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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10352-10360, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503479

RESUMO

The potential for apple peels to mitigate the deleterious effects of a high-fat diet in mice was investigated here. Mice were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with apple powders from three apple varieties or a commercial apple polyphenol. Polyphenols were characterized using colorimetric assays and high-performance liquid chromatography. Mice were tested for standard metabolic parameters. There was a dose response to dietary apple peels, with the higher intake leading to reduced weight gain and adipose tissue mass relative to the lower intake, but none of the treatments were statistically different from the control. The gene expression of liver enzyme stearoyl-CoA desaturase (Scd-1) was correlated with adipose weight, and liver enzyme cytochrome P51 (Cyp51) was downregulated by the apple diets. The feces from a subset of mice were analyzed for polyphenols and for bacteria taxa by next-generation sequencing. The results revealed that the makeup of the fecal microbiota was related to the metabolism of dietary polyphenols.


Assuntos
Biflavonoides/análise , Catequina/análise , Fezes/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Malus/metabolismo , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Proantocianidinas/análise , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biflavonoides/metabolismo , Catequina/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Frutas/química , Humanos , Masculino , Malus/química , Camundongos , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/microbiologia , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/genética , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/metabolismo , Esterol 14-Desmetilase/genética , Esterol 14-Desmetilase/metabolismo
2.
Eur J Med Chem ; 182: 111593, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446245

RESUMO

A novel series of phenylthiazoles bearing cyclic amines at the phenyl-4 position was prepared with the objective of decreasing lipophilicity and improving the overall physicochemical properties and pharmacokinetic profile of the compounds. Briefly, the piperidine ring (compounds 10 and 12) provided the best ring size in terms of antibacterial activity when tested against 16 multidrug-resistant clinical isolates. Both compounds were superior to vancomycin in the ability to eliminate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), residing within infected macrophages and to disrupt mature MRSA biofilm. Additionally, compounds 10 and 12 exhibited a fast-bactericidal mode of action in vitro. Furthermore, the new derivatives were 160-times more soluble in water than the previous lead compound 1b. Consequently, compound 10 was orally bioavailable with a highly-acceptable pharmacokinetic profile in vivo that exhibited a half-life of 4 h and achieved a maximum plasma concentration that exceeded the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values against all tested bacterial isolates.


Assuntos
Aminas/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Aminas/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/química , Linhagem Celular , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Obesidade/microbiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tiazóis/síntese química , Tiazóis/química
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(29): e16527, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335732

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Several studies have found that obesity is associated with atopic dermatitis (AD); however, the mechanisms underlying the association are largely unknown. This study aims to assess the association of AD with obesity in the Korean population and verify its mechanism via a multi-omics analysis. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A case-control study will be conducted in the Republic of Korea. A total of 80 subjects, aged 4 to 12 years, matched for age and sex, with body mass index at or above the 85th percentile or at or below the 25th percentile, will be included. Subjects will be assigned to the following 4 groups: obese/overweight with AD, normal/underweight with AD, obese/overweight control, and normal/underweight control. Serum metabolome and immune biomarkers, as well as fecal metabolome and microbiome biomarkers, will be analyzed. Serum eosinophil cationic protein, total serum Immunoglobulin E (IgE), and specific IgE will be analyzed to assess allergic tendency. The SCORing of AD index, the children's dermatology life quality index, body composition analysis, and the Korean gastrointestinal symptom rating scale will be obtained to assess the disease status and severity of the subjects. DISCUSSION: The findings of this study are expected to provide evidence of an association between AD and obesity via a gut microbiome-metabolome-immune mechanism. Therefore, it may improve future management strategies for AD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study has been registered at the Korean National Clinical Trial Registry, Clinical Research Information Service (KCT0003630).


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/complicações , Dermatite Atópica/metabolismo , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dermatite Atópica/imunologia , Dermatite Atópica/microbiologia , Proteína Catiônica de Eosinófilo/sangue , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Masculino , Metaboloma , Obesidade/imunologia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Qualidade de Vida , República da Coreia
4.
Nat Med ; 25(7): 1096-1103, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263284

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome is characterized by a constellation of comorbidities that predispose individuals to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular pathologies as well as type 2 diabetes mellitus1. The gut microbiota is a new key contributor involved in the onset of obesity-related disorders2. In humans, studies have provided evidence for a negative correlation between Akkermansia muciniphila abundance and overweight, obesity, untreated type 2 diabetes mellitus or hypertension3-8. Since the administration of A. muciniphila has never been investigated in humans, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study in overweight/obese insulin-resistant volunteers; 40 were enrolled and 32 completed the trial. The primary end points were safety, tolerability and metabolic parameters (that is, insulin resistance, circulating lipids, visceral adiposity and body mass). Secondary outcomes were gut barrier function (that is, plasma lipopolysaccharides) and gut microbiota composition. In this single-center study, we demonstrated that daily oral supplementation of 1010 A. muciniphila bacteria either live or pasteurized for three months was safe and well tolerated. Compared to placebo, pasteurized A. muciniphila improved insulin sensitivity (+28.62 ± 7.02%, P = 0.002), and reduced insulinemia (-34.08 ± 7.12%, P = 0.006) and plasma total cholesterol (-8.68 ± 2.38%, P = 0.02). Pasteurized A. muciniphila supplementation slightly decreased body weight (-2.27 ± 0.92 kg, P = 0.091) compared to the placebo group, and fat mass (-1.37 ± 0.82 kg, P = 0.092) and hip circumference (-2.63 ± 1.14 cm, P = 0.091) compared to baseline. After three months of supplementation, A. muciniphila reduced the levels of the relevant blood markers for liver dysfunction and inflammation while the overall gut microbiome structure was unaffected. In conclusion, this proof-of-concept study (clinical trial no. NCT02637115 ) shows that the intervention was safe and well tolerated and that supplementation with A. muciniphila improves several metabolic parameters.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Verrucomicrobia , Adulto , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/microbiologia , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/microbiologia , Projetos Piloto
5.
J Appl Microbiol ; 127(3): 880-888, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211897

RESUMO

AIMS: This study evaluated the effects of a potential probiotic, Bacillus sp., on the growth, serum and hepatic triglyceride, histological features of liver tissues and colonic microflora in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into five groups: mice fed a low-fat diet (Cont), mice fed a high-fat diet (Hf), Hf and orally challenged with Bacillus subtilis (Bs), B. licheniformis (Bl) and a mixture of B. subtilis and B. licheniformis (Bls). Gavage feeding was provided at week 9 and the experiment was continued for 8 weeks. Treatment with B. licheniformis and a mixture of Bacillus sp. attenuated body weight gain at the end of study and enhanced glucose tolerance by sensitizing insulin action in the Hf-fed mice. Lower serum and hepatic triglyceride and epididymal fat weight were observed in Bl and Bls groups than that of Hf group. Lesser hepatic fat deposition was observed in the Bl and Bls groups than in the Hf group. High-throughput sequencing showed that Bacillus sp. supplementation dramatically changed the colonic bacterial community in obese mice. CONCLUSIONS: Bacillus licheniformis reduced body weight and improved glucose tolerance, obesity and insulin resistance in Hf-fed mice by changing colonic microbiota composition. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Orally administration of Bacillus licheniformis may reduce body weight and decrease fat deposition by modulating colonic bacterial community in Hf model.


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Animais , Peso Corporal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/microbiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Ganho de Peso
6.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(6): 638-644, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177765

RESUMO

Intestinal microbes play an important role in human health. The development of various clinical diseases, such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, is closely related to the imbalance of intestinal microflora. With the development of high-throughput sequencing technology, there has been a breakthrough in the understanding of intestinal microorganism. The interaction between intestinal epithelial cells and intestinal microbes has become one of the hotspots and difficulties of current research. Because of the constraints of ethical review and experimental cost, people are more interested in the development of interaction models between the intestinal microflora and the host cells. In this paper, interaction models between intestinal microflora and host cells, and its working principle and application prospect are reviewed, hoping to provide new techniques and new ideas for studying functions of intestinal microbes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos , Obesidade , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiologia , Células Epiteliais , Humanos , Intestinos/citologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Obesidade/microbiologia
7.
J Vet Sci ; 20(3): e19, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161737

RESUMO

Microorganisms play important roles in obesity; however, the role of the gut microbiomes in obesity is controversial because of the inconsistent findings. This study investigated the gut microbiome communities in obese and lean groups of captive healthy cynomolgus monkeys reared under strict identical environmental conditions, including their diet. No significant differences in the relative abundance of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Prevotella were observed between the obese and lean groups, but a significant difference in Spirochetes (p < 0.05) was noted. Microbial diversity and richness were similar, but highly variable results in microbial composition, diversity, and richness were observed in individuals, irrespective of their state of obesity. Distinct clustering between the groups was not observed by principal coordinate analysis using an unweighted pair group method. Higher sharedness values (95.81% ± 2.28% at the genus level, and 79.54% ± 5.88% at the species level) were identified among individual monkeys. This paper reports the association between the gut microbiome and obesity in captive non-human primate models reared under controlled environments. The relative proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes as well as the microbial diversity known to affect obesity were similar in the obese and lean groups of monkeys reared under identical conditions. Therefore, obesity-associated microbial changes reported previously appear to be associated directly with environmental factors, particularly diet, rather than obesity.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Macaca fascicularis/microbiologia , Doenças dos Macacos/microbiologia , Obesidade/veterinária , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Biodiversidade , Feminino , Obesidade/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
8.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 18(1): 18, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal antibiotic exposure has been associated with an altered infant gut microbiome composition and higher risk of childhood obesity, but no studies have examined if prenatal antibiotics simultaneously alter the gut microbiome and adiposity in infants. METHOD: In this prospective study (Nurture: recruitment 2013-2015 in North Carolina, United States), we examined in 454 infants the association of prenatal antibiotic exposure (by any prenatal antibiotic exposure; by trimester of pregnancy; by number of courses; by type of antibiotics) with infant age- and sex-specific weight-for-length z score (WFL-z) and skinfold thicknesses (subscapular, triceps, abdominal) at 12 months of age. In a subsample, we also examined whether prenatal antibiotic exposure was associated with alterations in the infant gut microbiome at ages 3 and 12 months. RESULTS: Compared to infants not exposed to prenatal antibiotics, infants who were exposed to any prenatal antibiotics had 0.21 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.02, 0.41) higher WFL-z at 12 months, and 0.28 (95% CI 0.02, 0.55) higher WFL-z if they were exposed to antibiotics in the second trimester, after adjustment for potential confounders, birth weight, and gestational age. We also observed a dose-dependent association (P-value for trend = 0.006) with infants exposed to ≥ 3 courses having 0.41 (95% CI 0.13, 0.68) higher WFL-z at 12 months. After further adjustment for delivery method, only second-trimester antibiotic exposure remained associated with higher infant WFL-z (0.27, 95% CI 0.003, 0.54) and subscapular skinfold thickness (0.49 mm, 95% CI 0.11, 0.88) at 12 months. Infants exposed to second-trimester antibiotics versus not had differential abundance of 13 bacterial amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) at age 3 months and 17 ASVs at 12 months (false discovery rate adjusted P-value < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal antibiotic exposure in the second trimester was associated with an altered infant gut microbiome composition at 3 and 12 months and with higher infant WFL-z and subscapular skinfold thickness at 12 months.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/microbiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/microbiologia , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Biosci ; 44(2)2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180062

RESUMO

The human microbiota plays a crucial role in educating the immune system and influencing host health right since birth. Various maternal factors along with the vertical microbial transfer from the mother, as well as the horizontal environmental transmission and internal factors relating to the infant, play a crucial role in modulating the gut microbiota. The early life microflora is highly unstable and undergoes dynamic changes during the first few years, converging towards a more stabilized adult microbiota by co-evolving with the host by the age of 3-4 years. Microbiota studies have underlined the role of dysbiosis in developing several metabolic disorders like obesity, diabetes and immune-related disorders like asthma, to name a few. Thus, understanding early life microbial composition and various factors affecting the microbial community will provide a platform for developing strategies/techniques to maintain host health by restoring gut microbial flora. This review focuses on the factors that affect the microbial composition of the foetus in utero, during birth, infancy through childhood.


Assuntos
Asma/microbiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Adulto , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Asma/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diabetes Mellitus/imunologia , Dieta/métodos , Disbiose/imunologia , Feminino , Feto , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactente , Masculino , Obesidade/imunologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(25): 6978-6994, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070363

RESUMO

Ripened Pu-erh tea extract contributes to reducing weight gain and fat accumulation; however, the role of gut microbiota on the antiobesity effect of ripened Pu-erh tea extract in obese mice remains unclear. This study aims to explore the role of alterations in gut microbes mediated by ripened Pu-erh tea extract in obese mice through 16S rRNA sequencing and a fecal transplant trial. Our results suggested that drinking water containing ripened Pu-erh tea extract could decrease weight gain, fat accumulation, adipose inflammation, the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio, and metabolic endotoxemia while, in the meantime, improving the intestinal barrier integrity in obese mice. Moreover, the fecal transplant trial indicated that feces from the donor mice treated with ripened Pu-erh tea extract could significantly modulate weight and metabolic syndrome in the recipient mice. Thus, our results indicated that gut microbiota can mediate the function of ripened Pu-erh tea extract against obesity; additionally, ripened Pu-erh tea extract can potentially prevent individuals from being obese through rebalancing the gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Humanos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Chá/metabolismo
11.
Food Funct ; 10(5): 2847-2860, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062778

RESUMO

Accumulative evidence has suggested that tea consumption has benefits in reducing body fat and alleviating metabolic syndrome. We hypothesize that benefits of tea consumption can be partially mediated by modulating intestinal microbiota via inhibiting the formation of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and promoting the production of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). C57BL/6J mice were fed a high fat diet with the addition of 1% water extracts of green tea, oolong tea and black tea. Results showed that the dietary supplementation of three tea water extracts equally improved the glucose tolerance and reduced a high fat diet-induced gain in weight, hepatic lipids, and white adipose tissue weights. This was accompanied by a significant reduction in plasma LPS and a significant increase in the production of SCFAs. The metagenomic analyses showed that the tea extracts changed the overall composition of gut microbiota and decreased the relative abundance of family Rikenellaceae and Desulfovibrionaceae. In addition, tea water extracts could also change the abundance of key operational taxonomic units (OTUs) including OTU473 (Alistipes), OTU229 (Rikenella), OTU179 (Ruminiclostridium) and OTU264 (Acetatifactor). In conclusion, three tea extracts could improve the glucose tolerance, induce the production of SCFAs and inhibit the production of endotoxin LPS, most likely mediated by modulating gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Chá/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Camellia sinensis/química , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/microbiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia
12.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 76(21): 4341-4354, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119300

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a metabolic liver disease that is thought to be reversible by changing the diet. To examine the impact of dietary changes on progression and cure of NAFLD, we fed mice a high-fat diet (HFD) or high-fructose diet (HFrD) for 9 weeks, followed by an additional 9 weeks, where mice were given normal chow diet. As predicted, the diet-induced NAFLD elicited changes in glucose tolerance, serum cholesterol, and triglyceride levels in both diet groups. Moreover, the diet-induced NAFLD phenotype was reversed, as measured by the recovery of glucose intolerance and high cholesterol levels when mice were given normal chow diet. However, surprisingly, the elevated serum triglyceride levels persisted. Metagenomic analysis revealed dietary-induced changes of microbiome composition, some of which remained altered even after reversing the diet to normal chow, as illustrated by species of the Odoribacter genus. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis revealed a "priming effect" through changes in DNA methylation in key liver genes. For example, the lipid-regulating gene Apoa4 remained hypomethylated in both groups even after introduction to normal chow diet. Our results support that dietary change, in part, reverses the NAFLD phenotype. However, some diet-induced effects remain, such as changes in microbiome composition, elevated serum triglyceride levels, and hypomethylation of key liver genes. While the results are correlative in nature, it is tempting to speculate that the dietary-induced changes in microbiome composition may in part contribute to the persistent epigenetic modifications in the liver.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Animais , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/microbiologia , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/microbiologia
13.
Infect Immun ; 87(6)2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962398

RESUMO

Obesity is increasingly causing lifestyle diseases in developed countries where helminthic infections are rarely seen. Here, we investigated whether an intestinal nematode, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, has a suppressive role in diet-induced obesity in mice. Infection with H. polygyrus suppressed weight gain in obese mice, which was associated with increased uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in adipocytes and a higher serum norepinephrine (NE) concentration. Blocking interactions of NE with its receptor on adipocytes resulted in the failure to prevent weight gain and to enhance UCP1 expression in obese mice infected with H. polygyrus, indicating that NE is responsible for the protective effects of H. polygyrus on obesity. In addition to sympathetic nerve-derived NE, the intestinal microbiota was involved in the increase in NE. Infection with H. polygyrus altered the composition of intestinal bacteria, and antibiotic treatment to reduce intestinal bacteria reversed the higher NE concentration, UCP1 expression, and prevention of the weight gain observed after H. polygyrus infection. Our data indicate that H. polygyrus exerts suppressive roles on obesity through modulation of microbiota that produce NE.


Assuntos
Terapia Biológica , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Nematospiroides dubius/fisiologia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Obesidade/terapia , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/parasitologia , Proteína Desacopladora 1/genética , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo
14.
J Med Food ; 22(6): 560-566, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013456

RESUMO

The gut microbiota is the most important environmental factor that plays a role in inducing obesity. The gram-negative bacteria, Enterobacter cloacae strains, recently identified in obese mice are considered to be pathogenic bacteria in the gut. Probiotics are important members of the gut microbiota and exert beneficial effects, including inhibiting the growth of potential pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, we isolated a total of 230 lactic acid bacteria from traditional, Korean fermented foods and fecal samples from newborn infants, including Lactobacillus plantarum LMT1-48, which exhibited maximal antimicrobial activity against E. cloacae. We next investigated the functional antiobesity effects of L. plantarum LMT1-48 in an E. cloacae-induced high-fat diet (HFD)-fed animal obesity model. To this end, the L. plantarum LMT1-48 showed antiobesity effects, including body weight loss and reduction of abdominal fat volume, which was accompanied by a decrease in leptin and total cholesterol levels in E. cloacae-induced HFD-fed mice. Notably, gut microbiota diversity also increased after long-term ingestion of L. plantarum LMT1-48, resulting in amelioration of obesity in E. cloacae-induced HFD-fed mice. Accordingly, results suggest that dietary intake of L. plantarum LMT1-48 protects against the onset of E. cloacae-induced obesity.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/administração & dosagem , Enterobacter cloacae/fisiologia , Lactobacillus plantarum/fisiologia , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antibiose , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Leptina/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/microbiologia , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
15.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 103(13): 5269-5283, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31020379

RESUMO

Gut microbiota play a key role in the regulation of obesity and associated metabolic disorders. To study the relationship between them, antibiotics have been widely used to generate pseudo-germ-free rodents as control models. However, it is not clear whether antibiotics impact an animal's metabolic phenotype. Therefore, the effect of antibiotics-induced gut microbial perturbations on metabolic phenotypes in high-fat diet (HFD) fed mice was investigated. The results showed that antibiotics perturbed gut microbial composition and structure. Community diversity and richness were reduced, and the phyla Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio was decreased by antibiotics. Visualization of Unifrac distance data using principal component analysis (PCA) and unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGAM) demonstrated that fecal samples of HFD-fed mice separated from those of chow diet (CD) fed mice. Fecal samples from antibiotics-treated and non-treated mice were clustered into two different microbial populations. Moreover, antibiotics suppressed HFD-induced metabolic features, including body weight gain (BWG), liver weight (LW), epididymal fat weight (EFW), and serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), fasting blood glucose (FBG), and insulin (INS) significantly (P < 0.05). Lachnospiraceae, Ruminiclostridium and Helicobacter, biomarkers of mouse gut microbiota before treatment by antibiotics, were positively correlated with obesity phenotypes significantly (P < 0.05) and were decreased by (92.95 ± 5.09) %, (97.73 ± 2.09) % and (99.48 ± 0.21) % respectively after 30 days of treatment by antibiotics. However, Bacteroidia were enriched in HFD-fed antibiotics-treated mice and were negatively correlated with obesity phenotypes significantly (P < 0.05). We suggested that the antibiotics-induced depletion of Lachnospiraceae, Ruminiclostridium, and Helicobacter, and the decrease in F/B ratio in gut microbiota played a role in the prevention of HFD-induced obesity in mice.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Bacteroidetes/classificação , Firmicutes/classificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/microbiologia , Animais , Bacteroidetes/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fezes/microbiologia , Firmicutes/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fenótipo
16.
Nutrients ; 11(3)2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30841548

RESUMO

Orosensory perception of sweet stimulus is blunted in diet-induced obese (DIO) rodents. Although this alteration might contribute to unhealthy food choices, its origin remains to be understood. Cumulative evidence indicates that prebiotic manipulations of the gut microbiota are associated with changes in food intake by modulating hedonic and motivational drive for food reward. In the present study, we explore whether a prebiotic supplementation can also restore the taste sensation in DIO mice. The preference and licking behavior in response to various sucrose concentrations were determined using respectively two-bottle choice tests and gustometer analysis in lean and obese mice supplemented or not with 10% inulin-type fructans prebiotic (P) in a preventive manner. In DIO mice, P addition reduced the fat mass gain and energy intake, limited the gut dysbiosis and partially improved the sweet taste perception (rise both of sucrose preference and number of licks/10 s vs. non-supplemented DIO mice). No clear effect on orosensory perception of sucrose was found in the supplemented control mice. Therefore, a preventive P supplementation can partially correct the loss of sweet taste sensitivity found in DIO mice, with the efficiency of treatment being dependent from the nutritional status of mice (high fat diet vs. regular chow).


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Percepção Gustatória/fisiologia , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Sacarose
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(15): 4250-4258, 2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907082

RESUMO

Ferulic acid (FA) is a major polyphenolic compound and has been shown to improve the glucose and lipid homeostasis in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Here, we found the optimal level of dietary FA to ameliorate obesity and obesity-correlated disorders, and identified the responses of gut microbiota to dietary FA in genetic leptin-deficient obese ( ob/ob) mice. The ob/ob mice exhibited persistent higher body weights, feed efficiency, white adipose tissue weights, and hepatic lipid accumulation, compared to those of the wild-type mice. However, 0.5% dietary FA suppressed these symptoms in ob/ob mice. The diversity of gut microbiota and the total abundance of obesity- and anti-obesity-related genera were not influenced after FA intervention in ob/ob mice. These data suggest that sufficient intake of FA (0.5%) could be useful for treating obesity or obesity-related diseases, and this weight-control effect is possibly not correlated with the gut-brain axis.


Assuntos
Ácidos Cumáricos/metabolismo , Leptina/deficiência , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Leptina/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/microbiologia
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(13): 3624-3632, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832480

RESUMO

Obesity has become a worldwide health issue and has attracted much public attention. In the current study, we aim to elucidate the roles of bile acids and their associations with gut microbiota during obesity development, employing high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in a rat model. We collected feces and plasma, liver tissues, and segments of intestinal tissues and a developed bile acids quantification method by employing an ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detection (UPLC-MS) strategy. We then assessed bile acids fluxes in the biological matrixes collected. We found that, irrespective of dietary regimes, taurine-conjugated bile acids were the dominant species in the liver whereas unconjugated bile acids were in plasma. However, HFD caused slight increases in the total bile acids pool and particularly the increases in the levels of deoxycholic acid (DCA) (138.67 ± 37.225 nmol/L in control group, 242.61 ± 43.16 nmol/L in HFD group, p = 0.014) and taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA) (2.8 ± 0.247 nmol/g in control group, 4.5 ± 0.386 nmol/g in HFD group, p = 0.0018) in plasma and liver tissues, respectively, which were consistent with the increased levels of DCA in intestinal tissues and feces. These changes are correlated to an increase in abundance of genera Blautia, Coprococcus, Intestinimonas, Lactococcus, Roseburia, and Ruminococcus. Our investigation revealed the fluxes of bile acids and their association with gut microbiota during obesity development and explicated unfavorable impact of HFD on health.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Obesidade/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Obesidade/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
19.
Acta Diabetol ; 56(5): 569-579, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888539

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the interactions among fecal and plasma glutamate levels, insulin resistance cognition and gut microbiota composition in obese and non-obese subjects. METHODS: Gut microbiota composition (shotgun) and plasma and fecal glutamate, glutamine and acetate (NMR) were analyzed in a pilot study of obese and non-obese subjects (n = 35). Neuropsychological tests [Trail making test A (TMT-A) and Trail making test B (TMT-B)] scores measured cognitive information about processing speed, mental flexibility and executive function. RESULTS: Trail-making test score was significantly altered in obese compared with non-obese subjects. Fecal glutamate and glutamate/glutamine ratio tended to be lower among obese subjects while fecal glutamate/acetate ratio was negatively associated with BMI and TMT-A scores. Plasma glutamate/acetate ratio was negatively associated with TMT-B. The relative abundance (RA) of some bacterial families influenced glutamate levels, given the positive association of fecal glutamate/glutamine ratio with Corynebacteriaceae, Coriobacteriaceae and Burkholderiaceae RA. In contrast, Streptococaceae RA, that was significantly higher in obese subjects, negatively correlated with fecal glutamate/glutamine ratio. To close the circle, Coriobacteriaceae/Streptococaceae ratio and Corynebacteriaceae/Streptococaceae ratio were associated both with TMT-A scores and fecal glutamate/glutamine ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Gut microbiota composition is associated with processing speed and mental flexibility in part through changes in fecal and plasma glutamate metabolism.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Fezes/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Ácido Glutâmico/análise , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Ácido Acético/análise , Ácido Acético/sangue , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Ácido Glutâmico/sangue , Glutamina/análise , Glutamina/sangue , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/microbiologia , Projetos Piloto , Teste de Sequência Alfanumérica
20.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 103(8): 3537-3547, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850874

RESUMO

Iodine is an important trace element involved in thyroid hormone biosynthesis, while diet-induced obesity is reported to disturb the trace element metabolic balance. Herein, we studied the host-specific responses involved in modulating thyroid function and gut microbiota in obese mice after the iodine treatment and analyzed the possible causes for these responses. Obesity in the mice was induced by a high-fat diet, and the obese and normal mice were treated with the same iodine dosage (18 µg/kg/day) continuously for 8 weeks. Iodine treatment in the obese mice showed a weight-reducing effect, increased the thyroid hormone concentrations, altered the transcriptions of genes involved in thyroid hormone biosynthesis, and modulated the gut microbiota with an increased abundance of pathogenic bacteria and decreased the proportion of beneficial bacteria. However, completely different or even opposite response profiles were observed in the normal hosts. Our work indicated that obesity may exacerbate the risk of thyroid disease with a relatively safe dose of iodine, and individual differences should be considered with trace element supplementation.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Iodo/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/microbiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Glândula Tireoide/fisiologia , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Iodo/farmacologia , Iodo/urina , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/patologia , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo
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