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1.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(10)2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623232

RESUMO

Alteration in the composition of the gut microbiota can lead to a number of chronic clinical diseases. Akkermansia muciniphila is an anaerobic bacteria constituting 3-5% of the gut microbial community in healthy adults. This bacterium is responsible for degenerating mucin in the gut; its scarcity leads to diverse clinical disorders. In this review, we focus on the role of A. muciniphila in diabetes, obesity and atherosclerosis, as well as the use of this bacterium as a next-generation probiotic. In regard to obesity and diabetes, human and animal trials have shown that A. muciniphila controls the essential regulatory system of glucose and energy metabolism. However, the underlying mechanisms by which A. muciniphila alleviates the complications of obesity, diabetes and atherosclerosis are unclear. At the same time, its abundance suggests improved metabolic disorders, such as metabolic endotoxemia, adiposity insulin resistance and glucose tolerance. The role of A. muciniphila is implicated in declining aortic lesions and atherosclerosis. Well-characterized virulence factors, antigens and cell wall extracts of A. muciniphila may act as effector molecules in these diseases. These molecules may provide novel mechanisms and strategies by which this bacterium could be used as a probiotic for the treatment of obesity, diabetes and atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/microbiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiologia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Probióticos , Akkermansia/fisiologia , Animais , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/metabolismo , Probióticos/uso terapêutico
2.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0256848, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710121

RESUMO

In recent years, there has been a rapid increase in microbiome studies to explore microbial alterations causing disease status and unveil disease pathogenesis derived from microbiome environmental modifications. Convincing evidence of lung microbial changes involving asthma has been collected; however, whether lung microbial changes under obesity leads to severe asthma in a state of allergen exposure has not been studied sufficiently. Here, we measured bacterial alterations in the lung of an allergen mouse model induced by a high fat diet (HFD) by using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A total of 33 pathogen­free 3­week­old male C57BL/6 mice were used, and they divided randomly into two groups. The Chow diet (n = 16) and high fat diet (n = 17) was administrated for 70 days. Mice were sensitized with PBS or Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus extract (Der.p), and concentration levels of total IgE and Der.p-IgE in the blood were measured to quantify immune responses. Although there were no meaningful differences in bacterial species richness in the HFD mouse group, momentous changes of bacterial diversity in the HFD mouse group were identified after the mouse group was exposed to allergens. At a genus level, the fluctuations of taxonomic relative abundances in several bacteria such as Ralstonia, Lactobacillus, Bradyrhizobium, Gaiella, PAC001932_g, Pseudolabrys, and Staphylococcus were conspicuously observed in the HFD mouse group exposed to allergens. Also, we predicted metabolic signatures occurring under microbial alterations in the Chow group versus the Chow group exposed to allergens, as well as in the HFD mouse group versus the HFD group exposed to allergens. We then compared their similarities and differences. Metabolic functions associated with macrophages such as propanoate metabolism, butanoate metabolism, and glycine-serine-threonine metabolism were identified in the HFD group versus the Chow group. These results provide new insights into the understanding of a microbiome community of obese allergic asthma, and shed light on the functional roles of lung microbiota inducing the pathogenesis of severe asthma.


Assuntos
Asma/complicações , Pulmão/microbiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Animais , Asma/microbiologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microbiota , Obesidade/microbiologia
3.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684633

RESUMO

Intestinal microbiota has been shown to be a potential determining factor in the development of obesity. The objective of this systematic review is to collect and learn, based on the latest available evidence, the effect of the use of probiotics and synbiotics in randomized clinical trials on weight loss in people with overweight and obesity. A search for articles was carried out in PubMed, Web of science and Scopus until September 2021, using search strategies that included the terms "obesity", "overweight", "probiotic", "synbiotic", "Lactobacillus", "Bifidobacterium" and "weight loss". Of the 185 articles found, only 27 complied with the selection criteria and were analyzed in the review, of which 23 observed positive effects on weight loss. The intake of probiotics or synbiotics could lead to significant weight reductions, either maintaining habitual lifestyle habits or in combination with energy restriction and/or increased physical activity for an average of 12 weeks. Specific strains belonging to the genus Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were the most used and those that showed the best results in reducing body weight. Both probiotics and synbiotics have the potential to help in weight loss in overweight and obese populations.


Assuntos
Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Simbióticos/administração & dosagem , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/microbiologia , Sobrepeso/microbiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
4.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684657

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive, molecularly heterogeneous subtype of breast cancer. Obesity is associated with increased incidence and worse prognosis in TNBC through various potential mechanisms. Recent evidence suggests that the gut microbiome plays a central role in the progression of cancer, and that imbalances or dysbiosis in the population of commensal microbiota can lead to inflammation and contribute to tumor progression. Obesity is characterized by low-grade inflammation, and gut dysbiosis is associated with obesity, chronic inflammation, and failure of cancer immunotherapy. However, the debate on what constitutes a "healthy" gut microbiome is ongoing, and the connection among the gut microbiome, obesity, and TNBC has not yet been addressed. This study aims to characterize the role of obesity in modulating the gut microbiome in a syngeneic mouse model of TNBC. 16S rRNA sequencing and metagenomic analyses were performed to analyze and annotate genus and taxonomic profiles. Our results suggest that obesity decreases alpha diversity in the gut microbiome. Metagenomic analysis revealed that obesity was the only significant factor explaining the similarity of the bacterial communities according to their taxonomic profiles. In contrast to the analysis of taxonomic profiles, the analysis of variation of functional profiles suggested that obesity status, tumor presence, and the obesity-tumor interaction were significant in explaining the variation of profiles, with obesity having the strongest correlation. The presence of tumor modified the profiles to a greater extent in obese than in lean animals. Further research is warranted to understand the impact of the gut microbiome on TNBC progression and immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/microbiologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/complicações , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/microbiologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Metagenômica , Camundongos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA
5.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579125

RESUMO

Altered gut microbiota has been linked to obesity and may influence weight loss. We are conducting an ongoing weight loss trial, comparing daily caloric restriction (DCR) to intermittent fasting (IMF) in adults who are overweight or obese. We report here an ancillary study of the gut microbiota and selected obesity-related parameters at the baseline and after the first three months of interventions. During this time, participants experienced significant improvements in clinical health measures, along with altered composition and diversity of fecal microbiota. We observed significant associations between the gut microbiota features and clinical measures, including weight and waist circumference, as well as changes in these clinical measures over time. Analysis by intervention group found between-group differences in the relative abundance of Akkermansia in response to the interventions. Our results provide insight into the impact of baseline gut microbiota on weight loss responsiveness as well as the early effects of DCR and IMF on gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Obesidade/terapia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Restrição Calórica , Dieta Redutora/métodos , Jejum , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Circunferência da Cintura
6.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5554991, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337024

RESUMO

Background: Obesity is a main contributing factor for the development of glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is believed to be one of the most effective treatments to reduce body weight and improve glucose metabolism. In this study, we sought to explore the underlying mechanisms of weight reduction and insulin resistance improvement after RYGB. Methods: This was a prospective observational study using consecutive samples of 14 obese subjects undergoing bariatric surgery. Main assessments were serum indexes (blood metabolites, glucose-lipid regulating hormones, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and gut microbiota. Correlation analysis of the factors changed by RYGB was used to indicate the potential mechanism by which surgery improves insulin resistance. Results: The subjects showed significant improvement on indices of obesity and insulin resistance and a correlated change of gut microbiota components at 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months post-RYGB operation. In particular, the abundance of a counterobese strain, Akkemansia muciniphila, had gradually increased with the postoperative time. Moreover, these changes were negatively correlated to serum levels of LBP and positively correlated to serum TMAO and fecal SCFAs. Conclusions: Our findings uncovered links between intestinal microbiota alterations, circulating endotoxemia, and insulin resistance. This suggests that the underlying mechanism of protection of the intestine by RYGB in obesity may be through changing the gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Endotoxemia/microbiologia , Endotoxemia/cirurgia , Derivação Gástrica , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Resistência à Insulina , Proteínas de Fase Aguda/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Humanos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Metilaminas/metabolismo , Obesidade/microbiologia , Obesidade/cirurgia
7.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359902

RESUMO

The microbiota of the gut-lung axis affects local and far-reaching immune responses and might also trigger chronic and inflammatory diseases. We hypothesized that gut dysbiosis induced by obesity, which coexists in countries with a high tuberculosis burden, aggravates the host susceptibility and the pulmonary damage tolerance. To assess our hypothesis, we used a model of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, followed by infection of C57BL/6 mice with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We showed that obesity increased the susceptibility, the pulmonary inflammation and IFN-γ levels in M. tuberculosis-infected mice. During the comorbidity obesity and tuberculosis, there is an increase of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes in the lungs, and an increase of Firmicutes and butyrate in the feces. Depletion of gut microbiota by antibiotic treatment in the obese infected mice reduced the frequencies of CD4+IFN-γ+IL-17- cells and IFN-γ levels in the lungs, associated with an increase of Lactobacillus. Our findings reinforce the role of the gut-lung axis in chronic infections and suggest that the gut microbiota modulation may be a potential host-directed therapy as an adjuvant to treat TB in the context of IFN-γ-mediated immunopathology.


Assuntos
Disbiose/etiologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Interferon gama/biossíntese , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/microbiologia , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Tuberculose/complicações , Imunidade Adaptativa , Animais , Carga Bacteriana , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Disbiose/imunologia , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microbiota , Obesidade/imunologia , Pneumonia/imunologia , Tuberculose/imunologia
8.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444813

RESUMO

The intestinal microbiome continues to shift and develop throughout youth and could play a pivotal role in health and wellbeing throughout adulthood. Environmental and interpersonal determinants are strong mediators of the intestinal microbiome during the rapid growth period of preadolescence. We aim to delineate associations between the gut microbiome composition, body mass index (BMI), dietary intake and socioeconomic status (SES) in a cohort of ethnically homogenous preadolescents. This cohort included 139 Arab children aged 10-12 years, from varying socioeconomic strata. Dietary intake was assessed using the 24-h recall method. The intestinal microbiome was analyzed using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Microbial composition was associated with SES, showing an overrepresentation of Prevotella and Eubacterium in children with lower SES. Higher BMI was associated with lower microbial diversity and altered taxonomic composition, including higher levels of Collinsella, especially among participants from lower SES. Intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids was the strongest predictor of bacterial alterations, including an independent association with Lachnobacterium and Lactobacillus. This study demonstrates that the intestinal microbiome in preadolescents is associated with socioeconomic determinants, BMI and dietary intake, specifically with higher consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, tailored interventions during these crucial years have the potential to improve health disparities throughout the lifespan.


Assuntos
Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Ingestão de Alimentos , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/microbiologia
9.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota and its metabolites are essential for host health and dysbiosis has been involved in several pathologic conditions such as type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recent studies have identified that plasma imidazole propionate (ImP), a microbial-produced metabolite, is increased in patients with prediabetes and T2D. More recently, ImP was found to be significantly increased in patients with overt CVD. Here, we aimed to investigate the association between ImP and CVD risk factors: blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and insulin-resistance in overweight and obese subjects without T2D or use of any metabolic diseases-related medication. METHODS: Plasma metabolites, including ImP, were determined in 107 male or post-menopausal women with overweight/obesity, but without T2D. Insulin-sensitivity was assessed with the gold standard method: the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp using the isotope [6,6-2H2] glucose and expressed as glucose rate of disposal (Rd) for peripheral insulin sensitivity and suppression of endogenous glucose production (EGP) for hepatic insulin sensitivity. RESULTS: Partial correlation analysis controlled for BMI and age showed a significant correlation between ImP and diastolic blood pressure (rs = 0.285, p = 0.004) and a borderline significance with systolic blood pressure (rs = 0.187, p = 0.060); however, systolic and diastolic blood pressure did not correlate with ImP precursor histidine (rs = 0.063, p = 0.526 and r = -0.038, p = 0.712, respectively). We did not find a correlation between ImP with LDL-cholesterol or HDL-cholesterol (rs = -0.181, p = 0.064 and rs = 0.060, p = 0.546, respectively). Furthermore, there was no association between plasma ImP concentrations and Rd and EGP suppression. CONCLUSION: In this cohort with overweight/obese subjects without T2D, plasma ImP concentrations were positively correlated with diastolic blood pressure but not with insulin-sensitivity.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Imidazóis/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/microbiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia
10.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199239

RESUMO

We aimed to differentiate gut microbiota composition of overweight/obese and lean subjects and to determine its association with clinical variables and dietary intake. A cross-sectional study was performed with 96 overweight/obese subjects and 32 lean subjects. Anthropometric parameters were positively associated with Collinsella aerofaciens, Dorea formicigenerans and Dorea longicatena, which had higher abundance the overweight/obese subjects. Moreover, different genera of Lachnospiraceae were negatively associated with body fat, LDL and total cholesterol. Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) were negatively associated with the genus Intestinimonas, a biomarker of the overweight/obese group, whereas SFAs were positively associated with Roseburia, a biomarker for the lean group. In conclusion, Dorea formicigenerans, Dorea longicatena and Collinsella aerofaciens could be considered obesity biomarkers, Lachnospiraceae is associated with lipid cardiovascular risk factors. SFAs exhibited opposite association profiles with butyrate-producing bacteria depending on the BMI. Thus, the relationship between diet and microbiota opens new tools for the management of obesity.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Obesidade/microbiologia , Sobrepeso/microbiologia , Magreza/microbiologia , Actinobacteria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Massa Corporal , Clostridiales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clostridiales/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Transversais , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Potássio/administração & dosagem
11.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202894

RESUMO

Consumption of different types of high-calorie foods leads to the development of various metabolic disorders. However, the effects of multi-strain probiotics on different types of diet-induced obesity and intestinal dysbiosis remain unclear. In this study, mice were fed a control diet, high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal fat and 20% kcal carbohydrate), or western diet (WD; 40% kcal fat and 43% kcal carbohydrate) and administered with multi-strain AB-Kefir containing six strains of lactic acid bacteria and a Bifidobacterium strain, at 109 CFU per mouse for 10 weeks. Results demonstrated that AB-Kefir reduced body weight gain, glucose intolerance, and hepatic steatosis with a minor influence on gut microbiota composition in HFD-fed mice, but not in WD-fed mice. In addition, AB-Kefir significantly reduced the weight and size of adipose tissues by regulating the expression of CD36, Igf1, and Pgc1 in HFD-fed mice. Although AB-Kefir did not reduce the volume of white adipose tissue, it markedly regulated CD36, Dgat1 and Mogat1 mRNA expression. Moreover, the abundance of Eubacterium_coprostanoligenes_group and Ruminiclostridium significantly correlated with changes in body weight, liver weight, and fasting glucose in test mice. Overall, this study provides important evidence to understand the interactions between probiotics, gut microbiota, and diet in obesity treatment.


Assuntos
Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/métodos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/métodos , Kefir/microbiologia , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Dieta Ocidental , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disbiose/dietoterapia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/dietoterapia , Fígado Gorduroso/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intolerância à Glucose/dietoterapia , Intolerância à Glucose/microbiologia , Inflamação , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14560, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267289

RESUMO

Lipodystrophic mice are protected from cartilage damage following joint injury. This protection can be reversed by the implantation of a small adipose tissue graft. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the gut microbiota and knee cartilage damage while controlling for adiposity, high fat diet, and joint injury using lipodystrophic (LD) mice. LD and littermate control (WT) mice were fed a high fat diet, chow diet, or were rescued with fat implantation, then challenged with destabilization of the medial meniscus surgery to induce osteoarthritis (OA). 16S rRNA sequencing was conducted on feces. MaAslin2 was used to determine associations between taxonomic relative abundance and OA severity. While serum LPS levels between groups were similar, synovial fluid LPS levels were increased in both limbs of HFD WT mice compared to all groups, except for fat transplanted animals. The Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio of the gut microbiota was significantly reduced in HFD and OA-rescued animals when compared to chow. Nine novel significant associations were found between gut microbiota taxa and OA severity. These findings suggest the presence of causal relationships the gut microbiome and cartilage health, independent of diet or adiposity, providing potential therapeutic targets through manipulation of the microbiome.


Assuntos
Cartilagem/fisiopatologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Osteoartrite/microbiologia , Adiposidade , Animais , Bacteroidetes/genética , Feminino , Firmicutes/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Lipodistrofia/microbiologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/sangue , Masculino , Menisco/cirurgia , Camundongos Transgênicos , Obesidade/microbiologia , Osteoartrite/etiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Líquido Sinovial/metabolismo
13.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 321(3): E338-E350, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280051

RESUMO

Obesity is associated with metabolic, immunological, and infectious disease comorbidities, including an increased risk of enteric infection and inflammatory bowel disease such as Crohn's disease (CD). Expansion of intestinal pathobionts such as adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) is a common dysbiotic feature of CD, which is amplified by prior use of oral antibiotics. Although high-fat, high-sugar diets are associated with dysbiotic expansion of E. coli, it is unknown if the content of fat or another dietary component in obesogenic diets is sufficient to promote AIEC expansion. Here, we found that administration of an antibiotic combined with feeding mice an obesogenic low-fiber, high-sucrose, high-fat diet (HFD) that is typically used in rodent-obesity studies promoted AIEC intestinal expansion. Even a short-term (i.e., 1 day) pulse of HFD feeding before infection was sufficient to promote AIEC expansion, indicating that the magnitude of obesity was not the main driver of AIEC expansion. Controlled-diet experiments demonstrated that neither dietary fat nor sugar were the key determinants of AIEC colonization, but that lowering dietary fiber from approximately 13% to 5%-6% was sufficient to promote the intestinal expansion of AIEC when combined with antibiotics in mice. When combined with antibiotics, lowering fiber promoted AIEC intestinal expansion to a similar extent as widely used HFDs in mice. However, lowering dietary fiber was sufficient to promote AIEC intestinal expansion without affecting body mass. Our results show that low dietary fiber combined with oral antibiotics are environmental factors that promote the expansion of Crohn's disease-associated pathobionts in the gut.NEW & NOTEWORTHY It is commonly thought that obesity or a high-fat diet alters pathogenic bacteria and promotes inflammatory gut diseases. We found that lower dietary fiber is a key factor that expands a gut pathobiont linked to Crohn's disease, independent of obesity status in mice.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/microbiologia , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Intestinos/microbiologia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Animais , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
14.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203983

RESUMO

Arabinoxylan (AX) is a structural polysaccharide found in wheat, rice and other cereal grains. Diets high in AX-containing fiber may promote gut health in obesity through prebiotic function. Thus, the impact of soluble AX isolated from rice bran fiber on human gut microbiota phylogenetic composition and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production patterns from normal-weight and overweight/obese subjects was investigated through in vitro fecal fermentation. Results showed that rice bran arabinoxylan modified the microbiota in fecal samples from both weight classes compared to control, significantly increasing Collinsella, Blautia and Bifidobacterium, and decreasing Sutterella, Bilophila and Parabacteroides. Rice bran AX also significantly increased total and individual SCFA contents (p < 0.05). This study suggests that rice bran AX may beneficially impact gut health in obesity through prebiotic activities.


Assuntos
Fezes/microbiologia , Fermentação , Obesidade/microbiologia , Oryza/química , Xilanos/metabolismo , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Dieta , Carboidratos da Dieta , Fibras na Dieta , Grão Comestível , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso , Filogenia , Prebióticos , Triticum , Xilanos/isolamento & purificação
15.
Biomolecules ; 11(5)2021 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066026

RESUMO

Gut microbiota-mediated inflammation promotes obesity-associated low-grade inflammation, which represents a hallmark of metabolic syndrome. To investigate if lifestyle-induced weight loss (WL) may modulate the gut microbiome composition and its interaction with the host on a functional level, we analyzed the fecal metaproteome of 33 individuals with metabolic syndrome in a longitudinal study before and after lifestyle-induced WL in a well-defined cohort. The 6-month WL intervention resulted in reduced BMI (-13.7%), improved insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IR, -46.1%), and reduced levels of circulating hsCRP (-39.9%), indicating metabolic syndrome reversal. The metaprotein spectra revealed a decrease of human proteins associated with gut inflammation. Taxonomic analysis revealed only minor changes in the bacterial composition with an increase of the families Desulfovibrionaceae, Leptospiraceae, Syntrophomonadaceae, Thermotogaceae and Verrucomicrobiaceae. Yet we detected an increased abundance of microbial metaprotein spectra that suggest an enhanced hydrolysis of complex carbohydrates. Hence, lifestyle-induced WL was associated with reduced gut inflammation and functional changes of human and microbial enzymes for carbohydrate hydrolysis while the taxonomic composition of the gut microbiome remained almost stable. The metaproteomics workflow has proven to be a suitable method for monitoring inflammatory changes in the fecal metaproteome.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Estilo de Vida , Proteoma/metabolismo , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/microbiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/microbiologia
16.
FASEB J ; 35(7): e21734, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143451

RESUMO

Impaired glucose homeostasis in obesity is mitigated by enhancing the glucoregulatory actions of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and thus, strategies that improve GLP-1 sensitivity and secretion have therapeutic potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. This study shows that Holdemanella biformis, isolated from the feces of a metabolically healthy volunteer, ameliorates hyperglycemia, improves oral glucose tolerance and restores gluconeogenesis and insulin signaling in the liver of obese mice. These effects were associated with the ability of H. biformis to restore GLP-1 levels, enhancing GLP-1 neural signaling in the proximal and distal small intestine and GLP-1 sensitivity of vagal sensory neurons, and to modify the cecal abundance of unsaturated fatty acids and the bacterial species associated with metabolic health. Our findings overall suggest the potential use of H biformis in the management of type 2 diabetes in obesity to optimize the sensitivity and function of the GLP-1 system, through direct and indirect mechanisms.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/microbiologia , Firmicutes/fisiologia , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Camundongos Obesos/metabolismo , Camundongos Obesos/microbiologia , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Gluconeogênese/fisiologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose/métodos , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/microbiologia
17.
FEMS Microbiol Lett ; 368(10)2021 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089327

RESUMO

Obesity, which is often caused by adipocyte metabolism dysfunction, is rapidly becoming a serious global health issue. Studies in the literature have shown that camellia oil (Camellia oleifera Abel) exerted potential lipid regulation and other multiple biological activities. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of camellia oil on obese mice induced by a high-fat diet and to explore gut microbiota alterations after camellia oil intervention. The results showed that oral administration of camellia oil dramatically attenuated the fat deposits, serum levels of the total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, the atherosclerosis index, the hepatic steatosis and inflammation in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Meanwhile, the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in obese mice was enhanced after the camellia oil treatment. Furthermore, 16S rRNA analysis showed that certain aspects of the gut microbiota, especially the gut microbiota diversity and the relative abundance of Actinobacteria, Coriobacteriaceae, Lactobacillus and Anoxybacillus, were significantly increased by camellia oil treatment while the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes was decreased. Taken together, our finding suggested that camellia oil was a potential dietary supplement and functional food for ameliorating fat deposits, hyperglycemia and fatty liver, probably by modifying the gut microbiota composition.


Assuntos
Camellia/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Camellia/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/química , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 183: 2074-2087, 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097961

RESUMO

Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) are known for their beneficial effects on diabetes, NAFLD and related chronic metabolic diseases induced by high-fat diet (HFD). However, the relevant researches are mainly about the whole crude polysaccharides, the specific active ingredient of LBPs and its bioactivity have been rarely explored. Herein, a homogeneous polysaccharide (LBP-W) was isolated and purified from crude LBPs. Structure characterizations indicated that LBP-W contained a main chain consisting of a repeated unit of →6)-ß-Galp(1 â†’ residues with branches composed of α-Araf, ß-Galp and α-Rhap residues at position C-3. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-obesogenic effect of LBP-W and figure out the underlying mechanisms. In vivo efficacy trial illustrated that LBP-W supplements can alleviate HFD-induced mice obesity significantly. Gut microbiota analysis showed that LBP-W not only improved community diversity of intestinal flora, but also regulated their specific genera. Moreover, LBP-W can increase the content of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), a metabolite of the intestinal flora. In summary, all these results demonstrated that the homogeneous polysaccharide purified from L. barbarum could be used as a prebiotic agent to improve obesity by modulating the composition of intestinal flora and the metabolism of SCFAs.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Prebióticos , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/química , Arabinose/química , Arabinose/farmacologia , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Disbiose , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Galactose/química , Galactose/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estrutura Molecular , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/microbiologia , Ramnose/química , Ramnose/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
19.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(7): 2131-2139, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Previous literature have shown a diversity of findings regarding the relationship between the maternal gut microbiota and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We investigated the gut microbiota of overweight and obese women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) against matched euglycaemic women at 16 and 28-weeks' gestation. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study included women from the SPRING (Study of PRobiotics IN Gestational diabetes) cohort. Overweight and obese women with no impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasted glucose were enrolled prior to gestational age <16 weeks. Participants with a diagnosis of GDM (n = 29) were matched with euglycaemic (n = 29) women for body mass index, probiotic or placebo intervention, maternal age, parity and ethnicity. Anthropometric, clinical and fecal microbiota (16S rRNA amplicon-based sequencing of V6-V8 region) data was assessed at 16 and 28-weeks' gestation. The relative abundances of key bacterial genera were not significantly altered between euglycaemic women and women with GDM. Occurrence of bacterial taxa was similar between groups at both timepoints. GDM was associated with decreased Shannon diversity (p = 0.02) without differentiated clustering measured by beta diversity at 28-weeks' gestation. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obese women with GDM demonstrate minor variation in the gut microbiota at 16 and 28-weeks' gestation compared with matched euglycaemic women. This study expands on previous literature concluding the microbiota does not likely have a disease-specific characterisation in GDM.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diabetes Gestacional/microbiologia , Disbiose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Adulto , Bactérias/genética , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ribotipagem
20.
Nature ; 595(7865): 91-95, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34163075

RESUMO

Changing food preferences brought about by westernization that have deleterious health effects1,2-combined with myriad forces that are contributing to increased food insecurity-are catalysing efforts to identify more nutritious and affordable foods3. Consumption of dietary fibre can help to prevent cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and obesity4-6. A substantial number of reports have explored the effects of dietary fibre on the gut microbial community7-9. However, the microbiome is complex, dynamic and exhibits considerable intra- and interpersonal variation in its composition and functions. The large number of potential interactions between the components of the microbiome makes it challenging to define the mechanisms by which food ingredients affect community properties. Here we address the question of how foods containing different fibre preparations can be designed to alter functions associated with specific components of the microbiome. Because a marked increase in snack consumption is associated with westernization, we formulated snack prototypes using plant fibres from different sustainable sources that targeted distinct features of the gut microbiomes of individuals with obesity when transplanted into gnotobiotic mice. We used these snacks to supplement controlled diets that were consumed by adult individuals with obesity or who were overweight. Fibre-specific changes in their microbiomes were linked to changes in their plasma proteomes indicative of an altered physiological state.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Vida Livre de Germes , Lanches , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Bacteroides/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacteroides/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/microbiologia , Sobrepeso/microbiologia , Proteoma/análise , Proteoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
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