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1.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003245, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beverages, especially sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), have been increasingly subject to policies aimed at reducing their consumption as part of measures to tackle obesity. However, precision targeting of policies is difficult as information on what types of consumers they might affect, and to what degree, is missing. We fill this gap by creating a typology of beverage consumers in Great Britain (GB) based on observed beverage purchasing behaviour to determine what distinct types of beverage consumers exist, and what their socio-demographic (household) characteristics, dietary behaviours, and weight status are. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used cross-sectional latent class analysis to characterise patterns of beverage purchases. We used data from the 2016 GB Kantar Fast-Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) panel, a large representative household purchase panel of food and beverages brought home, and restricted our analyses to consumers who purchase beverages regularly (i.e., >52 l per household member annually) (n = 8,675). Six categories of beverages were used to classify households into latent classes: SSBs; diet beverages; fruit juices and milk-based beverages; beer and cider; wine; and bottled water. Multinomial logistic regression and linear regression were used to relate class membership to household characteristics, self-reported weight status, and other dietary behaviours, derived from GB Kantar FMCG. Seven latent classes were identified, characterised primarily by higher purchases of 1 or 2 categories of beverages: 'SSB' (18% of the sample; median SSB volume = 49.4 l/household member/year; median diet beverage volume = 38.0 l), 'Diet' (16%; median diet beverage volume = 94.4 l), 'Fruit & Milk' (6%; median fruit juice/milk-based beverage volume = 30.0 l), 'Beer & Cider' (7%; median beer and cider volume = 36.3 l; median diet beverage volume = 55.6 l), 'Wine' (18%; median wine volume = 25.5 l; median diet beverage volume = 34.3 l), 'Water' (4%; median water volume = 46.9 l), and 'Diverse' (30%; diversity of purchases, including median SSB volume = 22.4 l). Income was positively associated with being classified in the Diverse class, whereas low social grade was more likely for households in the classes SSB, Diet, and Beer & Cider. Obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2) was more prevalent in the class Diet (41.2%, 95% CI 37.7%-44.7%) despite households obtaining little energy from beverages in that class (17.9 kcal/household member/day, 95% CI 16.2-19.7). Overweight/obesity (BMI > 25 kg/m2) was above average in the class SSB (66.8%, 95% CI 63.7%-69.9%). When looking at all groceries, households from the class SSB had higher total energy purchases (1,943.6 kcal/household member/day, 95% CI 1,901.7-1,985.6), a smaller proportion of energy from fruits and vegetables (6.0%, 95% CI 5.8%-6.3%), and a greater proportion of energy from less healthy food and beverages (54.6%, 95% CI 54.0%-55.1%) than other classes. A greater proportion of energy from sweet snacks was observed for households in the classes SSB (18.5%, 95% CI 18.1%-19.0%) and Diet (18.8%, 95% CI 18.3%-19.3%). The main limitation of our analyses, in common with other studies, is that our data do not include information on food and beverage purchases that are consumed outside the home. CONCLUSIONS: Amongst households that regularly purchase beverages, those that mainly purchased high volumes of SSBs or diet beverages were at greater risk of obesity and tended to purchase less healthy foods, including a high proportion of energy from sweet snacks. These households might additionally benefit from policies targeting unhealthy foods, such as sweet snacks, as a way of reducing excess energy intake.


Assuntos
Bebidas/economia , Comércio/tendências , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Adulto , Animais , Bebidas Adoçadas Artificialmente , Cerveja , Peso Corporal , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Água Potável , Características da Família , Feminino , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Humanos , Renda , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Leite , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/psicologia , Reino Unido , Vinho
2.
Ann Behav Med ; 54(10): 738-746, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Weight stigma is common for people with obesity and harmful to health. Links between obesity and complications from COVID-19 have been identified, but it is unknown whether weight stigma poses adverse health implications during this pandemic. PURPOSE: We examined longitudinal associations between prepandemic experiences of weight stigma and eating behaviors, psychological distress, and physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic in a diverse sample of emerging adults. METHODS: Participants (N = 584, 64% female, mean age = 24.6 ± 2.0 years, mean body mass index [BMI] = 28.2) in the COVID-19 Eating and Activity over Time (C-EAT) study were cohort members of the population-based longitudinal study EAT 2010-2018. Weight stigma reported by participants in 2018 was examined as a predictor of binge eating, eating to cope, physical activity, depressive symptoms, and stress during COVID-19. Data were collected via online surveys during the U.S. outbreak of COVID-19 in 2020. RESULTS: Prepandemic experiences of weight stigma predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms (ß = 0.15, p < .001), stress (ß = 0.15, p = .001), eating as a coping strategy (ß = 0.16, p < .001), and an increased likelihood of binge eating (odds ratio = 2.88, p < .001) among young adults during the COVID-19 pandemic but were unrelated to physical activity. Although associations remained after accounting for demographic characteristics and BMI, the magnitude of longitudinal associations was attenuated after adjusting for prior levels of the outcome variables. CONCLUSIONS: Young adults who have experienced weight stigma may have increased vulnerability to distress and maladaptive eating during this pandemic. Public health messaging could be improved to support people of diverse body sizes and reduce the harmful consequences of weight stigma.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Estigma Social , Betacoronavirus , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Obesidade/psicologia , Pandemias , Adulto Jovem
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21159, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756093

RESUMO

Being overweight and obese is a serious public health issues in China. However, the effects of substance use and mental factors on weight changes remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association among self-perceived stress, history of smoking and drinking, and weight status by using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey in 2015.A total of 8028 adults were selected from China Health and Nutrition Survey in 2015. The self-reported data primarily included sociodemographic data, self-perceived stress scores, and history of smoking and drinking. Physical measurements including height and weight were logged to calculate body mass index. Multivariate and multinomial regression models were used to estimate effects of substance and perceived stress on weight status.The prevalence of underweight and overweight/obese people were 4.52% and 51.51% in Chinese adults, respectively. Adults with high perceived stress were negatively associated with being overweight and obese (OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.66-0.97 in the middle level and OR = 0.69, 95%CI = 0.55-0.88 in the high level). Adults with history of smoking had low risk of being overweight/obese (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.62-0.82). Adults with history of drinking had high risk of overweight/obese (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.06-1.40). In addition, the association between drinking and overweight/obese was affected by different levels of perceived stress (OR = 1.15, 95%CI = 0.83-1.59 in low-stress group and OR = 1.42, 95%CI = 1.04-1.94 in high-stress group).The effects of self-perceived stress and history of smoking as well as drinking on weight status were significant in this study. The government and healthcare policymakers should strengthen early psychological factor and behavioral intervention to decrease the prevalence of abnormal-weight status.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fumar , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645883

RESUMO

Sexual minority women are disproportionately impacted by obesity yet are underrepresented in weight stigma research. This Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) study is a secondary analysis that aimed to elucidate the frequency and contextual characteristics of perceived experiences of lifetime and momentary weight stigma among sexual minority women with overweight/obesity. Participants were 55 sexual minority women ages 18-60 with a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2. Perceived lifetime weight stigma events were assessed at baseline. For the subsequent five days, participants used a smartphone to complete five daily, random EMA prompts assessing the frequency/characteristics of perceived weight stigma events in daily life. All participants reported at least one lifetime weight stigma event. During the EMA period, participants reported 44 momentary weight stigma events (M = 0.80), with 24% of participants reporting at least one event. During most instances of weight stigma, women perceived the stigma's cause to be their weight and another minority identity (e.g., sexual orientation). Findings showing high rates of perceived lifetime weight stigma in this sample and frequent co-occurrence of perceived weight stigma with stigma due to other marginalized identities in daily life underscore the need for future, larger studies investigating weight stigma through an intersectional lens in sexual minority women with overweight/obesity.


Assuntos
Obesidade/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Estigma Social , Preconceito de Peso/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Preconceito de Peso/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nutrients ; 12(7)2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645970

RESUMO

Our aim is evaluating the changes in weight and dietary habits in a sample of outpatients with obesity after 1 month of enforced lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic in Northern Italy. In this observational retrospective study, the patients of our Obesity Unit were invited to answer to a 12-question multiple-choice questionnaire relative to weight changes, working activity, exercise, dietary habits, and conditions potentially impacting on nutritional choices. A multivariate regression analysis was performed to evaluate the associations among weight/BMI changes and the analyzed variables. A total of 150 subjects (91.5%) completed the questionnaire. Mean self-reported weight gain was ≈1.5 kg (p < 0.001). Lower exercise, self-reported boredom/solitude, anxiety/depression, enhanced eating, consumption of snacks, unhealthy foods, cereals, and sweets were correlated with a significantly higher weight gain. Multiple regression analyses showed that increased education (inversely, ß = -1.15; 95%CI -2.13, -0.17, p = 0.022), self-reported anxiety/depression (ß = 1.61; 0.53, 2.69, p = 0.004), and not consuming healthy foods (ß = 1.48; 0.19, 2.77, p = 0.026) were significantly associated with increased weight gain. The estimated direct effect of self-reported anxiety/depression on weight was 2.07 kg (1.07, 3.07, p < 0.001). Individuals with obesity significantly gained weight 1 month after the beginning of the quarantine. The adverse mental burden linked to the COVID-19 pandemic was greatly associated with increased weight gain.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/psicologia , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Índice de Massa Corporal , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(10): 1802-1805, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589788

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the impact of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic on patronage to unhealthy eating establishments in populations with obesity. METHODS: Anonymized movement data accounting for roughly 10% of devices in the United States at 138,989 unhealthy eating locations from December 1, 2019, through April 2020 and the percentage of adults with obesity, the poverty rate, and the food environment index in 65% of United States counties were collected and merged. A cluster corrected Poisson spline regression was performed predicting patronage by day, the percentage of adults with obesity in the establishment's county, the county's poverty rate, and its food environment index, as well as their interactions. RESULTS: Patronage to unhealthy eating establishments was higher where there was a higher percentage of the adult population with obesity. A similar pattern was observed for counties with a lower food environment index. These disparities appear to have increased as the COVID-19 pandemic spread. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest unhealthy eating patterns during the COVID-19 pandemic are higher in already at-risk populations. Policy makers can use these findings to motivate interventions and programs aimed at increasing healthy food intake in at-risk communities during crises.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Análise por Conglomerados , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/virologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Distribuição de Poisson , Pobreza/psicologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Quarentena/psicologia , Análise de Regressão , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Clin Obes ; 10(5): e12386, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515555

RESUMO

How the impact of the COVID-19 stay-at-home orders is influencing physical, mental and financial health among vulnerable populations, including those with obesity is unknown. The aim of the current study was to explore the health implications of COVID-19 among a sample of adults with obesity. A retrospective medical chart review identified patients with obesity from an obesity medicine clinic and a bariatric surgery (MBS) practice. Patients completed an online survey from April 15, 2020 to May 31, 2020 to assess COVID-19 status and health behaviours during stay-at-home orders. Logistic regression models examined the impact of these orders on anxiety and depression by ethnic group. A total of 123 patients (87% female, mean age 51.2 years [SD 13.0]), mean BMI 40.2 [SD 6.7], 49.2% non-Hispanic white (NHW), 28.7% non-Hispanic black, 16.4% Hispanic, 7% other ethnicity and 33.1% completed MBS were included. Two patients tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and 14.6% reported symptoms. Then, 72.8% reported increased anxiety and 83.6% increased depression since stay-at-home orders were initiated. Also 69.6% reported more difficultly in achieving weight loss goals, less exercise time (47.9%) and intensity (55.8%), increased stockpiling of food (49.6%) and stress eating (61.2%). Hispanics were less likely to report anxiety vs NHWs (adjusted odds ratios 0.16; 95% CI, 0.05-0.49; P = .009). Results here showed the COVID-19 pandemic is having a significant impact on patients with obesity regardless of infection status. These results can inform clinicians and healthcare professionals about effective strategies to minimize COVID-19 negative outcomes for this vulnerable population now and in post-COVID-19 recovery efforts.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Obesidade/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Medicina Bariátrica , Cirurgia Bariátrica , Betacoronavirus , Depressão/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/psicologia , Pandemias , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234355, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555712

RESUMO

Snacks, while widely consumed in the United States (U.S.), do not have a standard definition, complicating research to understand associations, if any, with weight status. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the association between snacking frequency and weight status using various snacking definitions that exist in the scientific literature among U.S. adults (NHANES 2013-2016; ≥20y n = 9,711). Four event-based snacking definitions were operationalized including participant-defined snacks, eating events outside of meals, and operationally defined snacks based on absolute thresholds of energy consumed (>50 kcal). Weight status was examined using body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and sagittal abdominal diameter risk. Logistic regression models examined snacking frequency and associations with weight status. Outcomes varied by the definition of a snack employed, but the majority of findings were null. Mean energy from snacks was significantly higher among women with obesity compared to women with normal weight when a snack was defined as any event outside of a typical mealtime (i.e. other than breakfast, lunch, dinner, super, brunch), regardless of whether or not it contributed ≥50 kcal. Further investigation into ingestive behaviors that may influence the relationship between snacking frequency and weight status is needed.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Lanches/classificação , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Dieta/psicologia , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Lanches/psicologia , Estados Unidos , Circunferência da Cintura
10.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 67, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a multi-dimensional condition with causal factors beyond the physiological into the behavioural, dietetic and psychological. Understanding the lived experience of those who are overweight and obese and self-perceived barriers to access and engagement in intervention are imperative to formulating a systemic response to the complex problem of obesity. This study aims to identify the social, psychological and systemic factors impeding engagement with weight-loss behaviour and interventions, and to formulate a framework for responding to these. METHODS: We conducted an exploratory qualitative study using focus groups and interviews with people who have lived experienced of being overweight or obese. Data were analysed using an inductive thematic approach. Following the thematic analysis, further interpretation of the data was achieved by applying the epistemological foundations of the Lifeworld Led Care paradigm, recognising its philosophy of the person and of care based on the individual's experiences. Eight men and 17 women participated. RESULTS: Three overarching themes were identified: Complexity and Battle, Impediments, and Positive Re-orientation. The subthemes of these were found to represent the dimensions of the Lifeworld: Identify, Inter-subjectivity, Mood and Embodiment. Further interpretation of the themed data identified six polarised dichotomies representing the opposing lived dimensions of the obesity experience: Failure Double-Bind; Think-Feel Conflict; Negative-Positive Orientation; Impeding-Facilitating Health Professional; Knowledge as Deficit-Insight; and Internal-External Orientation. CONCLUSION: Obesity manifests as constraints and challenges across six polarised dichotomies, active in the lived experience of obesity. This study provides a unique way of conceptualising and understanding the complex and interacting meanings of the lived experience of obesity through the construction of polarised dichotomies. The polarities signify the oscillating experiences that people with obesity encounter, which may be either helpful or destructive in both their lifeworld experience and their capacity to address obesity towards improved social, psychological and physical outcomes. Understanding the dichotomies allows a reconceptualisation of obesity from a quantification of the individual to a more respectful, humane, compassionate and utilitarian conceptualisation of the experiencing person and the phenomenon itself. Further, these lived polarised dichotomies of obesity present the opportunity for health professionals to reconceptualise obesity in care and interventions.


Assuntos
Obesidade/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Autoimagem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235219, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579592

RESUMO

The obesity epidemic is a pervasive health issue affecting all population groups in developed countries. The purpose of this research was to ascertain obesity risk reduction behaviors and their psychosocial determinants in young adult Americans residing in New Jersey state. A cross-sectional survey design was implemented in which a convenience sample of 174 participants (18 to 40 years) completed a validated online self-administered questionnaire. Nineteen obesity risk reduction behaviors, self-efficacy and psychosocial constructs derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior were measured. Statistical analyses were conducted using frequency distributions, t-tests and regression analysis. Regression analysis indicated that 37.5% of the variance in obesity risk reduction behavior was accounted by self-efficacy alone. T-test comparisons indicated greater frequency of adoption of 17 health behaviors among individuals categorized in the 'high self-efficacy' group (p<0.05). These behaviors included limiting portion sizes of food, eating fruits and vegetables, engaging in physical activity, and monitoring stress and body weight. Nutrition professionals working with young adult Americans need to assess their self-efficacy to engage in obesity risk reduction behaviors. In fostering confidence in adopting these behaviors, executing skill building nutrition interventions is critical for obesity prevention.


Assuntos
Obesidade/patologia , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Autoeficácia , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Sports Sci ; 38(17): 1997-2004, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497454

RESUMO

High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been proposed as a time-efficient exercise protocol to improve metabolic health, but direct comparisons with higher-volume moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) under unsupervised settings are limited. This study compared low-volume HIIT and higher-volume MICT interventions on cardiometabolic and psychological responses in overweight/obese middle-aged men. Twenty-four participants (age: 48.1±5.2yr; BMI: 25.8±2.3kg·m-2) were randomly assigned to undertake either HIIT (10 X 1-min bouts of running at 80-90% HRmax separated by 1-min active recovery) or MICT (50-min continuous jogging/brisk walking at 65-70% HRmax) for 3 sessions/week for 8 weeks (2-week supervised + 6-week unsupervised training). Both groups showed similar cardiovascular fitness (VO2max) improvement (HIIT: 32.5±5.6 to 36.0±6.2; MICT: 34.3±6.0 to 38.2±5.1mL kg-1 min-1, p < 0.05) and %fat loss (HIIT: 24.5±3.4 to 23.2±3.5%; MICT: 23.0±4.3 to 21.5±4.1%, p< 0.05) over the 8-week intervention. Compared to baseline, MICT significantly decreased weight and waist circumference. No significant group differences were observed for blood pressure and cardiometabolic blood markers such as lipid profiles, fasting glucose and glycated haemoglobin. Both groups showed similar enjoyment levels and high unsupervised adherence rates (>90%). Our findings suggest that low-volume HIIT can elicit a similar improvement of cardiovascular fitness as traditional higher-volume MICT in overweight/obese middle-aged men.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Obesidade/psicologia , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/psicologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Sobrepeso/sangue , Cooperação do Paciente , Prazer , Fatores de Tempo , Circunferência da Cintura , Perda de Peso
13.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(7): 1283-1291, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510870

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate regional neural activity and regulation of patterns in the reorganized neural network of obesity and explore the correlation between brain activities and eating behavior. METHODS: A total of 23 individuals with obesity and 23 controls with normal weight were enrolled. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were acquired using 3.0-T MRI. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation and functional connectivity (FC) analyses were conducted using Data Processing Assistant for resting-state fMRI and Resting-State fMRI Data Analysis Toolkit (REST). RESULTS: The group with obesity showed increased amplitude of low-frequency values in left fusiform gyrus/amygdala, inferior temporal gyrus (ITG), hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus, and bilateral caudate but decreased values in right superior temporal gyrus. The group with obesity showed increased FC between left caudate and right superior temporal gyrus, left fusiform gyrus/amygdala and left ITG, right caudate and left fusiform gyrus/amygdala, and right caudate and left hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus. Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire-Emotional scores were positively correlated with FC between left hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus and right caudate but negatively correlated with FC between left fusiform gyrus/amygdala and left ITG. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicated the reorganized neural network presented as a bilateral cross-regulation pattern across hemispheres between reward and various appetite-related functional processing, thus affecting emotional and external eating behavior. These results could provide further evidence for neuropsychological underpinnings of food intake and their neuromodulatory therapeutic potential in obesity.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/patologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/complicações , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Descanso/fisiologia , Descanso/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545437

RESUMO

Although previous evidence suggests that happiness is lower among individuals with obesity, research on the correlates of subjective well-being (SWB) is warranted to increase our knowledge. We aim to explore excess weight (i.e., measured and self-reported body mass index (BMI)), body image and satisfaction, self-stigma, positivity, and happiness among Spanish adults with overweight or obesity. We further aim to investigate the predictors of SWB in this sample. A convenience sample of 100 individuals with excess weight completed self-reports on the study variables and were weighed and their height measured. On average, the participants reported body perceptions revealing minor excessive weight, moderate body satisfaction, low-to-moderate weight-related stigma, and elevated positivity and happiness. BMI and gender/sex independently affected these variables, but there were no significant interaction effects. Furthermore, individuals with overweight or obesity with higher body satisfaction and elevated positivity were more likely to report being happy, independent of their age, gender/sex, weight, and weight-related stigma. Mediation effects were found for body satisfaction and positivity in the relationship between weight and happiness. Moreover, positive orientation suppressed the pervasive influence of stigma on SWB. Our findings confirm the key role of body image dimensions and weight-related stigma for happiness and add support to the relevance of positivity for overall well-being of individuals with excess weight. These results may inform obesity management actions focused on inclusive aesthetic models, combating social stigmatization and enhancing positivity for a flourishing and fulfilling life.


Assuntos
Felicidade , Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Satisfação Pessoal , Estigma Social , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Espanha
15.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(1): 1-11, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503005

RESUMO

Objective: Little is known about how lifestyle affects psychological well-being in overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We investigated the effects of behavioral modification on psychological well-being and the impact of well-being and personality traits on successful weight loss. Design: A 4-month randomized controlled trial with a 12-month follow-up at a University Hospital. Methods: Sixty-eight women with PCOS, aged 18 to 40 years with a BMI ≥27 kg/m2, were randomized (1:1) into a behavioral modification program (intervention) or minimal intervention (control). The outcome measures were the psychological well being index and the Swedish universities scales of personality. Results: At baseline, 60% had a global psychological well being index corresponding to severe distress and 40% to moderate distress. There was no significant change in mean global well-being score at 4 months within or between groups. However, after 4 months, the intervention group expressed less anxiety (P = .035), higher general health (P = .012) and lower depressed mood (P = .033). Anxiety and general health tended to differ between groups (P = .06, respectively) favoring intervention. In the whole population, women achieving ≥5% weight loss at 12 months (n = 18) were less anxious at baseline compared to those who had not (P = .004). Personality trait-analysis showed that the weight-loss group had higher social desirability (P = .033) and lower embitterment (P = .023). Conclusions: Psychological well-being is severely impacted in overweight women with PCOS. Behavioral modification can positively impact dimensions of well-being, although not fully significant, compared to control treatment. Personality factors could contribute to the understanding of successful weight loss.


Assuntos
Obesidade/psicologia , Obesidade/terapia , Personalidade , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/psicologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/terapia , Programas de Redução de Peso , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade/complicações , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento , Perda de Peso , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 712, 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the association between weight misperception and psychological symptoms in the Determinants of young Adults Social well-being and Health (DASH) longitudinal study. METHODS: A longitudinal sample of 3227 adolescents, in 49 secondary schools in London, aged 11-16 years participated in 2002/2003 and were followed up in 2005/2006. A sub-sample (N = 595) was followed up again at ages 21-23 years in 2012/2013. An index of weight misperception was derived from weight perception and measured weight. Psychological well- being was measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at 11-16 years and the General Health Questionnaire at 21-23 years. Associations with weight misperception was assessed using regression models, adjusted for socio-economic and lifestyle factors. RESULTS: White British males and females were more likely than ethnic minority peers to report accurate perceptions of measured weight. At 11-13y, 46% females and 38% males did not have an accurate perception of their measured weight. The comparable figures at 14-16y were 42 and 40%. Compared with male adolescents, more females perceived themselves as overweight or were unsure of their weight but measured normal weight, and this was more pronounced among Indians, Pakistanis and Bangladeshis. At 14-16y, more males perceived themselves as underweight but measured normal weight, and this was more pronounced among Indians. Compared with those who had an accurate perception of their normal weight, a higher likelihood of probable clinically-relevant psychological symptoms was observed among those who measured normal weight but perceived themselves to be underweight (females Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.87 95% CI 1.03-3.40; males OR = 2.34 95% CI 1.47-3.71), overweight (females only OR = 2.06 95% CI 1.10-3.87), or unsure of their weight (males only OR = 1.61 95% CI 1.04-2.49). Among females, the association was driven by internalising rather than externalising symptoms. An accurate perception of overweight was associated with higher psychological symptoms in adolescence and early 20s. Ethnic specific effects were not evident. CONCLUSION: Weight misperception may be an important determinant of psychological symptoms in young people, with an accurate perception of normal weight status being protective. Culturally targeted interventions should be considered to promote healthy perceptions of body image.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Percepção de Peso , Adolescente , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Magreza/psicologia , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
17.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(7): 1171-1172, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374528

RESUMO

Obesity treatment is highly stigmatized, mainly because of the stigma of obesity itself. The frequent withdrawal of medications, lorcaserin being the last example, contributes to this stigma, but it is also probably a reflection of it, as data suggest that the threshold for a withdrawal is lower than with other classes of drugs. Safety should always be an absolute priority for every new medication, especially when used on a chronic basis; however, the safety scrutiny given to antiobesity medications is not given for other medications, such as postmenopausal hormone therapy and central nervous system drugs for psychiatric use. The withdrawal of medications for obesity can also impact future research in the area, so we need transparency and equality. Transparency in knowing exactly what reason led to a drug being discontinued and equality in long-term safety should be a concern with any medication prescribed for chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/efeitos adversos , Benzazepinas/efeitos adversos , Doença Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Estigma Social , Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Benzazepinas/uso terapêutico , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/classificação , Vigilância de Produtos Comercializados/normas , Retirada de Medicamento Baseada em Segurança , Estereotipagem , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Food and Drug Administration/normas
18.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(9): 1590-1594, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445496

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine whether BMI and weight discrimination are associated with psychological, behavioral, and interpersonal responses to the coronavirus pandemic. METHODS: Using a prospective design, participants (N = 2,094) were first assessed in early February 2020 before the coronavirus crisis in the United States and again in mid-March 2020 during the President's "15 Days to Slow the Spread" guidelines. Weight, height, and weight discrimination were assessed in the February survey. Psychological, behavioral, and interpersonal responses to the coronavirus were assessed in the March survey. RESULTS: Prepandemic experiences with weight discrimination were associated with greater concerns about the virus, engaging in more preventive behaviors, less trust in people and institutions to manage the outbreak, and greater perceived declines in connection to one's community. BMI tended to be unrelated to these responses. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the risks of complications of coronavirus disease associated with obesity, individuals with higher BMI were neither more concerned about the virus nor taking more behavioral precautions than individuals in other weight categories. Weight discrimination, in contrast, may heighten vigilance to threat, which may have contributed to both positive (greater concern, more precautionary behavior) and negative (less trust, declines community connection) responses to the pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Obesidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adulto , Idoso , Comportamento , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
19.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232813, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428002

RESUMO

Worldwide, nearly 3 million people die every year because of being overweight or obese. Although obesity is a metabolic disease, behavioral aspects are important in its etiology. Hunger changes the rewarding potential of food in normal-weight controls. In obesity, impairments related to reward processing are present, but it is not clear whether these are due to mental disorders more common among this population. Therefore, in this pilot study, we aimed at investigating whether fasting influence mood reactivity to reward in people with obesity. Women with obesity (n = 11, all mentally healthy) and normal weight controls (n = 17) were compared on a computerized monetary reward task (the wheel of fortune), using self-reports of mood and affect (e.g., PANAS and mood evaluation during the task) as dependent variables. This task was done in 2 satiety conditions, during fasting and after eating. Partially, in line with our expectation of a reduced affect and mood reactivity to monetary reward in participants with obesity accentuated by fasting, our results indicated a significant within-group difference across time (before and after the task), with monetary gains significantly improving positive affect in healthy controls (p>0.001), but not in individuals with obesity (p = 0.32). There were no significant between-group differences in positive affect before (p = 0.328) and after (p = 0.70) the task. In addition, women with obesity, compared to controls, reported more negative affect in general (p < 0.05) and less mood reactivity during the task in response to risky gains (p < 0.001) than healthy controls. The latter was independent of the level of satiety. These preliminary results suggest an impairment in mood reactivity to monetary reward in women with obesity which is not connected to the fasting state. Increasing the reinforcing potential of rewards other than food in obesity may be one target of intervention in order to verify if that could reduce overeating.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Fome/fisiologia , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Jejum/fisiologia , Jejum/psicologia , Feminino , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Projetos Piloto , Recompensa
20.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 652, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the current worldwide epidemic of obesity, there is a demand for interventions with higher impact, such as those carried out in the primary health care (PHC) setting. Here we evaluate the effect of intervention performed according to the stages of change of the transtheoretical model (TTM) for weight management. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial in Brazilian PHC offered free physical exercise and nutrition education. The participants were women, aged 20 years or older who were obese or overweight, users in PHC service. The intervention group (IG, n = 51) received the same orientation as the comparison group (CG, n = 35) plus individual health counseling based on the TTM aimed at weight loss, which lasted 6 months. The outcome measures were anthropometric, food, and nutrient profiles. Inflammatory parameters were evaluated in a random subsample. The inter-group and intra-group differences were evaluated using interntion-to-treat analysis, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) used to assess intervention effectiveness. RESULTS: There was a difference between groups of - 1.4 kg (CI95%: - 2.5; - 0.3) in body weight after the intervention. About 97% of women in the IG reported benefits of the intervention and presented positive changes in diet, biochemical markers, and anthropometry. The IG showed better body mass index, resistine, and blood glucose results compared to the CG during follow-up. CONCLUSION: The individualized TTM-based intervention, combined with usual care, was an effective strategy in PHC. These results should encourage the use of interdisciplinary practices; nevertheless, research to identify additional strategies is needed to address barriers to weight maintenance among obese low-income women. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial is registered with Brazilian clinical trials under the code: RBR-8t7ssv, Registration date: 12/12/2017 (retrospectively registered).


Assuntos
Ciências Biocomportamentais/métodos , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Pobreza , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Resultado do Tratamento , Perda de Peso , Adulto Jovem
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