of their children, was investigated. To do so, the chi-square test was applied (p<0.05). Results: The sample consisted of 281 children. The prevalence of white spots and untreated caries was higher in Huesca, despite the intervention. There was no association between the outcomes and the variables studied (p>0.05). Conclusion: The intervention for the prevention of obesity did not exert any association with the prevalence of caries in Spanish children


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Saúde Bucal , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Obesidade
2.
Infectio ; 25(4): 262-269, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1286720

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: To analyse the clinic characteristics, risk factors and evolution of the first cohort of hospitalised patients with confirmed infection by COVID-19 in 5 Colombian institutions. Materials and methods: Is a retrospective observational study of consecutive hospitalized patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 confirmed from March 01 to May 30, 2020 in Colombia. Results: A total of 44 patients were included. The median age was 62 years. 43.2% had a history of smoking, while 69.8% were overweight or obese. 88.6% had at least one comorbidity and 52.3% had three or more comorbidities. Hypertension and dyslipidaemia were the most frequent comorbidities (40.9% and 34.1%, respectively). The 30-day mortality rate was 47.7% with a median of 11 days. The composite outcome occurred in the 36.4%. The biomarkers associated with mor tality risk included troponin higher than 14 ng/L (RR: 5.25; 95% CI 1.37-20.1, p = 0.004) and D-dimer higher than 1000 ng/ml (RR: 3.0; 95% CI 1.4-6.3, p = 0.008). Conclusions: The clinical course of SARS-CoV-2 infection in hospitalized Colombian was characterised by a more advanced stage of the infection.


Resumen Objetivo: Analizar las características, clínicas, factores de riesgo, y la evolución de pacientes hospitalizados con infección confirmada por COVID-19 en 5 Institu ciones de Colombia. Material y método: Es un estudio observacional retrospectivo de pacientes consecutivos hospitalizados con diagnóstico de COVID-19 confirmado entre 01 de Febrero de 2020 y 30 de Mayo de 2020 en Colombia. Resultados: Un total de 44 pacientes fueron incluidos. La mediana de edad fue de 62 años y la mayoría del sexo masculino. El 43.2% tenían historia de tabaquismo, mientras que el 69.8% tenían sobrepeso u obesidad. El 88.6% tenían al menos una comorbilidad y el 52.3% tenían tres o más comorbilidades. La hipertensión arterial fue la comorbilidad más frecuente (40.9%), seguido de la dislipidemia (34.1%). La tasa de letalidad a 30 días fue de 47.7% y ocurrió con una mediana de 11 días. El 36.4% presentó el desenlace compuesto. Los biomarcadores asociados con el riesgo de muerte fue troponina > 14 ng/mL (RR:5.25, IC95% 1.37-20.1, p=0.004) y dímero D mayor a 1000 mg/dL (RR: 3.0, IC95% 1.4-6.3, p=0.008). Conclusiones: El curso clínico de la infección por SARS-CoV-2 en colombianos hospitalizados fue un estadio más avanzado de la infección.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Biomarcadores , COVID-19 , Pacientes , Tabagismo , Comorbidade , Risco , Fatores de Risco , Mortalidade , Colômbia , Sobrepeso , Cursos , Infecções , Obesidade
3.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256988, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478452

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies suggest that individuals with comorbid conditions including diabetes, chronic lung, inflammatory and vascular disease, are at higher risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes. Genome-wide association studies have identified several loci associated with increased susceptibility and severity for COVID-19. However, it is not clear whether these associations are genetically determined or not. We used a Phenome-Wide Association (PheWAS) approach to investigate the role of genetically determined COVID-19 susceptibility on disease related outcomes. PheWAS analyses were performed in order to identify traits and diseases related to COVID-19 susceptibility and severity, evaluated through a predictive COVID-19 risk score. We utilised phenotypic data in up to 400,000 individuals from the UK Biobank, including Hospital Episode Statistics and General Practice data. We identified a spectrum of associations between both genetically determined COVID-19 susceptibility and severity with a number of traits. COVID-19 risk was associated with increased risk for phlebitis and thrombophlebitis (OR = 1.11, p = 5.36e-08). We also identified significant signals between COVID-19 susceptibility with blood clots in the leg (OR = 1.1, p = 1.66e-16) and with increased risk for blood clots in the lung (OR = 1.12, p = 1.45 e-10). Our study identifies significant association of genetically determined COVID-19 with increased blood clot events in leg and lungs. The reported associations between both COVID-19 susceptibility and severity and other diseases adds to the identification and stratification of individuals at increased risk, adverse outcomes and long-term effects.


Assuntos
COVID-19/genética , Obesidade/genética , Tromboflebite/genética , Trombose/genética , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/virologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/virologia , Fenômica , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Tromboflebite/epidemiologia , Tromboflebite/virologia , Trombose/epidemiologia , Trombose/virologia
4.
Rev Med Chil ; 149(2): 217-228, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most of the Chilean population has overweight or obesity. The ACTION-IO survey identified the perceptions, attitudes, and barriers to effective obesity care in people with obesity (PwO) and healthcare professionals (HCPs). AIM: To report the results of the survey in Chile. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An online survey was conducted in 11 countries. In Chile, eligible PwO were adults with a body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2. Eligible HCPs were physicians involved in direct patient care. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 1,000 PwO and 200 HCPs in Chile. Seventy four percent of PwO and 95% of HCPs agreed that obesity was a chronic disease. Most PwO (79%) assumed responsibility for their own weight loss, while 47% of HCPs considered weight loss to be the sole responsibility of their patients. Both 82% of PwO and 97% of HCPs believed that lack of exercise was a key barrier to weight loss. Sixty six percent of PwO and 58% HCPs noted that the cost of weight management medications, programs, and services was another barrier. Compared with HCPs, more PwO felt that genetic factors prevented weight loss (26 and 44% respectively). Few HCPs (19%) thought that their patients were motivated to lose weight, while 55% of PwO reported being motivated. Most (70%) PwO had discussed their weight problem with their HCP in the past 5 years, and of those that had not, 89% want their HCP to start a discussion about weight. CONCLUSIONS: Chilean data reveal misconceptions among PwO and HCPs about obesity and highlights the need to improve education about its biologic background and clinical management.


Assuntos
Obesidade , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Chile/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Blood Press Monit ; 26(5): 357-363, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise is a cardiovascular risk factor associated to higher morbidity and mortality. Severely obese patients have an increased risk of exercise-induced hypertension (EIH). We aimed to assess the blood pressure response to exercise in patients with severe obesity who underwent bariatric surgery as well as the main determinants of this response. METHODS: We used data from the ACTIVE clinical trial, in which 60 severely obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery were enrolled. Anthropometric measurements, abdominal and mid-thigh computed tomography scans and maximal exercise testing were performed before bariatric surgery, as well as 3 and 6 months post-surgery. EIH was defined as a maximal SBP ≥210 mmHg for men and ≥190 mmHg for women. RESULTS: At baseline, 62% of patients had EIH. At 6 months, we observed an EIH resolution rate of 39%. The main determinant of EIH resolution was sex. Actually, patients with EIH resolution were mostly women without resting hypertension and a lower amount of visceral adipose tissue. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that bariatric surgery is efficient to resolve EIH, particularly in women with initially a better anthropometric profile.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Hipertensão , Pressão Sanguínea , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/cirurgia
6.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 726967, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484128

RESUMO

In March 2020, the WHO declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a global pandemic. Obesity was soon identified as a risk factor for poor prognosis, with an increased risk of intensive care admissions and mechanical ventilation, but also of adverse cardiovascular events. Obesity is associated with adipose tissue, chronic low-grade inflammation, and immune dysregulation with hypertrophy and hyperplasia of adipocytes and overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, to implement appropriate therapeutic strategies, exact mechanisms must be clarified. The role of white visceral adipose tissue, increased in individuals with obesity, seems important, as a viral reservoir for SARS-CoV-2 via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. After infection of host cells, the activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines creates a setting conducive to the "cytokine storm" and macrophage activation syndrome associated with progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome. In obesity, systemic viral spread, entry, and prolonged viral shedding in already inflamed adipose tissue may spur immune responses and subsequent amplification of a cytokine cascade, causing worse outcomes. More precisely, visceral adipose tissue, more than subcutaneous fat, could predict intensive care admission; and lower density of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) could be associated with worse outcome. EAT, an ectopic adipose tissue that surrounds the myocardium, could fuel COVID-19-induced cardiac injury and myocarditis, and extensive pneumopathy, by strong expression of inflammatory mediators that could diffuse paracrinally through the vascular wall. The purpose of this review is to ascertain what mechanisms may be involved in unfavorable prognosis among COVID-19 patients with obesity, especially cardiovascular events, emphasizing the harmful role of excess ectopic adipose tissue, particularly EAT.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatias/metabolismo , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/imunologia , Cardiomiopatias/imunologia , Cardiomiopatias/patologia , Cardiopatias/imunologia , Cardiopatias/metabolismo , Cardiopatias/patologia , Humanos , Inflamação , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/patologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/imunologia , Obesidade/patologia , Pericárdio , Prognóstico , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo
7.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 67(4): 566-570, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495062

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether there is an association between the body mass index z-score and waist-to-height ratio of children and adolescents. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in a school in Santo André, SP, between June and August 2019. Body mass index was measured for all participants, adopting the z-score cutoff of +2 recommended by the World Health Organization. The waist-to-height ratio was determined in children over two years of age and considered abnormal when ≥0.5. The qualitative variables are presented as absolute numbers and percentages. To compare qualitative data, we used the χ2 test or Fisher's exact test. Pearson's test was applied to assess the correlation between BMI and waist-to-height ratio. The level of significance adopted was 5%. RESULTS: The body mass index was calculated for 518 children and the waist-to-height ratio for 473 children. Regarding body mass index, 60.6% of the participants had normal weight, 3.1% were underweight, and 36.3% were overweight. overweight (24.7%) and obesity (22.7%) were more prevalent in adolescents. The waist-to-height ratio was abnormal in 50.5% of the sample. There was an increasing association between body mass index and waist-to-height ratio with age, according to the Pearson correlation coefficients for the age groups <5 years (r=0.459; p<0.001), 5 to 10 years (r=0.687; p<0.001) and >10 years (r=0.805; p<0.001). CONCLUSION: There was a significant correlation between body mass index and waist-to-height ratio. This association was higher in adolescents. The waist-to-height ratio is easy to apply and may be useful as a predictor of cardiometabolic risk.


Assuntos
Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Adolescente , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Magreza , Circunferência da Cintura
8.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e20200884, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495204

RESUMO

To assess the effect of vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) on the esophageal and intestinal morphology of western diet (WD)-obese rats and to characterize the stomach histopathology of WD rats submitted to VSG. Male Wistar rats received WD from 2-4 months of age, to induce obesity, before randomly submitting them to pseudo (WD-SHAM), VSG (WD-VSG) or RYGB (WD-RYGB) surgeries. Gastrointestinal histomorphometry was performed at 3-months post-surgery. The upper esophagus of VSG and RYGB rats increased luminal area, while reductions in the keratin layer of the mucosa and the tunica muscularis were observed only in the RYGB animals. In the lower esophagus, both surgeries increased keratin layer thickness, but reduced the mucosal mucus content, while RYGB increased the thickness of the tunica mucosa and muscularis. The glandular region of the stomach of WD-VSG rats exhibited hypotrophy, epithelial erosion, fibrosis and moderate inflammatory infiltration. VSG and RYGB increased the villi height in the ileum, and the thickness of the tunica muscularis in the jejunum and ileum of WD rats; furthermore, RYGB augmented the ileal villi height. Thus both approaches induced histomorphological alterations in the esophagus and intestine and VSG damaged the gastric mucosa, even over the long-term.


Assuntos
Derivação Gástrica , Animais , Dieta Ocidental , Gastrectomia , Masculino , Obesidade/cirurgia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 90, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466192

RESUMO

Introduction: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a prominent compressive neuropathy. There are a number of risk factors for creating CTS but the effect of these factors on the severity of CTS is unclear. In this study, we aimed to assess the correlation of serum lipid profile and obesity with the severity of CTS. Methods: this cross-sectional study was conducted on 118 patients with idiopathic CTS. Blood samples were obtained for determining the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) after 12 hours of overnight fasting. The participants were then divided into two groups of normal and abnormal serum lipids. Body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2 was considered as obesity. The severity of CTS was determined based on the electrophysiological results and Boston CTS Questionnaire (BCTSQ) that evaluates symptoms severity (SSS) and functional status (FSS) of patients. Results: out of 118 participants, 108 patients performed lipid profile test that 41.17%, 50.42%, 25.21%, and 20.16% of them had TC ≥ 200, TG ≥ 150, LDL-C ≥ 130, and HDL-C < 60 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl), respectively. The mean scores of SSS in patients with dyslipidemia including the high level of TC, TG, LDL-C, and low level of LDL-C were 34.59±7.86, 34.05±8.73, 34.93±8.21, and 33.48±7.56, respectively. There was no significant association between lipid profile and the symptom severity scale of CTS (p-value > 0.05). The mean BMI of participants was 31.35±5.35 kg/m2, and 58.5% of them had a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. The mean score of SSS and FSS was 33.18±8.24 and 24.43±7.12 in obese patients (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2), and was 34.06±7.85 and 23.06±7.67 in patients with BMI < 30 kg/m2. We found no significant association between obesity with the SSS and FSS (p-value = 0.53 and 0.32, respectively). In terms of the relationship between electrophysiological grading with obesity, 44 (63.8%) of patients with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 and 22 (45.8%) patients with BMI < 30 kg/m2 had severe to extreme severe CTS. There was no significant association between obesity and the severity of CTS (p-value = 0.054). Conclusion: the results of this study did not demonstrate an association between serum lipid profile and obesity with the severity of carpal tunnel syndrome. The findings of this study may not be extrapolated to other populations. Further studies with more samples are needed to investigate this association.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Túnel Carpal/fisiopatologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Síndrome do Túnel Carpal/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 94, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466196

RESUMO

Introduction: different studies have shown a relationship between depression and nutrition, but there seems to be no consistent consensus on this. This study therefore investigated the relationship of nutrition status and depression among workers in tertiary educational institutions in Southwestern Nigeria. Methods: this was a cross-sectional study conducted among 399 members of staff of three tertiary educational institutions in Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria. Depression was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), while nutritional status was assessed using the body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and waist hip ratio (WHR). The respondents were selected using multi-stage sampling technique, and data were collected using pre-tested structured questionnaires. Analysis was done using IBM SPSS. Results: the mean age of the respondents was 45.8 ± 10.4 years. The prevalence of depression was 23.8%. Concerning the nutritional status of respondents, 2.3% were underweight and 69.7% were overweight/obese. There were statistically significant associations between depression and the nutritional status of the respondents using BMI (p = 0.001), WHR (p = 0.015) and waist circumference (p = 0.036). After controlling for other factors, only the BMI was still significantly associated with depression, such that those underweight were more likely to be depressed (Odds ratio: 7.9; p-value: 0.009). Conclusion: the prevalence of depression among the respondents was relatively high, and this was significantly associated with the BMI, even after controlling for co-founders.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Magreza/complicações , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Magreza/epidemiologia , Relação Cintura-Quadril
12.
Int Braz J Urol ; 47(6): 1136-1147, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469666

RESUMO

PURPOSE: to evaluate the effect of low-calorie diet on 24-hour urinary metabolic parameters of obese adults with idiopathic calcium oxalate kidney stones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers, with body mass index (BMI) ≥30kg/m2 and a known lithogenic metabolic abnormality, were submitted to low-calorie diet for twelve weeks. After enrolment, anthropometric measures, serum exams, 24-hour urinary metabolic parameters and body impedance were collected one month prior to dietary intervention and at the end of twelve weeks. Correlations between weight loss, waist circumference loss, fat loss and variation in 24-hour urinary lithogenic parameters and calcium oxalate urinary supersaturation (CaOx SS) as per Tiselius equation were analysed. RESULTS: From January 2017 to January 2018, 39 patients were enrolled to participate in this study. Median (range) prescribed diet was 1300 (1100-2100) Kcal/day. Mean age was 51.7±11.0 (29-68) years old and 69.2% were female. 30.8% of the participants shifted from obesity to BMI < 30kg/m2 and none to BMI < 25kg/m2. A significant correlation was found between baseline 24-hour urinary oxalate and weight (p=0.018) and BMI (p=0.026). No correlation was found between variation of weight, waist circumference, fat mass and 24-h urinary stone risk factors or CaOx SS. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term modest weight loss induced by twelve weeks of low-calorie diet is not associated with a decrease of 24-hour urinary lithogenic parameters in idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers. Calcium oxalate urinary stone formation is probably multifactorial and driven by other factors than weight.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais , Cálculos Urinários , Adulto , Idoso , Cálcio , Oxalato de Cálcio , Restrição Calórica , Feminino , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações
14.
Horm Metab Res ; 53(9): 575-587, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496408

RESUMO

Global warming and the rising prevalence of obesity are well described challenges of current mankind. Most recently, the COVID-19 pandemic arose as a new challenge. We here attempt to delineate their relationship with each other from our perspective. Global greenhouse gas emissions from the burning of fossil fuels have exponentially increased since 1950. The main contributors to such greenhouse gas emissions are manufacturing and construction, transport, residential, commercial, agriculture, and land use change and forestry, combined with an increasing global population growth from 1 billion in 1800 to 7.8 billion in 2020 along with rising obesity rates since the 1980s. The current Covid-19 pandemic has caused some decline in greenhouse gas emissions by limiting mobility globally via repetitive lockdowns. Following multiple lockdowns, there was further increase in obesity in wealthier populations, malnutrition from hunger in poor populations and death from severe infection with Covid-19 and its virus variants. There is a bidirectional relationship between adiposity and global warming. With rising atmospheric air temperatures, people typically will have less adaptive thermogenesis and become less physically active, while they are producing a higher carbon footprint. To reduce obesity rates, one should be willing to learn more about the environmental impact, how to minimize consumption of energy generating carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions, and to reduce food waste. Diets lower in meat such as a Mediterranean diet, have been estimated to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 72%, land use by 58%, and energy consumption by 52%.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Obesidade/etiologia , Agricultura/economia , Agricultura/tendências , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/patologia , Mudança Climática/história , Comorbidade , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Meio Ambiente , Exposição Ambiental/história , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Gases de Efeito Estufa/toxicidade , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514764

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is lack of data about the combination of multiple approaches to control being overweight and obesity in adolescents. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a combination program including smart-phone nutrition education, physical activity, and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) programs in the management of obesity and overweight among elementary school girls in comparison with a traditional education method. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The primary outcome of this study is the assessment of changes in anthropometric data after 10 weeks. The secondary outcome is investigating the effect of treatment on biochemical data. Sixty-two elementary school girls aged 9-12 years with the body mass index (BMI) for age above 85th percentile will be chosen and randomly assigned to one of the two groups of control or intervention. During the 10 weeks of the intervention, smartphone games will be given to the children with some information at the beginning about the causes and complications of obesity, food sources of fiber and vitamins, and banned foods during the intervention period. Students in the intervention group will participate in an aerobics exercise for 45 minutes three times per week under the supervision of an experienced trainer and eight CBT Sessions which were designed for children by a clinical psychologist. Anthropometric measurements, including height, weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference and waist to hip ratio(WHR), and biochemical and metabolic lab data, including fasting blood sugar (FBS), total cholesterol, high density lipoproteins (HDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL), leptin and will be measured at the baseline and 10 weeks later at the end of intervention period . Also, both questionnaires of metabolic equivalent test (MET) and Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) will be completed for each student at baseline and after 10 weeks. The students in the control group will receive traditional education in the form of lectures given by a nutritionist regarding weight management. DISCUSSION: The primary outcome of this study is the assessment of changes in anthropometric data after 10 weeks. The secondary outcome is investigating the effect of treatment on biochemical data. Sixty-two elementary school girls aged 9-12 years with the body mass index (BMI) for age above 85th percentile will be chosen and randomly assigned to one of the two groups of control or intervention. During the 10 weeks of the intervention, smartphone games will be given to the children with some information at the beginning about the causes and complications of obesity, food sources of fiber and vitamins, and banned foods during the intervention period. Students in the intervention group will participate in an aerobics exercise for 45 minutes three times per week under the supervision of an experienced trainer and eight CBT Sessions which were designed for children by a clinical psychologist. Anthropometric measurements, including height, weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference and waist to hip ratio(WHR), and biochemical and metabolic lab data, including fasting blood sugar (FBS), total cholesterol, high density lipoproteins (HDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL), leptin and will be measured at the baseline and 10 weeks later at the end of intervention period . Also, both questionnaires of metabolic equivalent test (MET) and Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) will be completed for each student at baseline and after 10 weeks. The students in the control group will receive traditional education in the form of lectures given by a nutritionist regarding weight management.


Assuntos
Obesidade , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Circunferência da Cintura , Relação Cintura-Quadril
16.
Glob Health Action ; 14(1): 1968598, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Levels of obesity are rising in South Africa, notably among adolescent females. Excessive energy-dense diets and physical inactivity are among the factors contributing to this increase. Given that these factors are largely behavioural, understanding young people's views of obesity can contribute to more targeted behavioural interventions. Yet little is known of how rural South African adolescents view obesity. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore rural South African adolescents' views of obesity, including their understanding of its causes, consequences, and solutions. METHODS: This qualitative study took place within the MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt) study area, in rural northeast South Africa. Three focus group discussions were held with male (n = 16) and female adolescents (n = 15), aged 14-19 years in 2018. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and the Social Cognitive Theory used to frame the findings. RESULTS: Participants presented conflicting views of obesity, with both positive and negative opinions expressed. Causes of obesity were seen to be multifactorial, including genetics, diet, lack of physical activity, and HIV treatment. Adolescents proposed medication and hospitalisation as ways to address obesity. When discussing interventions to address obesity, adolescents expressed the need for more information, suggesting that providing information to both themselves and their family members as part of interventions would be important. CONCLUSIONS: Rural South African adolescents have a complex perspective of obesity, likely driven in part by the current nutrition transition underway and do not inherently see individual behaviour as a driver or mitigator of obesity. Complex interventions including the involvement of other household members are needed to change adolescents' views on the role of the individual, and ultimately, change both individual and household behaviour to prevent obesity.


Assuntos
Obesidade , População Rural , Adolescente , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , África do Sul
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5253, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489471

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many disease-associated variants, yet mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. To understand obesity-associated variants, we generate gene regulatory annotations in adipocytes and hypothalamic neurons across cellular differentiation stages. We then test variants in 97 obesity-associated loci using a massively parallel reporter assay and identify putatively causal variants that display cell type specific or cross-tissue enhancer-modulating properties. Integrating these variants with gene regulatory information suggests genes that underlie obesity GWAS associations. We also investigate a complex genomic interval on 16p11.2 where two independent loci exhibit megabase-range, cross-locus chromatin interactions. We demonstrate that variants within these two loci regulate a shared gene set. Together, our data support a model where GWAS loci contain variants that alter enhancer activity across tissues, potentially with temporally restricted effects, to impact the expression of multiple genes. This complex model has broad implications for ongoing efforts to understand GWAS.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/fisiologia , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Pleiotropia Genética , Obesidade/genética , Adipócitos/citologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/genética , Arritmias Cardíacas/patologia , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/genética , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/patologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Gigantismo/genética , Gigantismo/patologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/patologia , Humanos , Hipotálamo/fisiologia , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , MAP Quinase Quinase 5/genética , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio do Retículo Sarcoplasmático/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcriptoma
18.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3853-3863, 2021.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468678

RESUMO

The scope of this article is to describe the association between BMI variation, eating patterns and physical activity among adults between 21 and 44 years of age from 2007 to 2012. It is a cross-sectional study using the VIGITEL database. Eating patterns were identified with Principal Components Analysis for the period from 2007 to 2012. Components with eigenvalues >1.0 were retained and factor loadings greater than |0.3| were highlighted. For each individual, a score was calculated per pattern. The Body Mass Index (ΔBMI) difference variable was then created. Linear regression with ΔBMI outcome and Poisson regression with obesity outcomes were conducted. Four eating patterns were retained: Prudent, Transition, Western and Traditional. After multivariate adjustment, ΔBMI was inversely associated with the habit of leisure-time physical activity. Obesity revealed a positive association with the Western pattern, watching television ≥3 hours a day and physical inactivity. Obesity was inversely associated with the Prudent pattern, the Traditional pattern, the practice of leisure-time physical activity and the habit of physical activity at work. Eating patterns based on unprocessed and minimally processed foods and practice of physical activity are protective factors against obesity.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Comportamento Sedentário , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia
19.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 46(8): 642-8, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472748

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at "Zusanli"(ST36)-"Sanyinjiao"(SP6) on glucose and lipid metabolism and insulin resistance (IR) in obese diabetic rats, so as to explore its mechanism underlying improvement of obesity diabetes. METHODS: SPF male rats were randomly divided into normal control, model, meridian-acupoint EA (acupoint), non-meridian non-acupoint EA (non-acupoint), and medication (metformin) groups, with 10 rats in each group. The diabetes model was established by feeding the rats with high-fat diet for 8 weeks. EA (1.5 mA, 10 Hz/100 Hz) was applied to unilateral ST36 and SP6 for 20 min, once daily (except Sundays) for 4 weeks. Rats of the medication group were treated by gavage of metformin (300 mg/kg) once daily for 4 weeks (except Sundays). The body weight and length were measured and the Lee's index was calculated. The contents of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) in the plasma were detected by using a full-automatic biochemical analyzer. The content of fasting serum insulin (FINS) was assayed by using radioimmunoassay, the fasting blood glucose (FBG) was measured, and serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity by using xanthine oxidase method, serum malondialdehyde (MDA) by color method, serum glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity by indirect method, reactive oxygen species (ROS) by Dithio-bis-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB) direct method, and the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) and insulin sensitive index (ISI) were calculated. The expression levels of pancreatic tissue P66shc mRNA and PKCß mRNA were detected by using RT-PCR, and the histopathological changes of the liver and adipose tissues were observed after H.E. staining. RESULTS: Compared with the normal control group, the Lee's index, levels of FBG, FINS, HOMA-IR, TC, TG, LDL-C, MDA, ROS, and P66shc mRNA and PKCß mRNA expressions were significantly increased (P<0.05,P<0.01), and ISI, HDL-C, SOD, GSH-Px significantly decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01) in the model group. After the interventions, the levels of Lee's index,levels of FBG, FINS, HOMA-IR, TC, TG, LDL-C, MDA, ROS, and expressions of P66shc mRNA and PKCß mRNA were remarkably down-regulated (P<0.05, P<0.01), and those of ISI, HDL-C, SOD, and GSH-Px up-regulated (P<0.05, P<0.01) in both EA and medication groups. H.E. staining showed many white adipocytes in the adipose tissue, radial and cord-like arrangement of liver cells, and many of them with vacuoles in the cytoplasm of small vesicular lipid droplets in the model group; and relative reduction of white adipocytes in number, smaller in cell body, and no obvious abnormal changes of structure and arrangement of liver cells in the EA and medication groups. CONCLUSION: EA of ST36 and SP6 can improve glucose and lipid metabolism and IR in obese diabetic rats, which may be related to its function in suppressing PKCß/P66shc signaling and oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Eletroacupuntura , Pontos de Acupuntura , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/terapia , Masculino , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/terapia , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteína 1 de Transformação que Contém Domínio 2 de Homologia de Src
20.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1605, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rates of overweight and obese adults in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) have increased dramatically in recent decades. Several anthropometric measurements are used to assess body weight status. Some anthropometric measurements might not be convenient to use in certain communities and settings. The objective of this study was to assess the agreement of four anthropometric measurements and indices of weight status and to investigate their associations with cardiometabolic risks. METHODS: The study design was a cross-section population-based study. Adults living in the Northern Emirates were surveyed. Fasting blood samples, blood pressure readings and anthropometric measurements were also collected. RESULTS: A total of 3531 subjects were included in this study. The prevalence of obesity/overweight was 66.4% based on body mass index (BMI), 61.7% based on waist circumference (WC), 64.6% based on waist-hip ratio (WHR) and 71% based on neck circumference (NC). There were moderate agreements between BMI and WC and between WC and WHR, with kappa (k) ranging from 0.41 to 0.60. NC showed poor agreement with BMI, WC and WHR, with k ranging from 0 to 0.2. Overweight and obesity based on BMI, WC and WHR were significantly associated with cardiometabolic risks. CONCLUSION: Overall, there was a moderate to a poor agreement between BMI, WC, WHR and NC. Particularly, NC showed poor agreement with BMI, WC and WHR. BMI and WC showed better performance for identifying cardiometabolic risks than WHR and NC.


Assuntos
Obesidade , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura , Relação Cintura-Quadril
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