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1.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 13(1): e1-e7, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a public health threat of global concern with increasing prevalence in many countries, including Nigeria. AIM: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and determinants of hypertension in a rural agrarian community in Edo North, Nigeria. SETTING: The study was carried out in Ayua, a community in Edo North, southern Nigeria. METHODS: This cross-sectional descriptive study involved the use of a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire to obtain relevant data. Body mass index (BMI), blood pressure and glucose were recorded. Data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. RESULTS: Two hundred and nineteen participants aged 15 years completed the study with a mean age of 54.03 ± 16.61 years and females comprising 159 (72.6%) of the total. The prevalence of hypertension was 27.9% (in 61 participants). Twenty-one (9.8%) respondents gave a family history of hypertension. The mean BMI amongst respondents was 27.10 ± 6.61 kg/m2. Obesity and pre-obesity were found in 58 (26.5%) and 71(32.4%) respondents, respectively. The determinants of hypertension were age and BMI. Compared with those who were less than 40 years old, those aged 40-65 years and 65 years had 1.9 and 4.2 times increased odds of developing hypertension, respectively. Similarly, compared with the non-obese, obese participants had 2.3 times increased odd of having hypertension. CONCLUSION: Hypertension was highly prevalent in this rural community. Health sensitisation and intervention programmes are recommended in rural communities for early detection and management of hypertension, especially amongst older and obese adults.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/etnologia , Hipertensão/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/etnologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 21(1): 144, 2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although obesity, defined by body mass index (BMI), has been associated with a higher risk of hospitalisation and more severe course of illness in Covid-19 positive patients amongst the British population, it is unclear if this translates into increased mortality. Furthermore, given that BMI is an insensitive indicator of adiposity, the effect of adipose volume on Covid-19 outcomes is also unknown. METHODS: We used the UK Biobank repository, which contains clinical and anthropometric data and is linked to Public Health England Covid-19 healthcare records, to address our research question. We performed age- and sex- adjusted logistic regression and Chi-squared test to compute the odds for Covid-19-related mortality as a consequence of increasing BMI, and other more sensitive indices of adiposity such as waist:hip ratio (WHR) and percent body fat, as well as concomitant cardiometabolic illness. RESULTS: 13,502 participants were tested for Covid-19 (mean age 70 ± 8 years, 48.9% male). 1582 tested positive (mean age 68 ± 9 years, 52.8% male), of which 305 died (mean age 75 ± 6 years, 65.5% male). Increasing adiposity was associated with higher odds for Covid-19-related mortality. For every unit increase in BMI, WHR and body fat, the odds of death amongst Covid19-positive participants increased by 1.04 (95% CI 1.01-1.07), 10.71 (95% CI 1.57-73.06) and 1.03 (95% CI 1.01-1.05), respectively (all p < 0.05). Referenced to Covid-19 positive participants with a normal weight (BMI 18.5-25 kg/m2), Covid-19 positive participants with BMI > 35 kg/m2 had significantly higher odds of Covid-19-related death (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.06-2.74, p < 0.05). Covid-19-positive participants with metabolic (diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia) or cardiovascular morbidity (atrial fibrillation, angina) also had higher odds of death. CONCLUSIONS: Anthropometric indices that are more sensitive to adipose volume and its distribution than BMI, as well as concurrent cardiometabolic illness, are associated with higher odds of Covid-19-related mortality amongst the UK Biobank cohort that tested positive for the infection. These results suggest adipose volume may contribute to adverse Covid-19-related outcomes associated with obesity.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Massa Corporal , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/patologia , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Mortalidade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
3.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 332, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229605

RESUMO

Recently, we face a surge in the fast-forward Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic with nearly 170 million confirmed cases and almost 3.5 million confirmed deaths at the end of May 2021. Obesity, also known as the pandemic of the 21st century, has been evolving as an adverse prognostic marker. Obesity is associated with a higher risk of being SARS-CoV-2-positive (46%), as well as hospitalization (113%) and death (48%) due to COVID-19. It is especially true for subjects with morbid obesity. Also, observational studies suggest that in the case of COVID-19, no favorable "obesity paradox" is observed. Therefore, it is postulated to introduce a new entity, i.e., coronavirus disease-related cardiometabolic syndrome (CIRCS). In theory, it applies to all stages of COVID-19, i.e., prevention, acute proceedings (from COVID-19 diagnosis to resolution or three months), and long-term outcomes. Consequently, lifestyle changes, glycemic control, and regulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway have crucial implications for preventing and managing subjects with COVID-19. Finally, it is crucial to use cardioprotective drugs such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers and statins. Nevertheless, there is the need to conduct prospective studies and registries better to evaluate the issue of obesity in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/terapia , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Exercício Físico , Hospitalização , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/terapia , Distanciamento Físico , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário
5.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254550, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has rapidly required a high demand of hospitalization and an increased number of intensive care units (ICUs) admission. Therefore, it became mandatory to develop prognostic models to evaluate critical COVID-19 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluate a cohort of consecutive COVID-19 critically ill patients admitted to ICU with a confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. A multivariable Cox regression model including demographic, clinical and laboratory findings was developed to assess the predictive value of these variables. Internal validation was performed using the bootstrap resampling technique. The model's discriminatory ability was assessed with Harrell's C-statistic and the goodness-of-fit was evaluated with calibration plot. RESULTS: 242 patients were included [median age, 64 years (56-71 IQR), 196 (81%) males]. Hypertension was the most common comorbidity (46.7%), followed by diabetes (15.3%) and heart disease (14.5%). Eighty-five patients (35.1%) died within 28 days after ICU admission and the median time from ICU admission to death was 11 days (IQR 6-18). In multivariable model after internal validation, age, obesity, procaltitonin, SOFA score and PaO2/FiO2 resulted as independent predictors of 28-day mortality. The C-statistic of the model showed a very good discriminatory capacity (0.82). CONCLUSIONS: We present the results of a multivariable prediction model for mortality of critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted to ICU. After adjustment for other factors, age, obesity, procalcitonin, SOFA and PaO2/FiO2 were independently associated with 28-day mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients. The calibration plot revealed good agreements between the observed and expected probability of death.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Mortalidade/tendências , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Obesidade/epidemiologia
6.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 18: E66, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197283

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Severe COVID-19 illness in adults has been linked to underlying medical conditions. This study identified frequent underlying conditions and their attributable risk of severe COVID-19 illness. METHODS: We used data from more than 800 US hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release (PHD-SR) to describe hospitalized patients aged 18 years or older with COVID-19 from March 2020 through March 2021. We used multivariable generalized linear models to estimate adjusted risk of intensive care unit admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, and death associated with frequent conditions and total number of conditions. RESULTS: Among 4,899,447 hospitalized adults in PHD-SR, 540,667 (11.0%) were patients with COVID-19, of whom 94.9% had at least 1 underlying medical condition. Essential hypertension (50.4%), disorders of lipid metabolism (49.4%), and obesity (33.0%) were the most common. The strongest risk factors for death were obesity (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 1.30; 95% CI, 1.27-1.33), anxiety and fear-related disorders (aRR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.25-1.31), and diabetes with complication (aRR = 1.26; 95% CI, 1.24-1.28), as well as the total number of conditions, with aRRs of death ranging from 1.53 (95% CI, 1.41-1.67) for patients with 1 condition to 3.82 (95% CI, 3.45-4.23) for patients with more than 10 conditions (compared with patients with no conditions). CONCLUSION: Certain underlying conditions and the number of conditions were associated with severe COVID-19 illness. Hypertension and disorders of lipid metabolism were the most frequent, whereas obesity, diabetes with complication, and anxiety disorders were the strongest risk factors for severe COVID-19 illness. Careful evaluation and management of underlying conditions among patients with COVID-19 can help stratify risk for severe illness.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Complicações do Diabetes , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Multimorbidade , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Obesidade , Transtornos Fóbicos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , Comorbidade , Complicações do Diabetes/diagnóstico , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Fóbicos/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208529

RESUMO

On 11 March 2020, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). This study focuses on a narrative review about the illness during the first year of the pandemic in relation to obesity. Databases were used to search studies published up to 8 December 2020. In total, 4430 articles and other scientific literature were found, and 24 articles were included in this one-year narrative review. The mean BMI value of severe COVID-19 patients ranged from 24.5 to 33.4 kg/m2, versus <18.5 to 24.3 kg/m2 for non-severe patients. Articles using the terms obesity or overweight without indicating the BMI value in these patients were common, but this is not useful, as the anthropometric parameters, when not defined by this index, are confusing due to the classification being different in the West compared to among Asian and Korean criteria-based adults. We proposed a new term, called COVID obesity, to define the importance of this anthropometric parameter, among others, in relation with this pandemic.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Comorbidade , Humanos , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
8.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(7): 1015-1021, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34290177

RESUMO

Background: The relationship between body mass index (BMI) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescence is important but there is a dearth of this information among developing countries such as Nigeria. To assess the relationship between BMI and HRQoL among healthy schooling adolescents in Southwestern Nigeria. Aims: We assessed the relationship between BMI and HRQoL among healthy schooling adolescents in southwestern Nigeria. Methods: In a cross-sectional study design, 650 adolescents were selected and interviewed about their quality of life in the preceding 1 month using a validated instrument with contents adapted from the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQLTM) questionnaire. The BMI was calculated and plotted on the Center for Disease Control and Prevention percentile chart to categorize as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese. Comparisons were made using Student's t-test, ANOVA, and linear regression model at P = 0.05. Results: Participants mean BMI and overall HRQoL score was 19.0 ± 3.0 kg/m2 and 73.7 ± 11.7, respectively. The prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obesity was 6.9%, 2.3%, and 0.6%, respectively. Females (72.3 ± 12.2) had a significantly lower overall mean HRQoL score than males (75.0 ± 11.1), P = 0.048. Post-hoc ANOVA showed that obese adolescents had significantly lower mean HRQoL in school functioning domain (55.0 ± 20.8) than underweight (83.5 ± 14.), and normal BMI (81.3 ± 16.3) participants (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Obesity reduces HRQoL in the school functioning domain among adolescents in Ibadan, Nigeria. Our finding buttresses the need to monitor body mass and size in high schools for enhancing quality of life.


Assuntos
Obesidade , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas
10.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(7)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202323

RESUMO

Adipokines are active molecules with pleiotropic effects produced by adipose tissue and involved in obesity-related metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Arterial stiffness, which is a consequence of arteriosclerosis, has been shown to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of arterial stiffness is complex but incompletely understood. Adipokines dysregulation may induce, by various mechanisms, vascular inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and vascular remodeling, leading to increased arterial stiffness. This article summarizes literature data regarding adipokine-related pathogenetic mechanisms involved in the development of arterial stiffness, particularly in obesity, as well as the results of clinical and epidemiological studies which investigated the relationship between adipokines and arterial stiffness.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Rigidez Vascular , Adipocinas , Tecido Adiposo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Humanos , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203684

RESUMO

This study explored intraindividual multidimensional profiles integrating psychosocial factors, namely, body image and satisfaction, weight-related self-stigma, positivity, and happiness, and behavioural-lifestyle factors, namely, adherence to a healthy diet, among Spanish adults with overweight or obesity. We further aimed to investigate the association of excess weight (i.e., measured body mass index, BMI) with the abovementioned multidimensional configurations. A convenience sample of 100 adult individuals (60% females) with excessive weight (69% overweight; 31% obesity) was recruited. They completed self-reports regarding the study variables, and their weight and height were measured. With a perspective centered on the individual, a cluster analysis was performed. Three distinct intraindividual psychosocial and diet-related profiles were identified: a group of healthy individuals with excess weight (46%); a group of individuals who were negatively affected by their excessive weight and showed the most distressed profile (18%); and a group of dysfunctional individuals who seemed to be excessively unrealistic and optimistic regarding their excessive weight and unhealthy lifestyles, but were troubled by their weight (36%). Furthermore, individuals in the affected cluster had higher obesity (mean BMI ± SD = 32.1 ± 3.7) than those in the clusters of healthy (28.0 ± 3.0) and dysfunctional individuals (28.1 ± 3.3) (p < 0.05). The results showed that there are specific psychosocial and lifestyle profiles in the adult population with excess weight and that there are relationships among psychological, behavioural, and body-composition factors. For clinical application purposes, it is important to account for the heterogeneity within individuals who are obese and to individualize the interventions, with a focus from weight change to the individual's overall well-being.


Assuntos
Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204409

RESUMO

Little is known about the relationship between health-related physical fitness factors and obesity-related factors in individuals with intellectual disabilities. We investigated the prevalence of obesity and the relationship between obesity-related factors and health-related physical fitness factors among people with intellectual disabilities in South Korea to identify the physical fitness factors that influence the degree of obesity. For obesity-related factors, we measured body composition (height, weight, body mass index-BMI, and body fat percentage) of 108 subjects with intellectual disabilities (mean ± standard deviation; age = 24.4 ± 8.45 years). For health-related physical fitness factors, we measured muscular strength, muscular endurance, and flexibility. There was a significant negative correlation between muscular endurance and obesity factors (BMI, r = -0.306, p < 0.01; body fat percentage, r = -0.402, p < 0.01). Further, the prevalence of obesity (34.3%) and being overweight (17.6%) among people with intellectual disabilities was high in South Korea. In addition, muscular endurance was found to have a significant effect on the obesity level (ß = -0.239, p < 0.000). This suggests that a program that considers muscular endurance should be prioritized when implementing an exercise intervention strategy for the treatment of overweight and obesity among people with intellectual disabilities.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso , Aptidão Física , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Lancet ; 398(10296): 238-248, 2021 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight, obesity, and diabetes is rising rapidly in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), but there are scant empirical data on the association between body-mass index (BMI) and diabetes in these settings. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we pooled individual-level data from nationally representative surveys across 57 LMICs. We identified all countries in which a WHO Stepwise Approach to Surveillance (STEPS) survey had been done during a year in which the country fell into an eligible World Bank income group category. For LMICs that did not have a STEPS survey, did not have valid contact information, or declined our request for data, we did a systematic search for survey datasets. Eligible surveys were done during or after 2008; had individual-level data; were done in a low-income, lower-middle-income, or upper-middle-income country; were nationally representative; had a response rate of 50% or higher; contained a diabetes biomarker (either a blood glucose measurement or glycated haemoglobin [HbA1c]); and contained data on height and weight. Diabetes was defined biologically as a fasting plasma glucose concentration of 7·0 mmol/L (126·0 mg/dL) or higher; a random plasma glucose concentration of 11·1 mmol/L (200·0 mg/dL) or higher; or a HbA1c of 6·5% (48·0 mmol/mol) or higher, or by self-reported use of diabetes medication. We included individuals aged 25 years or older with complete data on diabetes status, BMI (defined as normal [18·5-22·9 kg/m2], upper-normal [23·0-24·9 kg/m2], overweight [25·0-29·9 kg/m2], or obese [≥30·0 kg/m2]), sex, and age. Countries were categorised into six geographical regions: Latin America and the Caribbean, Europe and central Asia, east, south, and southeast Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, Middle East and north Africa, and Oceania. We estimated the association between BMI and diabetes risk by multivariable Poisson regression and receiver operating curve analyses, stratified by sex and geographical region. FINDINGS: Our pooled dataset from 58 nationally representative surveys in 57 LMICs included 685 616 individuals. The overall prevalence of overweight was 27·2% (95% CI 26·6-27·8), of obesity was 21·0% (19·6-22·5), and of diabetes was 9·3% (8·4-10·2). In the pooled analysis, a higher risk of diabetes was observed at a BMI of 23 kg/m2 or higher, with a 43% greater risk of diabetes for men and a 41% greater risk for women compared with a BMI of 18·5-22·9 kg/m2. Diabetes risk also increased steeply in individuals aged 35-44 years and in men aged 25-34 years in sub-Saharan Africa. In the stratified analyses, there was considerable regional variability in this association. Optimal BMI thresholds for diabetes screening ranged from 23·8 kg/m2 among men in east, south, and southeast Asia to 28·3 kg/m2 among women in the Middle East and north Africa and in Latin America and the Caribbean. INTERPRETATION: The association between BMI and diabetes risk in LMICs is subject to substantial regional variability. Diabetes risk is greater at lower BMI thresholds and at younger ages than reflected in currently used BMI cutoffs for assessing diabetes risk. These findings offer an important insight to inform context-specific diabetes screening guidelines. FUNDING: Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health McLennan Fund: Dean's Challenge Grant Program.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Saúde Global , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pobreza , Prevalência
15.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 50(4): 547-551, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311823

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between serum vitamin D and fasting blood glucose in children and adolescents, and its influence on overweight and obesity. METHODS: Using a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method, 13 districts and counties in Shandong Province were selected as survey points, and a total of 26 elementary schools, 26 junior high schools and 13 high schools were selected. Questionnaire surveys and physical examination were conducted on children and adolescents aged 6-17.Serum vitamin D and fasting blood glucose were uniformly measured. The "BMI Classification Standard for Overweight and Obesity Screening for Chinese School-age Children and Adolescents" was used to determine overweight and obesity. Statistical method adopt t-test and generalized linear regression model for analysis. RESULTS: A total of 3562 children aged 6-17 years were investigated, 2666 were healthy, 446 were overweight, 450 were obese, including 131 peripheral obesity and 319 abdominal obesity. The fasting blood glucose level of the 13-17-year-old group was significantly higher than that of the 6-12-year-old group(t=-3.13, P=0.002), and the male was significantly higher than that of the female(t=7.87, P& lt; 0.001). In the healthy and obesity group, there was a negative correlation between serum vitamin D and fasting blood glucose(P& lt; 0.05). In overweight group, serum vitamin D was not significantly related to fasting blood glucose(P& gt; 0.05). Serum vitamin D and fasting blood glucose were negatively correlated with healthy bodies in female group and 13-17 years old group, and the abdominal obesity bodies in the 6-12 year old group(P& lt; 0.05). CONCLUSION: The fasting blood glucose of adolescents aged 13-17 is significantly higher than that of children aged 6-12, and the fasting blood glucose of men is significantly higher than that of women. Different gender, age, and overweight and obesity status have an impact on the relationship between serum vitamin D and fasting blood glucose.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Vitamina D , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Jejum , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia
16.
S D Med ; 74(3): 115-120, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232590

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prepregnancy obesity has been shown to be associated with increased risk of adverse birth outcomes but little is known about the associations with health-related behaviors and conditions before, during and after pregnancy. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used data from the South Dakota Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (SD PRAMS) survey, which is an ongoing state-based surveillance system of maternal behaviors, attitudes, and experiences before, during, and shortly after pregnancy. The 2017 and 2018 SD PRAMS sampled a total of 3,805 mothers who were randomly selected from birth certificate records to be representative of all South Dakota women who delivered a live-born infant. Logistic regression was used to determine whether prepregnancy obesity was associated with adverse health conditions after controlling for demographic factors. RESULTS: Women with prepregnancy obesity, compared to those who were non-obese, were more likely to report an unintended pregnancy (45 percent vs. 39 percent), smoking three months before pregnancy (32 percent vs. 22 percent), delayed prenatal care (12 percent vs. 16 percent), hypertension during pregnancy (22 percent vs. 9 percent), gestational diabetes (19 percent vs. 8 percent), depression during pregnancy (21 percent vs. 14 percent), C-section delivery (35 percent vs. 22 percent), high birth weight (15 percent vs. 8 percent), and the infant hospitalized for three or more days (41 percent vs. 30 percent). Of women with prepregnancy obesity, 37 percent had been talked to by health care providers about maintaining a healthy weight the 12 months before pregnancy compared to 13 percent of non-obese women. CONCLUSIONS: Health care workers should be more intentional about stressing the potential risks of prepregnancy obesity to properly educate mothers and women of childbearing age.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , South Dakota/epidemiologia
17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 647661, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34277535

RESUMO

Objectives: Diet quality may be a key modifiable factor for the prevention of non-communicable disease. We aimed to investigate the association between diet quality and prevalence of obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance among Filipino immigrant women in Korea. Methods: A total of 413 participants from the 2014-2016 baseline population of the Filipino Women's Diet and Health Study (FiLWHEL) were examined. Individual dietary intakes were evaluated through 24-h recalls and then converted into two dietary quality assessments: Minimum Dietary Diversity for Women (MDD-W) developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the Data Derived Inflammation Index (DDII) originally developed by our group. Fasting blood levels of triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterols, glucose, and insulin were measured. We used logistic regression models for odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: We found a statistically significant association between MDD-W scores and decreased prevalence of abdominal obesity; ORs (95% CIs) of the 3rd vs. 1st tertiles were 0.58 (0.36-0.94; p for trend = 0.029). Increased DDII was associated with elevated prevalence of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance; ORs (95% CIs) of the 5th vs. 1-3rd quintiles were 6.44 (2.56-16.20) for triglycerides (TG), 3.90 (1.92-7.90) for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, 3.36 (1.81-6.24) for total cholesterol (TC), 6.25 (2.53-15.41) for abnormal TG/HDL ratios, 3.59 (1.96-6.59) for HbA1c, 2.61 (1.11-6.17) for fasting blood glucose levels, 9.67 (4.16-22.48) for insulin levels, and 9.73 (4.46-21.25) for homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p for trend <0.001 for all, except 0.033 for fasting blood glucose). Conclusions: Greater dietary diversity was inversely associated with the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Filipino immigrant women. Proinflammatory scores based on diet and lifestyle factors were associated with an increased prevalence of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Further, epidemiological studies on the relationship between dietary acculturation and chronic disease are warranted.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias , Resistência à Insulina , Dieta , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
18.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 122(8): 567-571, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282622

RESUMO

The AIM of our work is to point out the relationship between insulin resistance and metabolic compensation of diabetes mellitus, as well as to explore the possibilities of improving these parameters by non-drug measures. The rising incidence of insulin resistance associated with many comorbidities, especially due to the increase in obesity and unhealthy lifestyles, is a serious medical problem today. It is therefore necessary to be able to recognize and evaluate the presence of insulin resistance, prevent its occurrence, and ensure its elimination in high-risk individuals. In our study, we evaluated 106 patients with diabetes mellitus based on glycated hemoglobin parameters, ratio of triacylglycerols to high-density lipoproteins, and body mass index before and after adjustment of dietary and regime measures. Statistical analysis of our data showed a positive correlation between the assessed parameters of insulin resistance and metabolic compensation of diabetes with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.3156, and a decrease in glycated hemoglobin and insulin resistance after adjustment of dietary and regimen measures in 73.58 % of patients. Based on the above results, it is shown that non-drug measures are able to significantly improve the parameters of metabolic compensation of diabetes mellitus as well as those of insulin resistance (Tab. 4, Fig. 1, Ref. 18) Keywords: insulin resistance, TAG/HDL ratio, diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistência à Insulina , Glicemia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos , Insulina , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade/epidemiologia
19.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200879

RESUMO

We recently developed and validated a questionnaire to measure adherence to the Mediterranean diet, called Medi-Lite. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of the Medi-Lite adherence score in relation to obesity status. A total of 208 patients who attended the Clinical Nutrition Unit of Careggi University Hospital, Florence, were included in this retrospective analysis. Of them, 126 (45%) had abdominal obesity (110 F; 16 M). The mean adherence score, calculated through the Medi-Lite questionnaire, was 9.5 ± 2.2, with significantly (p < 0.001) lower values in patients with abdominal obesity (8.9 ± 1.9) than those without abdominal obesity (10 ± 2.2). Logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and sex showed that the Medi-Lite score determined significant protection (-28%) against the risk of abdominal obesity for every one-unit increase in the total score (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.63-0.82; p < 0.001). Looking for cut-off values that denote increased risk of having abdominal obesity, we observed that patients who scored ≤9 had a significantly increased risk (OR 3.21, 95% CI 1.91-5.39; p < 0.001). Adherence to the Mediterranean diet assessed through the Medi-Lite score was found to be associated with abdominal obesity. In particular, patients who reported a score of ≤9 had a 3.5-fold times higher risk of having abdominal obesity than those who scored >9.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Cooperação do Paciente , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Composição Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204631

RESUMO

Obesity is among the most alarming health concerns, impacting public health and causing a socioeconomic challenge, especially in developing countries like Brazil, where approximately one quart of the population presents obesity. As an established risk factor for numerous comorbidities with a multifactorial etiology, obesity is a consequence of energy-dense overfeeding, however with significant undernourishment, leading to excessive adipose tissue accumulation and dysfunction, dyslipidemia, and micronutrient deficiencies. About 60% of patients with obesity take statins, a cholesterol-lowering medication, to curb dyslipidemia, with ~10% of these patients presenting various myopathies as side effects. Statins act upon the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis in the liver, which is a pathway providing intermediates to the synthesis of selenoproteins, i.e., enzymes containing the micronutrient selenium. Statins have been postulated to negatively impact selenoprotein synthesis, particularly in conditions of selenium deficiency, and potentially implicated in the myopathies occurring as side effects of statins. The Brazilian population is prone to selenium deficiency, hence could be considered more susceptible to statin side effects. This review examines the specific consequences to the Brazilian population of the harmful intersection between obesity development and concomitant micronutrient deficiencies, particularly selenium, combined with statin treatment in the context of nutrition in Brazil.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Selênio/deficiência , Brasil/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/etiologia , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/metabolismo , Selenoproteínas/biossíntese
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