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1.
Br J Nurs ; 29(18): 1082-1083, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035084

RESUMO

Emeritus Professor Alan Glasper, from the University of Southampton, discusses the Prime Minister's personal campaign to reduce the impact of COVID-19 by addressing rising levels of obesity in society.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Governo , Humanos , Pandemias , Políticas , Medicina Estatal , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992623

RESUMO

The world is currently struggling to face the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19), and many countries have imposed lockdowns and recommended quarantine to limit both the spread of the virus and overwhelming demands for medical care. Direct implications include the disruption of work routines, boredom, depression, increased calorie consumption, and other similar harmful effects. The present narrative review article briefly analyzes the preliminary effects of the quarantine lifestyle from the standpoint of dietary habits. In six different databases, we searched for original articles up to 10 August 2020, assessing eating habits among populations during the COVID-19 pandemic, and recorded any change in the intake of major food categories, as well as changes in body weight. The research strategy yielded 364 articles, from which we selected 12 articles that fitted our goal. Our preliminary findings revealed a sharp rise of carbohydrates sources consumption, especially those with a high glycemic index (i.e., homemade pizza, bread, cake, and pastries), as well as more frequent snacks. A high consumption of fruits and vegetables, and protein sources, particularly pulses, was also recorded, although there was no clear peak of increase in the latter. Data concerning the consumption of junk foods lacked consistency, while there was a decreased alcohol intake and fresh fish/seafood consumption. As a possible connection, people gained body weight. Therefore, in the realistic perspective of a continuing global health emergency situation, timely preventive measures are needed to counteract obesity-related behaviors in the long-term, so as to prevent further health complications.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública
3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD012415, 2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are increasing worldwide and are considered to be a major public health issue of the 21st century. Introducing taxation of the fat content in foods is considered a potentially powerful policy tool to reduce consumption of foods high in fat or saturated fat, or both. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of taxation of the fat content in food on consumption of total fat and saturated fat, energy intake, overweight, obesity, and other adverse health outcomes in the general population. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, Embase, and 15 other databases and trial registers on 12 September 2019. We handsearched the reference lists of all records of included studies, searched websites of international organizations and institutions (14 October 2019), and contacted review advisory group members to identify planned, ongoing, or unpublished studies (26 February 2020). SELECTION CRITERIA: In line with Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC) criteria, we included the following study types: randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-randomized controlled trials (cRCTs), non-randomized controlled trials (nRCTs), controlled before-after (CBA) studies, and interrupted time series studies. We included studies that evaluated the effects of taxes on the fat content in foods. Such a tax could be expressed as sales, excise, or special value added tax (VAT) on the final product or an intermediary product. Eligible interventions were taxation at any level, with no restriction on the duration or the implementation level (i.e. local, regional, national, or multinational). Eligible study populations were children (zero to 17 years) and adults (18 years or older) from any country and setting. We excluded studies that focused on specific subgroups only (e.g. people receiving pharmaceutical intervention; people undergoing a surgical intervention; ill people who are overweight or obese as a side effect, such as those with thyroiditis and depression; and people with chronic illness). Primary outcomes were total fat consumption, consumption of saturated fat, energy intake through fat, energy intake through saturated fat, total energy intake, and incidence/prevalence of overweight or obesity. We did not exclude studies based on country, setting, comparison, or population. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methods for all phases of the review. Risk of bias of the included studies was assessed using the criteria of Cochrane's 'Risk of bias' tool and the EPOC Group's guidance. Results of the review are summarized narratively and the certainty of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. These steps were done by two review authors, independently. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 23,281 records from searching electronic databases and 1173 records from other sources, leading to a total of 24,454 records. Two studies met the criteria for inclusion in the review. Both included studies investigated the effect the Danish tax on saturated fat contained in selected food items between 2011 and 2012. Both studies used an interrupted time series design. Neither included study had a parallel control group from another geographic area. The included studies investigated an unbalanced panel of approximately 2000 households in Denmark and the sales data from a specific Danish supermarket chain (1293 stores). Therefore, the included studies did not address individual participants, and no restriction regarding age, sex, and socioeconomic characteristics were defined. We judged the overall risk of bias of the two included studies as unclear. For the outcome total consumption of fat, a reduction of 41.8 grams per week per person in a household (P < 0.001) was estimated. For the consumption of saturated fat, one study reported a reduction of 4.2% from minced beef sales, a reduction of 5.8% from cream sales, and an increase of 0.5% to sour cream sales (no measures of statistical precision were reported for these estimates). These estimates are based on a restricted number of food types and derived from sales data; they do not measure individual intake. Moreover, these estimates do not account for other relevant sources of fat intake (e.g. packaged or processed food) or other food outlets (e.g. restaurants or cafeterias); hence, we judged the evidence on the effect of taxation on total fat consumption or saturated fat consumption to be very uncertain. We did not identify evidence on the effect of the intervention on energy intake or the incidence or prevalence of overweight or obesity. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Given the very low quality of the evidence currently available, we are unable to reliably establish whether a tax on total fat or saturated fat is effective or ineffective in reducing consumption of total fat or saturated fat. There is currently no evidence on the effect of a tax on total fat or saturated fat on total energy intake or energy intake through saturated fat or total fat, or preventing the incidence or reducing the prevalence of overweight or obesity.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Impostos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Dinamarca , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236716, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745125

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess network-based weight loss interventions in the Chinese setting using agent-based simulation. METHODS: An agent-based model incorporating social, environmental and personal influence is developed to simulate the obesity epidemic through an interconnected social network among a population of 2197 individuals from the nationally representative survey. Model parameters are collected from literature and existing database. To ensure the robustness of our findings, the model is validated against empirical observations and sensitivity analyses are performed on calibrated parameters. RESULTS: When compared with the baseline model, significant weight difference is detected using paired samples t tests for network-based intervention strategies (p<0.05) but no difference is observed for the two conventional intervention strategies including choosing random or high-risk individuals (p>0.05). Targeting the most connected individuals minimizes the average population weight, average BMI, and generates a reduction of 2.70% and 1.38% in overweight and obesity prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: The simulations shows that targeting individuals on the basis of their social network attributes outperforms conventional targeting strategies. Future work needs to focus on how to further leverage social networks to curb obesity prevalence and enhance interventions for other chronic conditions using agent-based simulation.


Assuntos
Obesidade , Análise de Sistemas , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso , Rede Social
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(34): e21136, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to conduct a systematic review to comprehensively evaluate the relationship between pistachio intake and obesity. METHODS: We searched 6 databases and acquired parameters from randomized controlled trials regarding obesity, including body weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference. A fixed-effect model was applied to the meta-analysis for the weighted mean difference (WMD) between a diet with pistachios and a control diet. RESULTS: Eleven trials including a total of 1593 subjects met the inclusion criteria. Compared to the group on a control diet, the pistachio diet group showed lower BMI values (WMD: -0.18 kg/m; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.26, -0.11 kg/m; I = 29.8%) and no differences in body weight (WMD: -0.22 kg; 95% CI: -0.50, 0.07 kg; I = 0.0%) or waist circumference (WMD: 0.76 cm; 95% CI: -0.11, 1.63 cm; I = 7.0%). CONCLUSION: A diet with pistachios reduced BMI and had no significant effects on body weight and waist circumference.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Dieta , Nozes , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Pistacia , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
8.
Glob Health Action ; 13(1): 1804700, 2020 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835634

RESUMO

Initial observations showed that people with chronic noncommunicable diseases were at heightened risk of severe COVID-19 and adverse outcomes. Subsequently, data from various countries have revealed obesity as an independent and significant factor, with people who are overweight/have obesity significantly more likely to be hospitalized, require ICU treatment, and to die. Notably, this additional risk applies to younger people relative to the general COVID-19 risk profile. This paper sets out the evidence of greater risk of poor COVID outcomes for people who are overweight/have obesity, indication of reduced treatment and support for obesity self-management where it existed prior to COVID-19, and highlights the dearth of specific guidance and measures to mitigate the impacts of COVID-19 upon people with obesity. We identify the health, social and economic impacts that this specific vulnerability creates relative to COVID-19 outcomes. Reduced national and global pandemic resilience due to high obesity prevalence should spur governments and funders to provide urgent specific protection and support for people with overweight/obesity, and to commission rapid research to identify effective prevention and reduction measures. We set out priorities for action on obesity to begin compensating for years of underfunding and inadequate policy attention in the face of escalating obesity across countries of all income groups and world regions.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Comorbidade , Saúde Global , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/terapia , Pandemias , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237720, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32834011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Underweight, overweight, and obesity are major public health challenges among reproductive-age women of lower- and middle-income countries (including Tanzania). In those settings, obesogenic factors (attributes that promote excessive body weight gain) are increasing in the context of an existing high burden of undernutrition. The present study investigated factors associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity among reproductive age women in Tanzania. METHODS: This study used 2015-16 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey data (n = 11735). To account for the hierarchical nature of the data (i.e., reproductive age women nested within clusters), multilevel multinomial logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between individual-level (socioeconomic, demographic and behavioural) and community-level factors with underweight, overweight, and obesity. RESULTS: Reproductive age women who were informally employed (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.64, 0.96), those who were currently married (RRR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.82) and those who used contraceptives (RRR = 0.70; 95% CI: 0.54, 0.90) were less likely to be underweight. Reproductive age women who attained secondary or higher education (RRR = 1.48; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.96), those who resided in wealthier households (RRR = 2.31; 95% CI: 1.78, 3.03) and those who watched the television (RRR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.50) were more likely to be overweight. The risk of experiencing obesity was higher among reproductive age women who attained secondary or higher education (RRR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.23, 2.61), those who were formally employed (RRR = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.98), those who resided in wealthier households (RRR = 4.77; 95% CI: 3.03, 7.50), those who used alcohol (RRR = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.82) and/or watched the television (RRR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.35, 2.13). CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that relevant government jurisdictions need to identify, promote, and implement evidence-based interventions that can simultaneously address underweight and overweight/obesity among reproductive age women in Tanzania.


Assuntos
Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Saúde Reprodutiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Magreza/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/organização & administração , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Reprodução/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Magreza/fisiopatologia , Magreza/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1037, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Australia, like other nations, has experienced a shift in dietary patterns away from home cooking of nutritious foods, towards a reliance on pre-prepared convenience meals. These are typically energy-dense, nutrient-poor and contribute to the rising prevalence of obesity and chronic disease burden. The aims of this study were to evaluate whether a community-based cooking program instigated a change to participants' skills, attitudes, knowledge, enjoyment and satisfaction of cooking and cooking confidence (self-efficacy). METHODS: The pseudo-random, pre-post study design consisted of an intervention and a control group. Participant recruitment and group allocation was based on their program start dates. Intervention participants were surveyed three times (baseline, 7 weeks and 6 months) and the control group were surveyed at baseline and 5 weeks. All participants were registered via an online website and were 18 years or over. Upon consent, participants were offered four levels of commitment, defined by different assessments. The minimum participation level included an online survey and levels 2, 3 and 4 involved attendance at a clinic with increasing functional, anthropometric and biomarker measurements. Primary endpoints were participants' cooking confidence as a proxy for self-efficacy. Secondary endpoints were dietary intake, physical activity levels, body composition, anthropometry, blood, urine and faecal biomarkers of systemic, physical and mental health. DISCUSSION: The community cooking program provided participants with information and advice on food sourcing, preparation and nutrition to improve home cooking skills. The study was designed to explore whether food literacy programs are efficacious in improving participant physical health and well-being in order to combat the rise in obesity and diet-related disease. It will support future use of public health cooking program initiatives aimed at improving food literacy, self-efficacy and physical and mental health. The extensive data collected will inform future research into the relationship between diet, the gut-microbiota and human health. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Retrospectively registered on 16.08.2019 with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR). ACTRN12619001144101 . Protocol version 4.


Assuntos
Culinária , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Autoeficácia , Adulto , Austrália , Biomarcadores , Doença Crônica , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Satisfação Pessoal , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Projetos de Pesquisa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
15.
PLoS Med ; 17(7): e1003221, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In October 2019, Mexico approved a law to establish that nonalcoholic beverages and packaged foods that exceed a threshold for added calories, sugars, fats, trans fat, or sodium should have an "excess of" warning label. We aimed to estimate the expected reduction in the obesity prevalence and obesity costs in Mexico by introducing warning labels, over 5 years, among adults under 60 years of age. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Baseline intakes of beverages and snacks were obtained from the 2016 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey. The expected impact of labels on caloric intake was obtained from an experimental study, with a 10.5% caloric reduction for beverages and 3.0% caloric reduction for snacks. The caloric reduction was introduced into a dynamic model to estimate weight change. The model output was then used to estimate the expected changes in the prevalence of obesity and overweight. To predict obesity costs, we used the Health Ministry report of the impact of overweight and obesity in Mexico 1999-2023. We estimated a mean caloric reduction of 36.8 kcal/day/person (23.2 kcal/day from beverages and 13.6 kcal/day from snacks). Five years after implementation, this caloric reduction could reduce 1.68 kg and 4.98 percentage points (pp) in obesity (14.7%, with respect to baseline), which translates into a reduction of 1.3 million cases of obesity and a reduction of US$1.8 billion in direct and indirect costs. Our estimate is based on experimental evidence derived from warning labels as proposed in Canada, which include a single label and less restrictive limits to sugar, sodium, and saturated fats. Our estimates depend on various assumptions, such as the transportability of effect estimates from the experimental study to the Mexican population and that other factors that could influence weight and food and beverage consumption remain unchanged. Our results will need to be corroborated by future observational studies through the analysis of changes in sales, consumption, and body weight. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we estimated that warning labels may effectively reduce obesity and obesity-related costs. Mexico is following Chile, Peru, and Uruguay in implementing warning labels to processed foods, but other countries could benefit from this intervention.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Ingestão de Alimentos , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Embalagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Obesidade/economia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Lanches
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236741, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730300

RESUMO

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists such as dioxin have been associated with obesity and the development of diabetes. Whole-body Ahr knockout mice on high-fat diet (HFD) have been shown to resist obesity and hepatic steatosis. Tissue-specific knockout of Ahr in mature adipocytes via adiponectin-Cre exacerbates obesity while knockout in liver increases steatosis without having significant effects on obesity. Our previous studies demonstrated that treatment of subcutaneous preadipocytes with exogenous or endogenous AHR agonists disrupts maturation into functional adipocytes in vitro. Here, we used platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (Pdgfrα)-Cre mice, a Cre model previously established to knock out genes in preadipocyte lineages and other cell types, but not liver cells, to further define AHR's role in obesity. We demonstrate that Pdgfrα-Cre Ahr-floxed (Ahrfl/fl) knockout mice are protected from HFD-induced obesity compared to non-knockout Ahrfl/fl mice (control mice). The Pdgfrα-Cre Ahrfl/fl knockout mice were also protected from increased adiposity, enlargement of adipocyte size, and liver steatosis while on the HFD compared to control mice. On a regular control diet, knockout and non-knockout mice showed no differences in weight gain, indicating the protective phenotype arises only when animals are challenged by a HFD. At the cellular level, cultured cells from brown adipose tissue (BAT) of Pdgfrα-Cre Ahrfl/fl mice were more responsive than cells from controls to transcriptional activation of the thermogenic uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) gene by norepinephrine, suggesting an ability to burn more energy under certain conditions. Collectively, our results show that knockout of Ahr mediated by Pdgfrα-Cre is protective against diet-induced obesity and suggest a mechanism by which enhanced UCP1 activity within BAT might confer these effects.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/fisiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fígado Gorduroso/prevenção & controle , Integrases/metabolismo , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Receptor alfa de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/fisiologia , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/fisiologia , Adiposidade , Animais , Metabolismo Energético , Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Feminino , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/patologia , Termogênese
17.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233908, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This paper investigates actions that combine nutrition and physical activity which hold potential for 'double duty action' to tackle multiple forms of malnutrition simultaneously. Expanding on previous research on single component actions, we assessed the state of the literature to map integrated interventions across the life course to analyse potential double duty effects, and identify knowledge gaps and needs for future design, implementation, evaluation and research for effective double duty action. METHODS: A scoping review of peer-reviewed and grey literature was conducted to explore the pathways that extend from combined physical activity and nutrition promotion interventions, with potential synergistic effects on outcomes other than obesity. Electronic databases were searched for studies published between 1 January 2010 and 31 January 2020. Out of 359 articles retrieved, 31 peer-reviewed and 5 grey literature sources met inclusion criteria. Findings from 36 papers reporting on 34 interventions/initiatives were organised into 6 categories, based on implementation across multiple stages of the life course. Double-duty potential was assessed through a further stage of analysis. FINDINGS: This review has identified actions that hold potential for tackling not only obesity, but healthy diets, sedentary behaviour and quality of life more generally, as well as actions that explicitly tackle multiple forms of malnutrition. Importantly, it has identified crucial gaps in current methods and praxis that call for further practice-oriented research, in order to better understand and exploit the synergistic effects of integrated interventions on outcomes other than obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from across implementation settings suggest that even in situations where interventions are aimed at, or framed in terms of, obesity prevention and control, there are unexploited pathways for broader outcomes of relevance to nutrition and health and wellbeing more generally. Future design and evaluation of multisectoral approaches will benefit from an explicit framing of interventions as double-duty oriented.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Carga Global da Doença , Humanos , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida
18.
PLoS Genet ; 16(6): e1008790, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525877

RESUMO

Recent discoveries from large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWASs) explain a larger proportion of the genetic variability to BMI and obesity. The genetic risk associated with BMI and obesity can be assessed by an obesity-specific genetic risk score (GRS) constructed from genome-wide significant genetic variants. The aim of our study is to examine whether the duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding can attenuate BMI increase during childhood and adolescence due to genetic risks. A total sample of 5,266 children (2,690 boys and 2,576 girls) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) was used for the analysis. We evaluated the role of breastfeeding (exclusivity and duration) in modulating BMI increase attributed to the GRS from birth to 18 years of age. The GRS was composed of 69 variants associated with adult BMI and 25 non-overlapping SNPs associated with pediatric BMI. In the high genetic susceptible group (upper GRS quartile), exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) to 5 months reduces BMI by 1.14 kg/m2 (95% CI, 0.37 to 1.91, p = 0.0037) in 18-year-old boys, which compensates a 3.9-decile GRS increase. In 18-year-old girls, EBF to 5 months decreases BMI by 1.53 kg/m2 (95% CI, 0.76 to 2.29, p<0.0001), which compensates a 7.0-decile GRS increase. EBF acts early in life by delaying the age at adiposity peak and at adiposity rebound. EBF to 3 months or non-exclusive breastfeeding was associated with a significantly diminished impact on reducing BMI growth during childhood. EBF influences early life growth and development and thus may play a critical role in preventing overweight and obesity among children at high-risk due to genetic factors.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/genética , Adiposidade/genética , Adolescente , Aleitamento Materno/métodos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
19.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28(2): 87-93, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592552

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Prevalence of obesity and overweight among children is rising worldwide. Thus, the importance of restaurants as food environments is also growing. Considering these developments, the present study describes and evaluates menus and meals offered to children in German full-service restaurants. METHODS: Using quota sampling procedure, a representative sample of German full-service restaurants was identified. The individual meals were then assessed, using the Children's Menu Assessment tool (CMA). A total of 500 restaurants and 1,877 individual meals were analyzed. RESULTS: On average, every menu included 3.76 ± 1.31 meals for children. The arithmetic mean of the CMA score was 0.73 ± 0.85. Around 80% of all offered meals were limited to eight typical dishes and over 50% included French fries or another form of fried potatoes. Not one of the meals included any nutritional information. Healthy entrees were never marked (e.g. by an optional qualitative information such as healthy food symbol or a healthier choice tag). Eighty-one percent of all the main components in the meals were rated as unhealthy and none of the meals used wholegrain products. The automatic inclusion of a drink and free refill options are both rather unusual in Germany, as well as the use of cartoon characters and product logos or giving away promotional toys. A positive correlation was found between the price of the food and its quality. The majority of dishes feature a high energy density while simultaneously having a low nutrient density. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the range of food on offer for children in German restaurants is unhealthy and lacking in variety. There is an urgent need for improvement of both the menus themselves as well as the offered meals. Our study is not only by far the most comprehensive study, but also the study with the worst CMA score values worldwide.


Assuntos
Fast Foods , Refeições , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Restaurantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Ingestão de Energia , Alimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Alemanha , Humanos , Planejamento de Cardápio , Jogos e Brinquedos
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234804, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559212

RESUMO

The aim of the ACE-Obesity Policy study was to assess the economic credentials of a suite of obesity prevention policies across multiple sectors and areas of governance for the Australian setting. The study aimed to place the cost-effectiveness results within a broad decision-making context by providing an assessment of the key considerations for policy implementation. The Assessing Cost-Effectiveness (ACE) approach to priority-setting was used. Systematic literature reviews were undertaken to assess the evidence of intervention effectiveness on body mass index and/or physical activity for selected interventions. A standardised evaluation framework was used to assess the cost-effectiveness of each intervention compared to a 'no intervention' comparator, from a limited societal perspective. A multi-state life table Markov cohort model was used to estimate the long-term health impacts (quantified as health adjusted life years (HALYs)) and health care cost-savings resulting from each intervention. In addition to the technical cost-effectiveness results, qualitative assessments of implementation considerations were undertaken. All 16 interventions evaluated were found to be cost-effective (using a willingness-to-pay threshold of AUD50,000 per HALY gained). Eleven interventions were dominant (health promoting and cost-saving). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the non-dominant interventions ranged from AUD1,728 to 28,703 per HALY gained. Regulatory interventions tended to rank higher on their cost-effectiveness results, driven by lower implementation costs. However, the program-based policy interventions were generally based on higher quality evidence of intervention effectiveness. This comparative analysis of the economic credentials of obesity prevention policies for Australia indicates that there are a broad range of policies that are likely to be cost-effective, although policy options vary in strength of evidence for effectiveness, affordability, feasibility, acceptability to stakeholders, equity impact and sustainability. Implementation of these policies will require sustained co-ordination across jurisdictions and multiple government sectors in order to generate the predicted health benefits for the Australian population.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Política de Saúde/economia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Austrália/epidemiologia , Humanos , Cadeias de Markov , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida
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