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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1167: 129-155, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520353

RESUMO

Multiple large-scale epidemiological studies have identified obesity as an important risk factor for a variety of human cancers, particularly cancers of the uterus, gallbladder, kidney, liver, colon, and ovary, but there is much uncertainty regarding how obesity increases the cancer risks. Given that obesity has been consistently identified as a major risk factor for uterine tumors, the most common malignancies of the female reproductive system, we use uterine tumors as a pathological context to survey the relevant literature and propose a novel hypothesis: chronic downregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8) module, composed of CDK8 (or its paralog CDK19), Cyclin C, MED12 (or MED12L), and MED13 (or MED13L), by elevated insulin or insulin-like growth factor signaling in obese women may increase the chances to dysregulate the activities of transcription factors regulated by the CDK8 module, thereby increasing the risk of uterine tumors. Although we focus on endometrial cancer and uterine leiomyomas (or fibroids), two major forms of uterine tumors, our model may offer additional insights into how obesity increases the risk of other types of cancers and diseases. To illustrate the power of model organisms for studying human diseases, here we place more emphasis on the findings obtained from Drosophila melanogaster.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster , Obesidade/complicações , Neoplasias Uterinas/patologia , Animais , Quinase 8 Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Complexo Mediador/genética , Fatores de Risco
2.
Am Surg ; 85(8): 927-933, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560314

RESUMO

Selection of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) candidates is increasingly inclusive of patients with high BMI. We aim to characterize the influence of obesity on the surgical outcome measures of prolonged operative time and unplanned reoperation. We reviewed the records of obese and normal weight OLT recipients over a 10-year period from a single institution. Variables that trended (P < 0.1) with endpoints on univariate analysis were put into multivariate logistic regression models to determine independent association (P < 0.05). We included 195 obese and 171 normal weight OLT recipients in our study. On multivariate analysis, obesity was the only preoperative risk factor that trended with unplanned reoperation (odds ratio 2, P = 0.05). Similarly, only obesity remained independently associated with prolonged length of operation (defined as ≥275 minutes) on multivariate analysis (odds ratio 1.7, P = 0.04). In summary, obesity may make OLT more technically challenging and, thus, represents an independent risk factor for unplanned reoperations and prolonged operative time.


Assuntos
Transplante de Fígado , Obesidade/complicações , Duração da Cirurgia , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tennessee/epidemiologia
3.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 66, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553376

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of the ratio between the waist circumference and the height in the identification of health risk compared with the correlation matrix between the anthropometric parameters body mass index and waist circumference. METHODS: A population-based study presenting a transversal cut in a representative sample of the Brazilian adult and older population. The combination of the body mass index with the waist circumference resulted in health risk categories, and the cutoff points of the ratio between the waist circumference and the height as anthropometric indicator were used for classification of low and increased risk. Poisson regression was used to verify the association of systemic arterial hypertension with the health risk categories. RESULTS: The results showed 26% of adult men, 10.4% of adult women and more than 30% of the older adults of both genders classified as without risk by the combination matrix between body mass index and waist circumference presented a ratio between the waist circumference and height that showed increased risk. All risk categories continued to be associated with hypertension after control for confounding factors, being almost two times higher for adults with moderate and high risk according to both methods. When the waist-to-height ratio was used as a risk indicator, the prevalence of hypertension ratios for the older adults was 1.37 (95%CI 1.16-1.63) and 1.35 (95%CI 1.12-1.62) for men and women, respectively, being these values close to the combination matrix body mass index and waist circumference. CONCLUSIONS: The waist-to-height ratio identified more individuals at early health risk than the combination matrix between the body mass index and the waist circumference and showed comparable ability to identify health risk, regardless of gender and age, regarding the prevalence ratios for systemic arterial hypertension.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso/complicações , Medição de Risco/métodos , Razão Cintura-Estatura , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Distribuição de Poisson , Valores de Referência , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto Jovem
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(36): e17081, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490412

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and hypoglycemic risk of sitagliptin versus that of GLP-1 receptor agonists in the management of obese/overweight patients with T2DM. METHODS: EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched; randomized controlled trials comparing the efficacy of sitagliptin versus that of GLP-1 receptor agonists in obese/overweight patients with T2DM were included. The mean BMI of participants for each study was ≥30 kg/m. We conducted a meta-analysis according to the methods specified in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. RevMan 5.1 software was used to perform the meta-analysis. The Cochrane Q test and I statistics were used to estimate the heterogeneity among studies. The results are expressed as the mean difference (MD) or risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: A total of 8 eligible studies were included in our meta-analysis. Compared with GLP-1 receptor agonists, sitagliptin was less effective at reducing HbA1c (0.42 [0.27, 0.56]), FPG (0.78 [0.36, 1.19]), PPG (2.61 [1.35, 3.87]), and body weight (1.42 [0.71, 2.14]). Conversely, there were no significant differences in SBP reduction (0.38 [-1.14, 1.89]), DBP reduction (-0.30 [-1.00, 0.39]), and hypoglycemic risk (1.09 [0.50, 2.35]). CONCLUSION: For obese/overweight patients, sitagliptin may exert a less potent effect on HbA1C, FPG, PPG, and weight reduction than GLP-1 receptor agonists, but these drugs had a similar efficacy in reducing blood pressure; furthermore, there was no significant difference in hypoglycemic risk.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Obesidade/complicações , Fosfato de Sitagliptina/uso terapêutico , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Fosfato de Sitagliptina/farmacologia
5.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 65(8): 1061-1066, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531602

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the potential association of foot pain and plasmatic adipocytes as physiological biomarkers of childhood obesity with the incidence of flatfoot in a cohort of Egyptian school children aged 6 -12 years. METHODS: A total of 550 Egyptian schoolchildren (220 boys and 330 girls) aged 6-12 years were randomly invited to participate in this descriptive survey analysis. For all children, we assessed the diagnosis and severity of flatfoot as well as plasma adipocytes, as well as adiponectin, leptin, resistin, IL-6, and TNF-α, using the Dennis method and immunoassay techniques respectively. Foot pain was assessed by using a standard VAS of 100 mm and Faces Pain Scale, respectively. RESULTS: Flat foot was predicted in 30.4% of school-age children, most of them showed a higher frequency of overweight (33.3%) and obesity (62.5%). Boys showed higher ranges of flat foot than girls. Foot pain significantly correlated with flat foot and obesity among the studied populations. In overweight-obese children, plasmatic adipocyte variables, as well as adiponectin, leptin, resistin, IL-6, TNF-α showed significant correlations with foot stance, especially in boys. Also, the studied adipocyte variables along with BMI, age, gender explained about~65% of the variance of flatfoot with pain among our school-age students. CONCLUSION: Foot pain showed an association with flat foot and childhood obesity in 30.4% of school-age students (6-12 years). Foot pain was shown to correlate positively with the incidence of flat foot and changes in adiposity markers, as well as adiponectin, leptin, resistin, Il-6, TNF-α.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/química , Biomarcadores/sangue , Pé Chato/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Dor/sangue , Adiponectina/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Pé Chato/complicações , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Dor/etiologia , Medição da Dor , Resistina/sangue , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(37): e17058, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517826

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The prevalence of obesity has increased over the past few years, becoming a public health problem. Generally, the primary therapeutic remedies are diet, physical exercise, medication, and bariatric surgery. However, an increased number of obese and overweight people are using complementary and herbal slimming supplements. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 70-years-old Caucasian woman presented to the outpatient clinic with tachycardia (>100 bpm), insomnia, anxiety, and recent weight loss (6 kilos in 3 months). She had no previous thyroid disease, but she presented transient hyperthyroidism at 3 months after ingestion of tablets containing kelp seaweeds. DIAGNOSES: Hypertensive and obese patient, without previous thyroid disease, presented with transient hyperthyroidism at 3 months following ingestion of tablets containing kelp seaweed. INTERVENTIONS: The kelp-containing tablets were discontinued, and antithyroid therapy with Methimazole was initiated as follows: Methimazole at 15 mg/day for 1 month, at 10 mg/day in the second month, and 5 mg/day for the third month. OUTCOMES: After 3 months of antithyroid therapy and without the consumption of kelp - containing tablets, normal thyroid function was regained. Further analysis revealed normal thyroid function, so the hyperthyroidism reversed completely. LESSONS: Adults who consume complementary medication based on kelp seaweed should be informed of the risk of developing thyroid dysfunction also in the absence of any pre-existing thyroid disease. Due to the high iodine content, supplements containing kelp should be taken with the supervision of a physician and with monitoring of thyroid function.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/efeitos adversos , Terapias Complementares/efeitos adversos , Hipertireoidismo/etiologia , Kelp , Idoso , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertireoidismo/diagnóstico , Hipertireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(37): e17098, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517837

RESUMO

Lung cancer has become the leading cause of cancer-related deaths around the world. In addition to genetic risk factors and smoking, the metabolic risk factors remain to be elusive.To evaluate the associations between obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and pulmonary adenocarcinoma in patients with lung cancer.Consecutive operation-proven lung cancer patients with assessment of metabolic disorders and liver ultrasound in 2009 and 2013 were retrospectively enrolled. T-test and multivariate logistic regression were applied to evaluate the contribution of individual factors to lung adenocarcinoma, as well as the synergistic effects between these factors.Among 3664 lung cancer patients with ultrasound examination, 2844 cases were enrolled for further analysis. Of them, 1053 (37.0%) were females, 1242 (43.7%) were cigarette smokers, 1658 (58.3%) were diagnosed as lung adenocarcinoma, 744 (26.2%) had obesity, and 614 (21.6%) had NAFLD. Proportion of female gender, nonsmoker, obesity, NAFLD, and serum lipid levels in patients with adenocarcinoma were significantly higher than those in other subtypes of lung cancer, and in 2013 than in 2009 (all P < .01). NAFLD and obesity were shown as independent factors and positively associated with pulmonary adenocarcinoma, along with female gender and nonsmoking, higher serum levels of cholesterol. NAFLD and other contributing factors exhibited no synergistic effects on adenocarcinoma.Obesity and NAFLD might increase the risk for pulmonary adenocarcinoma, especially in nonsmoking females, and underscore the need for further study into carcinogenic mechanisms and preventive interventions.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/classificação , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Obesidade/complicações , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 17(4): eAO4632, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433007

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential value of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity as prognostic predictors in hospitalized elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: A cross-sectional study based on data collected from elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction, admitted to a public hospital located in the Northeastern region of Brazil, from April to July 2015. The diagnosis of sarcopenia was based on muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance measurements. Cardiovascular risk and prognostic markers, such as troponin and creatine kynase MB isoenzyme values, acute myocardial infarction classification according to ST segment elevation, and thrombolysis in myocardial infarction score were used. RESULTS: The sample comprised 99 patients with mean age of 71.6 (±7.4) years. Prevalence of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity was 64.6% and 35.4%, respectively. Sarcopenia was more prevalent among males (p=0.017) aged >80 years (p=0.008). Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction was the only marker of cardiovascular risk significantly associated with sarcopenia (p=0.002). CONCLUSION: Prevalence of sarcopenia was high and associated with thrombolysis in myocardial infarction risk score. Sarcopenic obesity affected approximately one-third of patients and was not associated with any of the prognostic predictors.


Assuntos
Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Sarcopenia/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia
9.
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 76(3): 159-163, 2019 08 29.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465183

RESUMO

Background: Excess weight (EW) and alterations in lipid metabolism constitute risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adults and children. Prevalence of dyslipidemia in schoolchildren from Jujuy with EW is analyzed in this study. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study of 891 schoolchildren 10-14 years old (367 girls; 524 boys) from the province of Jujuy (Northwestern Argentina). Prevalence of dyslipidemia for Overweight (OW) and Obesity (OB) were calculated, according to the International Obesity Task Force cut-off points. Prevalence of lipid alterations were analyzed and 7 dyslipidemic profiles were established. Comparisons and associations between variables were analyzed by Chi-square test. Crude and adjusted odds ratio were estimated from a logistic regressions. Results: Regardless of sex and nutritional status, 13.7%, 21.8%, and 16.5% of schoolchildren showed high values of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol, respectively, and 20.3% had low HDL cholesterol. Significantly higher values of HDL cholesterol were found in OW, and of triglycerides in OB. A significant association was recorded between OB and high triglycerides. Schoolchildren with OB have a 54% more chances of showing at least one lipid alteration. Conclusion: EW, and especially OB, constitutes an important risk factor in the development of dyslipidemia in schoolchildren from Jujuy.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/etiologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Adolescente , Argentina/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Criança , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Triglicerídeos/sangue
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(33): e16842, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415408

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Engorgement of the epidural venous plexus (EVP) is a rare cause of nerve root impingement. Dilated epidural veins cause compression of the thecal sac and spinal nerve roots, leading to lumbar radiculopathy. PATIENT CONCERNS: Here we describe a case of severe lumbar radiculopathy in a 15-year-old morbidly obese boy. DIAGNOSIS: Enhanced lumbar magnetic resonance imaging revealed left sided L1-L2 disc protrusion and engorgement of the lumbar EVP, resulting in narrowing of the thecal sac in the entire lumbar spine. There was no evidence of an intra-abdominal mass, thrombosis of the inferior vena cava, or vascular malformation. INTERVENTIONS: A caudal epidural block was administered under fluoroscopic guidance. The patient reported a 30% reduction in pain intensity for just 1 day. OUTCOMES: The patient has been followed up for 2 years. He continues to take medication, including morphine sulfate 15 mg, gabapentin 300 mg, and oxycodone 20 mg per day. He is on a diet with exercise for weight reduction. CONCLUSION: An engorged EVP should be considered in the differential diagnosis of radiculopathy in morbidly obese patients.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Oxicodona/administração & dosagem , Dor Intratável/tratamento farmacológico , Radiculopatia/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Anestesia Caudal/métodos , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Obesidade/complicações , Medição da Dor , Radiculopatia/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(33): e16869, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415423

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Precise lung isolation technique with visual confirmation is essential for thoracic surgeries to create a safe and clear surgical field. However, in certain situations, such as when patients have massive pulmonary secretion or when the fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) is not applicable, lung isolation has been performed blindly. PATIENT CONCERN: A 52-year-old woman, whose airway was unable to visualize with FOB due to massive pulmonary secretion, was presented for bilateral sequential lung transplantation. Extracorporeal membranous oxygenation, tracheostomy, and mechanical ventilation were applied to the patient for 39 days preoperatively as a bridge for lung transplantation. DIAGNOSIS: Patient was diagnosed with an idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and obesity. INTERVENTION: Initially, height-based blind positioning with a conventional double-lumen endobronchial tube (DLT) failed to ventilate the patient properly, and the confirmation of DLT positioning with FOB was impossible due to massive pulmonary secretion. Therefore, a novel DLT (ANKOR DLT) that has one more cuff, located at a point between the distal opening of the tracheal lumen and the starting point of bronchial cuff, than conventional DLT was used for the lung isolation in the patient. OUTCOMES: After the completion of lung graft, FOB finding showed that the ANKOR DLT was optimally positioned at the tracheobronchial tree of the patient, and its depth was 2.5 cm shallower than that of the conventional tube. LESSONS: ANKOR DLT would be a feasible choice to achieve successful blind lung isolation when the use of FOB is impossible to achieve the optimal lung isolation.


Assuntos
Broncoscopia/instrumentação , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/cirurgia , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Ventilação Monopulmonar/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/complicações , Transplante de Pulmão/instrumentação , Transplante de Pulmão/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações
13.
Life Sci ; 234: 116780, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430453

RESUMO

Bronchial asthma and obesity are common health problems. Obesity is already responsible for 300,000 deaths per year. AIMS: The aim of the present study was to assess whether apocynin, alpha lipoic acid and probiotic administration in combination with low-fat diet supplementation influences the levels of antioxidant enzymes in the pulmonary tissues of obese asthmatic mice. MAIN METHODS: The study was performed on male C57/BL6 mice divided into 10 groups: (I) control; (II) asthma; (III) obesity; (IV) asthma + obesity; (V) asthma + obesity + apocynin p.o. 15 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks; (VI) asthma + obesity + low-fat diet for 12 weeks; (VII) asthma + obesity + low-fat diet for 12 weeks with apocynin p.o. 15 mg/kg/day; (VIII) asthma + obesity + low-fat diet with probiotics for 12 weeks; (IX) asthma + obesity + low-fat diet for 12 weeks with lipoic acid p.o. 100 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks; (X) asthma + obesity + standard diet with probiotics for 12 weeks. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activity were examined. The administration of apocynin alone and apocynin in combination with a low-fat diet resulted in a significant increase in SOD values (respectively p < 0.001; p = 0.010). Application of probiotics resulted in a decrease in CAT activity (p = 0.037) and an increase in GPx activity (p < 0.001) compared to obese asthmatic mice. The administration of lipoic acid resulted in an increase in GR activity (p = 0.024 vs. control). KEY FINDINGS: Supplementation containing apocynin, lipoic acid and probiotics has a positive influence on the antioxidant capacity of the pulmonary tissues of obese asthmatic mice. SIGNIFICANCE: These results may contribute to the development of new therapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Acetofenonas/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Ácido Tióctico/uso terapêutico , Animais , Asma/complicações , Asma/metabolismo , Catalase/análise , Catalase/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/análise , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/análise , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
14.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 74(3): 277-286, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278560

RESUMO

Obesity is a major worldwide health threat. It is characterized by an abnormal adipose tissue overgrowth together with increased monocytes infiltration, causing inflammation and oxidative stress, events associated with several illnesses. Investigations have focused on the benefits of native fruit consumption, claiming these to be natural sources of bioactive compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory characteristics. It has been widely stated that berries are a source of the most antioxidant compounds, and, thus, seem highly promising to endure research efforts on these vegetal matrices. The present article describes botanical, chemical and biomedical features of the Chilean native berries, Aristotelia chilensis, Ugni molinae, and Berberis microphylla. This work aims to potentiate incoming research focused on the search for novel treatments for first-order diseases with these particular plant sources.


Assuntos
Berberis/química , Elaeocarpaceae/química , Frutas/química , Myrtaceae/química , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Chile , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Estresse Oxidativo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
15.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 52, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269091

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the dietary patterns of pregnant women with maternal excessive body weight and gestational diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted with a convenience sample of 785 adult pregnant women attended by the Unified Health System of Ribeirão Preto, state of São Paulo, between 2011 and 2012. Two 24-hour dietary recalls, corrected by the multiple source method, were employed . For the classification of the body mass index and the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus, the criteria by Atalah and the World Health Organization were used, respectively. Dietary patterns were obtained by principal component analysis using the Varimax rotation method. The relationship between adherence to patterns, overweight and obesity was analyzed by multinomial logistic regression models and the relationship with gestational diabetes mellitus by adjusted unconditional logistic regression models. RESULTS: We identified four dietary patterns: "traditional Brazilian"; "snacks"; "coffee" and "healthy". Women with a higher adherence to the "Healthy" (OR = 0.52; 95%CI 0.33-0.83) and "Brazilian Traditional" patterns (OR = 0.61; 95%CI 0.38-0.96) presented a lower chance of obesity, when compared to women with lower adherence, regardless of confounding factors. After adjustment for maternal excessive body weight, there was no association between dietary patterns and gestational diabetes mellitus. CONCLUSIONS: Among the pregnant women, greater adherence to "traditional Brazilian" and "healthy" patterns was inversely associated with obesity, but no relationship was identified with gestational diabetes mellitus after adjusting for excessive body weight. Prospective studies are recommended to investigate the relationship between dietary patterns, overweight and gestational diabetes mellitus, reducing the chance of reverse causality.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Gravidez , Ganho de Peso , Adulto Jovem
16.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 17(3): eAO4782, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271610

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of risky sexual behavior and its association with overweight and obesity among adolescent students. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study, conducted in public schools with adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. We used the questionnaire Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The body mass index percentiles were calculated by means of table from the Center for Control and Prevention of Diseases. Possible associations were assessed using the χ2 test and binary logistic regression model. The odds ratio and 95%CI were calculated. RESULTS: We evaluated 1,169 students, and 33.9% reported having had sexual intercourse. Of those, 33% did not use a condom during their last intercourse, and 32.7% had had four or more sexual partners thus far. Regarding nutritional status, 15.3% were overweight or obese. In relation to the non-use of condoms, we observed only an association with the number of lifetime sexual partners (OR: 0.50; 95%CI: 0.28-0.88). The number of lifetime sexual partners was associated with males (OR: 9.17; 95%CI: 4.16-20.22), sexual debut age at 13 years or less (OR: 2.51; 95%CI: 1.23-5.13) and drinking alcohol or using drugs before the last intercourse (OR: 6.16; 95%CI: 2.14-17.73). CONCLUSION: Risky sexual behavior rates were high and no association was found between risky sexual behaviors and overweight and obesity.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Assunção de Riscos , Fatores Sexuais , Parceiros Sexuais
17.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 66: 134-137, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301637

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of the work is to show and compare three reported cases of Excited Delirium Syndrome, which happened in Warsaw, Poland, from 2013 to 2017. We compared the results of three autopsy and toxicological findings of unexpectedly deceased males and the circumstances of their death, based on the police records. RESULTS: There were no significant findings of chronic diseases or multiple traumas leading us to the clear explanation of cause of death. We noted a rapid cardiopulmonary failure accompanied by drug abuse in all three cases, that happened following a stressful stimulus, evoked by a police restraint in prone position. All patients resembled similar external characteristics and BMI and had used drugs before death. CONCLUSION: A lack of the autopsy findings suggests the Excited Delirium Syndrome as a cause of death. The syndrome may be diagnosed after death, following the definition of exclusion of other somatic causes of death, preceded by symptoms during a stressful event. The syndrome occurs in overweight males, abusing especially stimulants. The physical restraint plays an important role in the initiation of the symptoms. The pathophysiology of the syndrome is poorly understood, but some theories underline dopamine transporters stimulation. To this day, there are no published Excited Delirium guidelines for forensic specialists or pathologists.


Assuntos
Morte Súbita/etiologia , Delírio/diagnóstico , Restrição Física/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Humanos , Masculino , Entorpecentes/análise , Obesidade/complicações , Polícia , Prisioneiros , Decúbito Ventral , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias
18.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(3): 289-295, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The evaluation of physical fitness is important to determine workloads and to assess the effectiveness of exercise interventions in obese people. AIM: To determine the maximum aerobic power output (MAPO) in overweight and obese individuals and to establish reference parameters for the Chilean population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred five men and 218 women performed a cycle ergometer test up to 85% of their maximum heart rate. MAPO was determined by linear extrapolation of the theoretical maximum heart rate. RESULTS: Among men, MAPO values were 234.9 ± 48.4 w for body mass index (BMI) values between 30 and 34.9 kg/m2, 235.1 ± 69.7 w for BMI between 35 and 39.9 kg/m2, 270.2 ± 86.5 w for BMI over 40 kg/m2. MAPO relative values were 2.27 ± 0.5, 2.16 ± 0.6 and 1.96 ± 0.8 w/kg, respectively. Among women, MAPO was 172.6 ± 36.1 w for a BMI < 30 kg/m2, 169.2 ± 39.4 w for BMI between 30 and 34.9 kg/m2, 179.5 ± 48.8 w f179.5 ± 48.8 w for BMI between 35 and 39.9 kg/m2 and 202.3 ± 57.3 w for BMI of 40 kg/m2 or over. The relative values were 2.33 ± 0.5; 2.02 ± 0.5; 1.91 ± 0.5 and 1.81 ± 0.5 w / kg (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: MAPO estimation with a cycle ergometer test is well tolerated in overweight and obese individuals. MAPO decreased along with BMI increments in women. No association between BMI and MAPO in men was observed.


Assuntos
Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Consumo de Oxigênio , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Chile , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aptidão Física , Testes de Função Respiratória , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 27: e3161, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Português, Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340346

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to detect the risk of development of type 2 diabetes in nurses and its relationship with metabolic alterations. METHOD: cross-sectional study, with 155 nurses. The variables investigated were: sociodemographic, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip index, lipid profile, basal glycemia and oral glucose tolerance curve. The Finnish Diabetes Risk Score was used to collect data. RESULTS: 155 nurses were included, with an average age of 44 years and 85% were overweight or obese. 52% had a family history of diabetes and 21% had occasional hyperglycemia. With respect to the risk, 59% were identified with moderate and very high risk for type 2 diabetes. Glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c and insulin resistance increased in parallel to the increased risk for type 2 diabetes, although lipids did not increase. 27% of the sample had impaired fasting glycemia. 15% had glucose intolerance and 5% had type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSION: there was a high detection rate of people at risk for type 2 diabetes (59%) and the high and very high risk score was associated with high levels of glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, glucose, insulin and insulin resistance, but not with lipids.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia , Resistência à Insulina , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Estado Pré-Diabético/complicações , Estado Pré-Diabético/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e056, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271568

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the association between weight status and ΔDMFS among 12-year-old schoolchildren from South Brazil. A total of 801 12-year-old schoolchildren were followed-up for 2.5 ± 0.3 years. Data collection included questionnaire, recording of anthropometric measures (height and weight), and caries examination. The outcome was the difference between DMFS (number of decayed, missing or filled surfaces) at follow-up and baseline (ΔDMFS). Weight status, based on body mass index-for-age Z-scores, was considered the main predictor variable. Negative binomial regression models were used to model the association, and rate ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were estimated. A multivariable fractional polynomial model was used to further explore the relationship between obesity and dental caries. DMFS increased by 0.86 (95%CI = 0.65-1.07), 0.91 (95%CI = 0.59-1.23), and 0.42 (95%CI = 0.03-0.80) for normal weight, overweight, and obese schoolchildren, respectively. Obese adolescents had significantly lower ΔDMFS than normal weight ones (p < 0.05). No significant association between categories of weight status and ΔDMFS was found (overweight, IRR=0.92, 95%CI = 0.69-1.21, p = 0.54; obese IRR = 0.75, 95%CI = 0.51-1.12, p = 0.16). However, the multivariable fractional polynomial model showed an inverted U shaped relationship with a decreasing ΔDMFS with increasing BMI (p < 0.05). This population-based longitudinal study showed an inverse association between obesity and ΔDMFS over a 2.5-year period among South Brazilian adolescents.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Índice CPO , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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