Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 11.147
Filtrar
1.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371967

RESUMO

Interventions that address binge eating and food insecurity are needed. Engaging people with lived experience to understand their needs and preferences could yield important design considerations for such interventions. In this study, people with food insecurity, recurrent binge eating, and obesity completed an interview-based needs assessment to learn facilitators and barriers that they perceive would impact their engagement with a digital intervention for managing binge eating and weight. Twenty adults completed semi-structured interviews. Responses were analyzed using thematic analysis. Three themes emerged. Participants shared considerations that impact their ability to access the intervention (e.g., cost of intervention, cost of technology, accessibility across devices), ability to complete intervention recommendations (e.g., affordable healthy meals, education to help stretch groceries, food vouchers, rides to grocery stores, personalized to budget), and preferred intervention features for education, self-monitoring, personalization, support, and motivation/rewards. Engaging people with lived experiences via user-centered design methods revealed important design considerations for a digital intervention to meet this population's needs. Future research is needed to test whether a digital intervention that incorporates these recommendations is engaging and effective for people with binge eating and food insecurity. Findings may have relevance to designing digital interventions for other health problems as well.


Assuntos
Bulimia/psicologia , Bulimia/terapia , Insegurança Alimentar , Obesidade/psicologia , Obesidade/terapia , Design Centrado no Usuário , Adulto , Idoso , Custos e Análise de Custo , Dieta Saudável , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Autocuidado/métodos
2.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444714

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We conducted a prospective randomised trial to assess whether a specific type of regular physical training performed by women with obesity is related to obtaining specific psychological benefits. METHODS: Forty-four women qualified for the study and were divided into two groups. The applied intervention consisted of regular three-month physical exercises in the form of endurance training (group A) or endurance strength training (group B). Initially, and after the completed intervention, we examined anthropometric measurements and the level of: stress (PSS-10), general self-esteem (SES), body self-report (BSQ-34, FRS), and behaviours associated with diet (TFEQ-18). RESULTS: As a result of the intervention, both groups had significantly lower anthropometric parameters and FRS scores with regard to the current figure (gr. A:δ FRS CS -0.90 ± 0.83, p < 0.001; gr. B:δ FRS CS -0.41 ± 0.50, p = 0.01) and BSQ-34 results (gr. A:δ BSQ-34 -14.90 ± 13.5, p = 0.001; gr. B:δ BSQ-34 - 18.64 ± 25.4, p = 0.01). Additionally, an increase in cognitive restraint (δ TFEQ-18 CR1.65 ± 2.06, p = 0.01) and a decrease in emotional eating (δ TFEQ-18 EE -0.82 ± 1.28, p = 0.01) were observed in group B. There were no between-group differences in terms of the magnitude of changes achieved due to the intervention, except for asignificant improvement in the perception of their current figure (FRS) (δ FRSCS -0.90 ± 0.83, p = 0.03) in group A. CONCLUSIONS: Regular physical activity over a three-month period by women with obesity promotes the perception of their own body as slimmer and lowers body shape concerns. The change in body shape perception was more pronounced under the influence of endurance training than endurance strength training. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT04793451.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Treino Aeróbico , Obesidade/psicologia , Treinamento de Força , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/terapia , Estresse Psicológico , Relação Cintura-Quadril , Adulto Jovem
3.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371839

RESUMO

The obesity pandemic is associated with increased consumption of restaurant food. Labeling of menus is an intervention used to provide consumers with kilocalorie (calorie) information in hopes of them making healthier food choices. This study evaluated the relationship between young adults' calorie choices on restaurant menus and menu design, dietary behaviors, and demographic characteristics. A 3 (fast-casual restaurants) × 4 (menu-designs based on menu engineering theories) between-subjects (n = 480, 18-24-year olds) experimental design was used. The relationship between the participants' calorie choices (high versus low) and menu design, stage of change, gender, race, educational level and weight status was evaluated using logistic regression. All independent variables had at least one category that had greater odds (CI 95% ± 5%) of subjects choosing a lower calorie entree, except education level and race/ethnic group. Normal weight and overweight subjects had greater odds of choosing lower calorie entrees than those that were obese. In addition, subjects that had started to control their calorie intake for less than six months or had sustained this change for at least six months, had greater odds of choosing lower calorie entrees compared to others. Including a green symbol and calories on fast casual restaurant menus may influence some young adults to choose lower calorie entrees.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Fast Foods/análise , Rotulagem de Alimentos/métodos , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Consumidor , Ingestão de Energia , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Restaurantes , Adulto Jovem
4.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 13(1): e1-e7, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a public health threat of global concern with increasing prevalence in many countries, including Nigeria. AIM: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and determinants of hypertension in a rural agrarian community in Edo North, Nigeria. SETTING: The study was carried out in Ayua, a community in Edo North, southern Nigeria. METHODS: This cross-sectional descriptive study involved the use of a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire to obtain relevant data. Body mass index (BMI), blood pressure and glucose were recorded. Data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. RESULTS: Two hundred and nineteen participants aged 15 years completed the study with a mean age of 54.03 ± 16.61 years and females comprising 159 (72.6%) of the total. The prevalence of hypertension was 27.9% (in 61 participants). Twenty-one (9.8%) respondents gave a family history of hypertension. The mean BMI amongst respondents was 27.10 ± 6.61 kg/m2. Obesity and pre-obesity were found in 58 (26.5%) and 71(32.4%) respondents, respectively. The determinants of hypertension were age and BMI. Compared with those who were less than 40 years old, those aged 40-65 years and 65 years had 1.9 and 4.2 times increased odds of developing hypertension, respectively. Similarly, compared with the non-obese, obese participants had 2.3 times increased odd of having hypertension. CONCLUSION: Hypertension was highly prevalent in this rural community. Health sensitisation and intervention programmes are recommended in rural communities for early detection and management of hypertension, especially amongst older and obese adults.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/etnologia , Hipertensão/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/etnologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207492

RESUMO

Portion control utensils and reduced size tableware amongst other tools, have the potential to guide portion size intake but their effectiveness remains controversial. This review evaluated the breadth and effectiveness of existing portion control tools on learning/awareness of appropriate portion sizes (PS), PS choice, and PS consumption. Additional outcomes were energy intake and weight loss. Published records between 2006-2020 (n = 1241) were identified from PubMed and WoS, and 36 publications comparing the impact of portion control tools on awareness (n = 7 studies), selection/choice (n = 14), intake plus related measures (n = 21) and weight status (n = 9) were analyzed. Non-tableware tools included cooking utensils, educational aids and computerized applications. Tableware included mostly reduced-size and portion control/calibrated crockery/cutlery. Overall, 55% of studies reported a significant impact of using a tool (typically smaller bowl, fork or glass; or calibrated plate). A meta-analysis of 28 articles confirmed an overall effect of tool on food intake (d = -0.22; 95%CI: -0.38, -0.06; 21 comparisons), mostly driven by combinations of reduced-size bowls and spoons decreasing serving sizes (d = -0.48; 95%CI: -0.72, -0.24; 8 comparisons) and consumed amounts/energy (d = -0.22; 95%CI: -0.39, -0.05, 9 comparisons), but not by reduced-size plates (d = -0.03; 95%CI: -0.12, 0.06, 7 comparisons). Portion control tools marginally induced weight loss (d = -0.20; 95%CI: -0.37, -0.03; 9 comparisons), especially driven by calibrated tableware. No impact was detected on PS awareness; however, few studies quantified this outcome. Specific portion control tools may be helpful as potentially effective instruments for inclusion as part of weight loss interventions. Reduced size plates per se may not be as effective as previously suggested.


Assuntos
Utensílios de Alimentação e Culinária , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Tamanho da Porção/psicologia , Adulto , Comportamento de Escolha , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/psicologia , Tamanho da Porção de Referência/psicologia , Perda de Peso
6.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 lockdown may have negatively impacted the treatment of obesity. This study aimed to assess the effect of COVID-19 lockdown in patients with obesity treated with intensive residential cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-OB). METHODS: This retrospective case-control study analyzed 129 patients with severe obesity who experienced COVID-19 lockdown in the 6 months after discharge from intensive residential CBT-OB, comparing their outcomes on weight loss, binge-eating episodes, and general health status with those in a sample of patients matched by gender, age, and body mass index given the same treatment before the COVID-19 outbreak as control. Patients were assessed at baseline and by phone interview 6-month follow-up. RESULTS: Both groups had lost more than 9% of their baseline bodyweight and reported a significant decrease in binge-eating episodes and similar general health status at 6-month follow-up. However, control patients achieved a significantly greater weight loss than those who experienced lockdown, although half of lockdown patients reported persisting with CBT-OB procedures after their discharge. CONCLUSION: Patients with obesity treated with CBT-OB and exposed to COVID-19 lockdown, despite achieving lower weight loss than non-exposed patients, had a healthy weight loss at 6-month follow-up and comparable reduction in binge-eating behaviors.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Obesidade/terapia , Pandemias , Alta do Paciente , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/psicologia , Tratamento Domiciliar , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Isolamento Social , Resultado do Tratamento , Programas de Redução de Peso
7.
Curr Obes Rep ; 10(3): 365-370, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297344

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Social isolation and loneliness have long been identified as risk factors for poorer physical and mental health and increased mortality. These factors have also been shown to impact dietary behavior and physical activity which play a role in precipitating and maintaining obesity. Less is known about the impact of social isolation resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic in which social distancing is a major component of public health initiatives. This narrative review will examine the existing literature on the relationships between social isolation, loneliness, mental health, and weight as they relate to the COVID-19 pandemic. RECENT FINDINGS: Individuals with obesity are at very high risk for worsening course of COVID-19, hospitalization, and death. This population may also be more significantly impacted by the dietary and physical activity consequences resulting from lockdown, social distancing, and isolation. The pandemic has led to significant lifestyle disruptions. However, early studies have largely relied upon cross-sectional studies or convenience samples. Future research will need to study the impact more rigorously, particularly among populations at greatest risk.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Solidão , Saúde Mental , Obesidade , Pandemias , Distanciamento Físico , Isolamento Social , Peso Corporal , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
8.
Scand J Psychol ; 62(4): 574-585, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060091

RESUMO

A new causal chain model positing theory- and research-based interrelationships among psychosocial and behavioral variables leading to weight loss and its maintenance was assessed. Two samples of women participating in community-based cognitive-behavioral obesity treatments were assessed over either 6 months (weight loss phase; N = 103), or additionally including Months 6-12 (weight-loss maintenance phase; N = 101). Analyses first evaluated whether baseline physical, demographic, behavioral (physical activity, fruit/vegetable intake), and/or psychosocial (self-regulation, self-efficacy, negative mood) variables significantly predicted weight change. Further analyses assessed whether changes in model-based behavioral and psychosocial variables significantly differed by groupings of participants based on their short-term weight loss and weight-loss maintenance/further loss. The predictive value of changes in the psychosocial variables on behavioral changes was next assessed, also accounting for group. Finally, mediation, moderation, and moderated mediation analyses tested proposed causal chain-based interrelationships among variables. Of the 12 variables assessed at baseline, only weight was inversely associated with lost weight, and only fruit/vegetable intake was positively associated with effects during the weight-loss maintenance phase. Overall improvements in behavioral and psychosocial variables were significantly greater in participant groupings with better weight loss and weight-loss maintenance results. Changes in self-regulation, self-efficacy, and mood significantly predicted the weight-loss behavior changes, unaffected by group. Results from the five mediation, moderation, and moderated mediation analyses supported hypotheses based on the new causal chain model. The field testing indicated adequacy of the new causal chain model and informed architectures of behavioral obesity treatments concerned with long-term reductions in excess weight.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Obesidade/psicologia , Obesidade/terapia , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Adulto , Afeto , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Autoeficácia
9.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070408

RESUMO

Understanding food choice is critical to be able to address the rise in obesity rates around the globe. In this paper, we examine the relationship between measured (BMI, using self-reported height and weight) and perceived weight status with the number of calories ordered in a controlled online food choice exercise. A total of 1044 participants completed an online food choice exercise in which they selected ingredients for a sandwich from five categories: meat/protein, cheese, spread/dressing, bread, and vegetables. We examine the number of calories ordered by participants and use linear regression to study the relationship of BMI category relative to self-reported perceived weight status with calories ordered. As a comparison to previous literature, we also examine the relationship between relative weight status and self-reported dieting behavior using logistic regression. We find that participants perceiving themselves to have a higher BMI than their BMI calculated using height and weight ordered significantly fewer calories and were more likely to report dieting than participants who perceived themselves to have a lower BMI than their calculated BMI. The relationship between perceived weight status and measured weight status explains behavior in a food choice task. Understanding how people perceive their weight may help design effective health messages.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Preferências Alimentares , Percepção de Peso , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Ingestão de Energia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Verduras
10.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065277

RESUMO

Little is known about nutritional factors during weight loss on digital commercial weight loss programs. We examined how nutritional factors relate to weight loss for individuals after 4 and 18 months on a mobile commercial program with a food categorization system based on energy density (Noom). This is a two-part (retrospective and cross-sectional) cohort study. Two time points were used for analysis: 4 months and 18 months. For 4-month analyses, current Noom users who met inclusion criteria (n = 9880) were split into 5% or more body weight loss and stable weight loss (0 ± 1%) groups. Individuals who fell into one of these groups were analyzed at 4 months (n = 3261). For 18-month analyses, individuals from 4-month analyses who were still on Noom 18 months later were invited to take a one-time survey (n = 803). At 18 months 148 participants were analyzed. Noom has a system categorizing foods as low-, medium-, and high-energy-dense. Measures were self-reported proportions of low-, medium-, and high-energy-dense foods, and self-reported nutritional factors (fruit and vegetable intake, dietary quality, nutrition knowledge, and food choice). Nutritional factors were derived from validated survey measures, and food choice from a novel validated computerized task in which participants chose a food they would want to eat right now. ANOVAs compared participants with 5% or more body weight loss and participants with stable weight (0 ± 1%) at 4 months on energy density proportions. Analyses at 18 months compared nutritional factors across participants with >10% (high weight loss), 5-10% (moderate weight loss), and less than 5% body weight loss (low weight loss), and then assessed associations between nutritional factors and weight loss. Individuals with greater weight loss reported consuming higher proportions of low-energy-dense foods and lower proportions of high-energy-dense foods than individuals with less weight loss at 4 months and 18 months (all ps < 0.02). Individuals with greater weight loss had higher fruit and vegetable intake (p = 0.03), dietary quality (p = 0.02), nutrition knowledge (p < 0.001), and healthier food choice (p = 0.003) at 18 months. Only nutrition knowledge and food choice were associated with weight loss at 18 months (B = -19.44, 95% CI: -33.19 to -5.69, p = 0.006; B = -5.49, 95% CI: -8.87 to -2.11, p = 0.002, respectively). Our results highlight the potential influence of nutrition knowledge and food choice in weight loss on a self-managed commercial program. We also found for the first time that in-the-moment inclination towards food even when just depicted is associated with long-term weight loss.


Assuntos
Alimentos/classificação , Obesidade/terapia , Autogestão/psicologia , Perda de Peso , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aplicativos Móveis , Valor Nutritivo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autorrelato , Autogestão/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 82(3): 1259-1275, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34151813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Periodontal disease(s) and metabolic illnesses negatively impact the quality of life and, eventually mental health. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effect of Porphyromonas gingivalis (W83) oral infection on the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathophysiology in a wild-type obese, diabetic (db/db) mouse model. METHODS: The db/db mice were either orally infected with P. gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum or sham infected for 16 weeks. The presence of amyloid-ß (Aß) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) were assessed using a silver impregnation technique and subsequently by immunohistochemistry for tau and neuroinflammation. The mRNA abundance of a panel of 184 genes was performed using quantitative real-time PCR, and the differentially expressed genes were analyzed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. RESULTS: While no Aß plaques and NFTs were evident by silver impregnation, immunohistochemistry (glial cell markers) of the P. gingivalis-infected mice tissue sections exhibited neuroinflammation in the form of reactive microglia and astrocytes. Anti-tau immunopositivity, in addition to cells, was prominent in thickened axons of hippocampal CA neurons. The mRNA abundance of crucial genes in the insulin signaling pathway (INSR, IGF1, IRS, IDE, PIK3R, SGK1, GYS, GSK3B, AKT1) were upregulated, potentially exacerbating insulin resistance in the brain by P. gingivalis oral infection. Increased mRNA abundance of several kinases, membrane receptors, transcription factors, and pro-inflammatory mediators indicated hyperactivation of intracellular cascades with potential for tau phosphorylation and Aß release in the same infection group. CONCLUSION: P. gingivalis W83 infection of db/db mice provides a disease co-morbidity model with the potential to reproduce AD pathophysiology with induced periodontal disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Animais , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/genética , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/psicologia
13.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064242

RESUMO

Evidence supports the role of exercise training and probiotics on reducing obesity. Considering the relationship between obesity and high-fat diet with anxiety indices, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of probiotic supplementation and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on anxiety-like behaviors, corticosterone and obesity indices in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mice. Thirty male adult C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into five groups: (1) Control with normal diet (CON), (2) High-fat diet (HFD), (3) HFD + exercise training (HT), (4) HFD + probiotics supplement (HP) and (5) HFD + exercise training +probiotics (HTP). Exercise training consisted of 8 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) programs. Probiotics supplement included 0.2 mL Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Anxiety-like behaviors were measured by open field (OF) and Elevated plus maze (EPM). OF and EPM tests, visceral fat mass (VFM) measurement, and blood sampling for corticosterone were performed after the intervention. Bodyweight was measured at different stages during the intervention. HFD regime in C57BL/6 mice increased bodyweight, VFM, and serum corticosterone levels and anxiety-like behaviors (p < 0.05). HIIT, probiotic and their combination, decreased bodyweight, VFM, and serum corticosterone levels and improved anxiety-like behavior in the HFD mice (p < 0.05). The effect of a combination of HIIT and probiotic on most of the anxiety indices was more than each one separately (p < 0.5). HIIT and probiotic supplements separately or above all in combination, may have beneficial effects in reducing obesity and anxiety indices.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/microbiologia , Corticosterona/sangue , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Animais , Ansiedade/etiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Condicionamento Físico Animal/psicologia
14.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 56, 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity and overweight in childhood has increased dramatically over the past decades globally. Thus, the risk factors of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents must be studied. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to reveal the prevalence of childhood obesity and examine the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and z-body mass index (z-BMI) via parental obesity and dietary intake using path analysis. METHODS: Stratified cluster sampling was used to select 17,007 participants aged 6-12 years on two avenues per region in urban, suburban, and rural areas. Path analysis was conducted to examine the mediators between SES and z-BMI. RESULTS: The prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 13.36% and 8.60%, respectively, and were positively correlated with the father's education level, family income, a birth weight > 3000g, a parental obesity history, vegetable intake and red meat intake (all P < 0.05). Four mediators (paternal obesity history, red meat intake, vegetable intake, and nutritional supplements) were observed, and the four path analyses were significant (all P < 0.05). The adjusted total effects on z-BMI were significant for income (ßTot = 0.03; P < 0.01), father's education (ßTot = 0.05; P < 0.001), and region (ßTot = 0.11; P<0.001), and the total mediation effects were 20.69%, 16.67%, and 5.36%, respectively. All the variables accounted for 12.60% of the z-BMI variance. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of overweight/obesity in children was notable, and the relationship between SES and z-BMI was mediated by paternal obesity history and dietary intake.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Pai/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Classe Social , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia
15.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917347

RESUMO

Prior work suggests that actual, but not estimated, energy density drives the reinforcing value of food and that energy from fat and carbohydrate can interact to potentiate reward. Here we sought to replicate these findings in an American sample and to determine if the effects are influenced by body mass index (BMI). Thirty participants with healthy weight (HW; BMI 21.92 ± 1.77; M ± SD) and 30 participants with overweight/obesity (OW/OB; BMI 29.42 ± 4.44) rated pictures of common American snacks in 120-kcal portions for liking, familiarity, frequency of consumption, expected satiety, healthiness, energy content, energy density, and price. Participants then completed an auction task where they bid for the opportunity to consume each food. Snacks contained either primarily carbohydrate, primarily fat, or roughly equal portions of fat and carbohydrate (combo). Replicating prior work, we found that participants with HW bid the most for combo foods in linear mixed model analyses. This effect was not observed among individuals with OW/OB. Additionally, in contrast with previous reports, our linear regression analyses revealed a negative relationship between the actual energy density of the snacks and bid amount that was mediated by food price. Our findings support altered macronutrient reinforcement in obesity and highlight potential influences of the food environment on the regulation of food reward.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Recompensa , Lanches/psicologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Connecticut , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/etiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Saciação
16.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920626

RESUMO

In a secondary analysis, we assessed the ability of dietary and physical activity surveys to explain variability in weight loss within a worksite-adapted Diabetes Prevention Program. The program involved 58 overweight/obese female employees (average age = 46 ± 11 years SD; average body mass index = 34.7 ± 7.0 kg/m2 SD) of four long-term care facilities who survey-reported liking and frequency of dietary and physical activity behaviors. Data were analyzed using a latent variable approach, analysis of covariance, and nested regression analysis to predict percent weight change from baseline to intervention end at week 16 (average loss = 3.0%; range-6% gain to 17% loss), and follow-up at week 28 (average loss = 2.0%; range-8% gain to 16% loss). Using baseline responses, restrained eaters (reporting liking but low intakes of high fat/sweets) achieved greater weight loss at 28 weeks than those reporting high liking/high intake (average loss = 3.5 ± 0.9% versus 1.0 ± 0.8% S.E., respectively). Examining the dietary surveys separately, only improvements in liking for a healthy diet were associated significantly with weight loss (predicting 44% of total variance, p < 0.001). By contrasting liking versus intake changes, women reporting concurrent healthier diet liking and healthier intake lost the most weight (average loss = 5.4 ± 1.1% S.E.); those reporting eating healthier but not healthier diet liking (possible misreporting) gained weight (average gain = 0.3 ± 1.4% S.E.). Change in liking and frequency of physical activity were highly correlated but neither predicted weight loss independently. These pilot data support surveying dietary likes/dislikes as a useful measure to capture dietary behaviors associated with weight loss in worksite-based programs. Comparing dietary likes and intake may identify behaviors consistent (appropriate dietary restraint) or inconsistent (misreporting) with weight loss success.


Assuntos
Dieta/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Programas de Redução de Peso , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/psicologia , Obesidade/terapia , Saúde do Trabalhador , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/terapia , Projetos Piloto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Ganho de Peso , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
17.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920700

RESUMO

Recent evidence suggests that among behavioral-lifestyle factors, adherence to a healthy dietary pattern such as the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) is linked not only to better psychological health and mental positive status but also to increased subjective well-being (SWB). Nevertheless, this association has been unexplored among individuals with excessive weight. This study explored whether adherence to the MedDiet and the intake of healthy foods such as fruits and vegetables (FV) are associated with increased happiness and life satisfaction among Spanish adults with overweight or obesity when weight, body image, and body satisfaction are also considered. A convenience sample of adult individuals with excessive weight completed self-reports on the study variables, and weight and BMI were measured by bioimpedance. No evidence of a relationship with SWB indicators was obtained for MedDiet global indicators, probably due to the low adherence to a healthy diet by these individuals. In contrast, FV intake, as a powerful indicator of healthy eating, was associated with life satisfaction when BMI and body image dimensions were considered, among which body satisfaction had a key role. Moreover, life satisfaction fully mediated the relationship between FV consumption and happiness. Our findings are expected to make a relevant contribution to knowledge on the positive correlates or protective factors for overall well-being in obesity, including dietary habits and body appreciation. Our results may inform obesity management actions focused on inclusive, positive aesthetic models and promoting a healthy lifestyle for happiness in obesity.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Dieta Mediterrânea/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Frutas , Felicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação Pessoal , Espanha , Verduras , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922623

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the risk of eating disorders, psychological distress, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in people with class 3 obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 40 kg/m2), and the effect of multidisciplinary weight management over 12 months. This retrospective cohort study included all adults with class 3 obesity who enrolled in a weight management program from March 2018 to December 2019. Questionnaires included the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire Short (EDE-QS), Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), and 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36) for HRQoL. Physical and Mental Component Summary scores (PCS and MCS) were derived from the SF-36. Of 169 participants who completed 12 months in the program, 65.7% (n = 111) completed questionnaires at baseline and 12 months, with 6.0 ± 6.8% weight loss over this period. Compared to baseline, there was significant improvement at 12 months in EDE-QS (15.7 ± 6.6 vs. 13.6 ± 6.2, p = 0.002), K10 (25.7 ± 9.7 vs. 21.2 ± 9.4, p < 0.001), PCS (29.4 ± 10.1 vs. 36.1 ± 10.9, p < 0.001), and MCS scores (40.2 ± 12.4 vs. 44.0 ± 13.4, p = 0.001). All, apart from EDE-QS scores, remained significant after adjusting for weight change. This study highlights the importance of multidisciplinary management in people with class 3 obesity to help reduce eating disorder risk and psychological distress, and improve HRQoL, in addition to weight loss.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Pesquisa Interdisciplinar , Obesidade/psicologia , Programas de Redução de Peso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Health Psychol ; 40(4): 242-251, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856831

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The relation between food insecurity (FI) and delay discounting (DD) and probability discounting (PD) for food and money was tested in women. In addition, discounting was tested as a variable that mediates the relation between obesity and FI. METHOD: Women recruited from a community sample (N = 92) completed questionnaires. They completed the food choice questionnaire, the monetary choice questionnaire, measures for food and money probability discounting (which quantify sensitivity to risk aversion), and demographic measures. RESULTS: Women with FI had higher rates of obesity and higher food DD compared to food-secure women. However, DD for money or probability discounting for food or money did not significantly differ between FI and food secure groups when controlling for significant covariates. Neither DD or PD significantly mediated the relation between FI and obesity. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that FI is associated with greater impulsive food choice, but its association with other monetary discounting and probability discounting for food and money appears contingent upon other demographic factors. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Desvalorização pelo Atraso/fisiologia , Insegurança Alimentar , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0242461, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852568

RESUMO

Sweet foods are commonly used as rewards for desirable behavior, specifically among children. This study examines whether such practice may contribute to reinforce the valuation of these foods. Two experiments were conducted, one with children, the other with rats. The first study, conducted with first graders (n = 214), shows that children who receive a food reward for performing a cognitive task subsequently value the food more compared to a control group who received the same food without performing any task. The second study, conducted on rats (n = 64), shows that rewarding with food also translates into higher calorie intake over a 24-hour period. These results suggest that the common practice of rewarding children with calorie-dense sweet foods is a plausible contributing factor to obesity and might therefore be ill advised.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Animais , Criança , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Feminino , Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/psicologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reforço Psicológico , Recompensa
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...