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1.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 58(10): 751-757, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594173

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the characteristics of body composition (BC) in gout patients and its clinical significance. Methods: Consecutive gout patients were recruited between August 2017 and December 2018. Demographic information, clinical characteristics and comorbidities were collected. BC was assessed by bioelectric impedance analysis including body fat percentage (BF%), trunk and limb BF%, appendicular skeletal muscle index. Overfat was defined by BF% ≥25% for male and ≥35% for female. The association between BC and serum uric acid (sUA) was evaluated by multiple linear regression. Results: A total of 362 gout patients were recruited with median age 38 (30, 52) years, 96.1% (348/362) were male. Mean sUA was (551±133) µmol/L. The mean BF% was (25.8±6.4)% with 53.6%(194/362) patients overfat. Male gout patients with overfat showed more affected joints [4(2, 6) vs. 2(2, 5)], higher sUA [(576±126)µmol/L vs. (523±134) µmol/L], higher prevalence of dyslipidemia [70.1%(131/187) vs. 54.0%(87/161)], metabolic syndrome [60.8%(118/187) vs. 28.0%(47/161)], fatty liver [58.2%(113/187) vs. 35.1%(59/161)] and hypertension [44.4%(83/187) vs. 25.5%(41/161)] than male patients with normal fat (all P<0.05). Their BF%, trunk BF% and limb BF% were positively correlated with the numbers of affected joints, sUA, metabolic syndrome, fatty liver, and hypertension, respectively (r=0.154-0.435, all P<0.05). Multivariable linear regression suggested that BF% (ß=4.29, P=0.020) and trunk BF% (ß=9.11, P=0.007), but not limb BF%, were positively correlated with sUA. Conclusion: Overfat is very common in gout patients. The proportion of trunk fat in male patients is positively correlated with sUA. When assessing obesity in gout patients clinically, body composition analysis should be performed simultaneously.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Gota/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Adulto , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gota/sangue , Gota/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Obesidade/sangue , Prevalência
2.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 65(8): 1061-1066, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531602

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the potential association of foot pain and plasmatic adipocytes as physiological biomarkers of childhood obesity with the incidence of flatfoot in a cohort of Egyptian school children aged 6 -12 years. METHODS: A total of 550 Egyptian schoolchildren (220 boys and 330 girls) aged 6-12 years were randomly invited to participate in this descriptive survey analysis. For all children, we assessed the diagnosis and severity of flatfoot as well as plasma adipocytes, as well as adiponectin, leptin, resistin, IL-6, and TNF-α, using the Dennis method and immunoassay techniques respectively. Foot pain was assessed by using a standard VAS of 100 mm and Faces Pain Scale, respectively. RESULTS: Flat foot was predicted in 30.4% of school-age children, most of them showed a higher frequency of overweight (33.3%) and obesity (62.5%). Boys showed higher ranges of flat foot than girls. Foot pain significantly correlated with flat foot and obesity among the studied populations. In overweight-obese children, plasmatic adipocyte variables, as well as adiponectin, leptin, resistin, IL-6, TNF-α showed significant correlations with foot stance, especially in boys. Also, the studied adipocyte variables along with BMI, age, gender explained about~65% of the variance of flatfoot with pain among our school-age students. CONCLUSION: Foot pain showed an association with flat foot and childhood obesity in 30.4% of school-age students (6-12 years). Foot pain was shown to correlate positively with the incidence of flat foot and changes in adiposity markers, as well as adiponectin, leptin, resistin, Il-6, TNF-α.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/química , Biomarcadores/sangue , Pé Chato/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Dor/sangue , Adiponectina/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Pé Chato/complicações , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Dor/etiologia , Medição da Dor , Resistina/sangue , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
3.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 59(7): 1229-1237, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adiponectin is an adipokine with oxidative, anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic effects in several peripheral tissues; however, circulating adiponectin expression is reduced in cardio-metabolic diseases. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether regular physical activity mediates circulating adiponectin concentrations at baseline in an obese population. METHODS: Two hundred and twenty-one obese participants were divided into 6 groups according to gender, physical activity (PA), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) diagnosis: A and B) obese PA females (N.=28) and males (N.=33); C and D) obese non-PA females (N.=40) and males (N.=40); E and F) obese non-PA females (N.=40) and males (N.=40) with T2DM. Serum adiponectin, IL-15 and IL-15Rα, blood glucose/lipid profile, and body composition were measured. RESULTS: Circulating adiponectin increased in PA participants compared to non-PA (ANOVA, P=0.001), finding higher concentrations in females compared to males (P<0.001), particularly in the PA group (P=0.005). Serum adiponectin was associated with age (R2=0.068), body mass (R2=-0.108), waist circumference (WC) (R2=-0.122), LDL (R2=-0.045), triglycerides (R2=-0.043), and serum IL-15Rα (R2=-0.243), as well as fat mass in females (R2=0.098), and WC in males (R2=0.112). CONCLUSIONS: Circulating adiponectin increased in obese PA participants (≥180 min/week) compared to non-PA counterparts, indicating that physical activity may mediate baseline adiponectin levels irrespective of the fat mass regulatory effect. The inverse relationship found between serum adiponectin and IL-15Rα may support the regulative role of the IL-15/IL-15Rα complex on this adipokine at baseline.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Exercício/fisiologia , Interleucina-15/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações
4.
J Appl Microbiol ; 127(3): 880-888, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211897

RESUMO

AIMS: This study evaluated the effects of a potential probiotic, Bacillus sp., on the growth, serum and hepatic triglyceride, histological features of liver tissues and colonic microflora in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into five groups: mice fed a low-fat diet (Cont), mice fed a high-fat diet (Hf), Hf and orally challenged with Bacillus subtilis (Bs), B. licheniformis (Bl) and a mixture of B. subtilis and B. licheniformis (Bls). Gavage feeding was provided at week 9 and the experiment was continued for 8 weeks. Treatment with B. licheniformis and a mixture of Bacillus sp. attenuated body weight gain at the end of study and enhanced glucose tolerance by sensitizing insulin action in the Hf-fed mice. Lower serum and hepatic triglyceride and epididymal fat weight were observed in Bl and Bls groups than that of Hf group. Lesser hepatic fat deposition was observed in the Bl and Bls groups than in the Hf group. High-throughput sequencing showed that Bacillus sp. supplementation dramatically changed the colonic bacterial community in obese mice. CONCLUSIONS: Bacillus licheniformis reduced body weight and improved glucose tolerance, obesity and insulin resistance in Hf-fed mice by changing colonic microbiota composition. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Orally administration of Bacillus licheniformis may reduce body weight and decrease fat deposition by modulating colonic bacterial community in Hf model.


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Animais , Peso Corporal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/microbiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Ganho de Peso
5.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(6): 621-626, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238608

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the control attempts of body weight and its related factors among overweight and obese adults in China. Methods: Data was from the 2013 Chinese Chronic Diseases and Risk Factors Surveillance Program, which covered 302 surveillance sites. 179 570 adults, selected through multistage stratified cluster sampling method, were interviewed. Demographic characteristics and weight-control attempts were collected via face-to-face interview. BMI, waist circumstance and blood pressure were individually measured under physical examination. Venous blood samples were obtained and tested for FPG, OGTT-2h, TC, TG, LDL-C and HDL-C. A total of 87 545 overweight and obese patients were included in this study, with the exclusion of 152 patients having the missed critical information. Rates on weight control and attempts were analyzed, using the complex weighting on samples to represent the overall overweight and obese adults in China. Results: The rate of weight-control attempts was 16.3% (95%CI: 14.9%-17.7%). Among all the 12 133 patients who had undergone weight-control measures, the proportions of different attempts were as follows: diet (40.9%, 95%CI: 38.4%-43.3%), combination of diet and physical activity (31.5%, 95%CI: 28.9%-34.0%), physical activity (22.8%, 95%CI: 21.0%-24.6%) and drug control (1.3%, 95%CI: 1.0%-1.7%). Factors as: being female (OR=1.26, 95%CI: 1.15-1.38), at younger age (18-44 years old, OR=1.51, 95%CI: 1.31-1.74), with high education levels (college degree or above, OR=4.52, 95%CI: 3.76-5.43), having high annual income (≥24 000 Yuan, OR=1.94, 95%CI: 1.63-2.30) etc., appeared as favorable factors for taking the measures vs. rural residency (OR=0.63, 95%CI: 0.55- 0.72) as the unfavorable one. Conclusion: The rate of weight-control attempts appeared low among the overweight and obese adults who were affected by factors as age, education and income level. Personalized intervention measures should be carried out for people with different characteristics.


Assuntos
Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Vigilância da População , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , China , Dieta , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/etnologia , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31052485

RESUMO

Phytic acid has anti-oxidant properties, which are useful in addressing inflammation. This study investigated the relationship between dietary phytate intake and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels among individuals that are overweight or obese. The study used cross-sectional data from the 2009/2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for 3152 subjects. Phytate intake was estimated using phytate content of foods reported by the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group (IZiNCG). Logistic regression was used to determine the associations between phytate intake and odds of elevated CRP concentration (CRP >3 mg/L), adjusting for confounders. Medians (and 95% CIs) for phytate intake and CRP concentration were 0.66 (0.64, 0.68) g/d and 1.4 (1.2, 1.5) mg/L, respectively. Phytate intake was higher in males than females, higher in non-Hispanic Whites than non-Hispanic Blacks and Mexican Americans, and lower in current smokers than former smokers and nonsmokers. Higher phytate intake was associated with lower odds of elevated CRP (OR = 0.66; 95% CI = 0.52, 0.84). Women, as well as current and former smokers with overweight or obesity, had higher odds of elevated CRP concentration. These results imply that individuals with high phytate intake, particularly among those with overweight or obesity, have lower risk for inflammation-related chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/sangue , Ácido Fítico/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/metabolismo , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
7.
Transl Res ; 210: 26-42, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121128

RESUMO

Obesity is a major cause of metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes, and it presents with metabolic disorders, such as hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a protein isolated from retinal pigment epithelial cells, has multiple functions, including neuronal protection, antineoplastic effects, and anti-inflammatory activity. The aim of this study is to investigate the antiobesity effects of PEDF. The antiobesity effects of PEDF on fat accumulation, inflammation, energy expenditure, insulin resistance, and obesity-related physiological parameters and protein levels were assessed in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice in vivo and in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, palmitate (PA)-treated HepG2 cells, and C2C12 myotubes in vitro. In an in vivo assay, PEDF effectively decreased body weight gain, white adipose tissue mass, and inflammation and improved insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia in HFD-induced mice. In liver tissue, PEDF decreased lipid accumulation and fibrosis. In an in vitro assay, PEDF diminished the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. We also determined that PEDF promoted lipolysis and prolonged cell cycle progression, through the mTOR-S6K pathway and downstream transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (CEBP-α), and CEBP-ß. In addition, PEDF decreased reactive oxygen species production in PA-induced HepG2 cells and improved glucose uptake ability in PA-induced HepG2 cells and C2C12 myotubes. In the present study, PEDF protected against HFD-induced obesity and metabolic disorders in mice, inhibited adipogenesis, and improved insulin resistance. These results provide a new potential treatment for obesity in the future.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas do Olho/farmacologia , Doenças Metabólicas/patologia , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/farmacologia , Obesidade/patologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Serpinas/farmacologia , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Clonais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Fígado Gorduroso/sangue , Fígado Gorduroso/complicações , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/sangue , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/complicações , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Palmítico , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
8.
Acta Diabetol ; 56(9): 1073-1082, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062097

RESUMO

AIMS: Offspring of mothers suffering from obesity and/or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) were reported to be at risk of higher birth weight (BW), later obesity and diabetes. We hypothesize that infant anthropometry changes related to maternal pathological status are due to dysregulated infant metabolism. METHODS: First, we inspected differences in BMI z-scores (z-BMI) between three infant groups: born to normal weight (NW; n = 49), overweight/obese (OV/OB; n = 40) and GDM mothers (n = 27) at birth and 1 year. Then, we inspected associations between cord blood metabolites and 1-year Δ z-BMI in the three infant groups at birth and 1 year. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was detected in z-BMI between the study groups at birth; however, GDM was associated with heavier infants at 1 year. Regarding the associations between the metabolites and z-BMI, phospholipids, especially those containing polyunsaturated fatty acids, were the species most impacted by the maternal metabolic status, since numerous phosphatidylcholines-PUFA were positively associated with z-BMI in NW but negatively in OV/OB and GDM groups at birth. Conversely, the sum of lysophosphatidylcholines was only positively associated with z-BMI in NW at birth but of no relation in the other two groups. At 1 year, most of the associations seen at birth were reversed in NW and lost in OV/OB and GDM groups. In the NW group, PC-PUFA were found to be negatively associated with Δ z-BMI at 1 year in addition to some medium-chain acylcarnitines, tricarboxylic acid metabolites, Asp and Asn-to-Asp ratio. In OV/OB and GDM groups, the non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA26:0) and His correlated with Δ z-BMI at 1 year in negative and positive directions, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: GDM was associated with overweight in offspring at 1 year, independent of the BW with lack of evidence on existing correlation of this finding with metabolic alterations detected in cord blood metabolome. Associations were found between cord blood metabolites and infant anthropometry at birth and were influenced by maternal OB and GDM. However, an extension of the findings monitored at birth among the three groups was not detected longitudinally showing a lack of predictive power of cord blood metabolome for later development at least 1 year.


Assuntos
Crianças Adultas , Filho de Pais Incapacitados , Diabetes Gestacional , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Obesidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Adulto , Crianças Adultas/estatística & dados numéricos , Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Filho de Pais Incapacitados/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeito de Coortes , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Diabetes Gestacional/metabolismo , Características da Família , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/análise , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Metabolômica/instrumentação , Metabolômica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/complicações , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/diagnóstico
9.
Mar Drugs ; 17(5)2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067674

RESUMO

Low-fat diets, lipid-modifying nutraceuticals and a higher level of physical activity are often recommended to reduce dyslipidemia. A double-blind, randomized, crossover, controlled trial was designed to evaluate the independent and synergistic effects of Arthrospira (Spirulina) maxima supplementation (4.5 g·day-1) with or without performing a physical exercise program (PEP: aerobic exercise (3 days·week-1) + high-intensity interval training (2 days·week-1)) on blood lipids and BMI of 52 sedentary men with excess body weight. During six weeks, all participants were assigned to four intervention treatments (Spirulina maxima with PEP (SE), placebo with PEP (Ex), Spirulina maxima without PEP (Sm), placebo without PEP (C; control)) and plasma lipids were evaluated spectrophotometrically pre- vs. post intervention in stratified subgroups (overweight, obese and dyslipidemic subjects). Pre/post comparisons showed significant reductions in all plasma lipids in the SE group, particularly in those with dyslipidemia (p ≤ 0.043). Comparing the final vs. the initial values, BMI, total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were decreased. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased in all treatment groups compared to C. Changes were observed mostly in SE interventions, particularly in dyslipidemic subjects (p < 0.05). Spirulina maxima supplementation enhances the hypolipidemic effect of a systematic PEP in men with excess body weight and dyslipidemia.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Exercício , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Sobrepeso/tratamento farmacológico , Spirulina , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/sangue , Colesterol/metabolismo , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Dislipidemias/sangue , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Obesidade/sangue , Sobrepeso/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
10.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 31(6): 889-895, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054116

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The impact of the two adipokines, visfatin and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP-4) on bone mineral density (BMD) has been analysed in various studies with conflicting results. Visfatin is highly expressed in visceral fat with stimulatory effect on osteoblast proliferation and inhibition on osteoclast formation, while RBP-4 acts as a transporter protein for retinol, associated with changes in insulin sensitivity, independent of obesity, with no consensus on its effect on bone metabolism. We evaluated the relationship between serum concentrations of visfatin, RBP-4, markers of insulin resistance and current BMD in treated postmenopausal osteoporosis (PO). METHODS: Demographics, previous treatment, metabolic status, anthropometry, serum Alkaline phosphatise (ALP), visfatin, RBP-4, the HOMA IR (homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance) index and BMD were evaluated in 61 subjects with PO. Statistical analysis used SPSS v. 25.0, with a level of significance α = 0.05. Regression models were constructed to evaluate the relationship between adipokines and BMD, adjusting for covariates. RESULTS: In multilinear regression analysis, the strongest predictor for current BMD was a previous BMD, followed by ALP and age. RBP4 and HOMA IR were significant predictors, while visfatin had no significant effect. A significant correlation between body mass index (BMI) and BMD at the femoral neck was observed. ALP was negatively correlated with BMD and visfatin positively with RBP4. CONCLUSIONS: Data indicate a positive relationship between BMD and RBP-4, an inverse relationship between markers of insulin resistance, bone turn-over and current BMD. No significant effect of visfatin on BMD was observed.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Citocinas/sangue , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/sangue , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Proteínas Plasmáticas de Ligação ao Retinol/análise , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue
11.
An Bras Dermatol ; 94(2): 192-197, 2019 Mar-Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psoriasis and obesity are somewhat related to a low-grade systemic inflammatory response. OBJECTIVES: To determine leptin and adiponectin levels in psoriasis patients compared to control patients matched for weight. METHODS: A case-control study was performed, evaluating 113 psoriasis patients and 41 controls with other dermatologic diseases. RESULTS: The prevalence of obesity was 33% in cases and 21.9% in controls. All evaluated comorbidities were more prevalent among cases. When stratified by weight, the comorbidities were more frequent in overweight patients. We found no correlation between being overweight (p=0.25), leptin (p=0.18) or adiponectin (p=0.762) levels and psoriasis severity. When overweight cases and controls were compared, we found differences in the adiponectin values (p= 0.04). The overweight cases had lower adiponectin levels than the overweight controls. We found no differences in the leptin dosage between cases and controls. The overweight cases had higher leptin values than the normal weight cases (p<0.001). STUDY LIMITATIONS: Several patients used systemic anti-inflammatory medication. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of obesity among psoriasis cases (33%) was higher than in the general population (17.4%). We did not find any correlation between severity of psoriasis and inflammatory cytokines and the condition of being overweight. The overweight cases had lower values of adiponectin than the overweight controls. It seems, therefore, that there is a relationship between adiponectin and psoriasis, but this relationship depends on the presence of obesity.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Leptina/sangue , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Psoríase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Sobrepeso/sangue , Prevalência , Psoríase/sangue , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
12.
Lipids Health Dis ; 18(1): 111, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatic lipase (HL, encoded by LIPC) is a glycoprotein primarily synthesized and secreted by hepatocytes. Previous studies had demonstrated that HL is crucial for reverse cholesterol transport and affects the metabolism, composition, and level of several lipoproteins. In current study, we investigated the association of LIPC (Lipase C, Hepatic Type) variants with circulating and urinary biomarker levels by using subgroup and mediation analyses. METHODS: A total of 572 participants from Taiwan were genotyped for three LIPC single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by using TaqMan assay. Fasting levels of glucose, lipid profile, inflammation markers, urine creatinine and 8-hydroxy deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were measured. The chi-square test, 2-sample t test and Analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to examine differences among variables and genotype frequencies. RESULTS: SNPs rs2043085 and rs1532085 were significantly associated with urinary 8-OHdG levels, whereas all three SNPs were more significantly associated with Triglycerides (TG) or HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels after additional adjustment for HDL-C or TG levels, respectively. Subgroup analyses revealed that the association of the LIPC SNPs with the levels of serum TG, HDL-C, and urinary 8-OHdG were predominantly observed in the men but not in the women. Differential associations of the LIPC SNPs with various lipid levels were observed in participants with different adiposity statuses. Mediation analyses indicated that TG levels acted as a suppressor masking the association of the LIPC genotypes with HDL-C levels, particularly in the men (Sobel test, all P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Our data revealed that interaction and suppression effects mediated the pleiotropic association of the LIPC variants. The effects of the LIPC SNPs depended on sex, adiposity status, and TG levels. Thus, our findings can provide a method for identifying high-risk populations of cardiovascular diseases for clinical diagnosis.


Assuntos
Desoxiguanosina/análogos & derivados , Estudos de Associação Genética , Pleiotropia Genética , Lipase/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Biomarcadores/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Desoxiguanosina/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/genética , Caracteres Sexuais , Triglicerídeos/sangue
13.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 15: 89-100, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118651

RESUMO

Obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), particularly heart failure (HF) and coronary heart disease (CHD). The mechanisms through which obesity increases CVD risk involve changes in body composition that can affect hemodynamics and alters heart structure. Pro-inflammatory cytokines produced by the adipose tissue itself which can induce cardiac dysfunction and can promote the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. When obesity and HF or CHD coexist, individuals with class I obesity present a more favorable prognosis compared to individuals who are normal or underweight. This phenomenon has been termed the "obesity paradox." Obesity is defined as an excess fat mass (FM), but individuals with obesity typically also present with an increased amount of lean mass (LM). The increase in LM may explain part of the obesity paradox as it is associated with improved cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), a major determinant of clinical outcomes in the general population, but particularly in those with CVD, including HF. While increased LM is a stronger prognosticator in HF compared to FM, in patients with CHD excess FM can exert protective effects particularly when not associated with increased systemic inflammation. In the present review, we discuss the mechanisms through which obesity may increase the risk for CVD, and how it may exert protective effects in the setting of established CVD, with a focus on body composition. We also highlight the importance of measuring or estimating CRF, including body composition-adjusted measures of CRF (ie, lean peak oxygen consumption) for an improved risk status stratification in patients with CVD and finally, we discuss the potential non-pharmacologic therapeutics, such as exercise training and dietary interventions, aimed at improving CRF and perhaps clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Hemodinâmica , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Comorbidade , Exercício , Dieta Saudável , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/terapia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
14.
Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J ; 15(1): 55-61, 2019 Jan-Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049150

RESUMO

Plasma cholesterol levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) have been associated with cardioprotection for decades. However, there is an evolving appreciation that this lipoprotein class is highly heterogeneous with regard to composition and functionality. With the advent of advanced lipid-testing techniques and methods that allow both the quantitation and recovery of individual particle populations, we are beginning to connect the functionality of HDL subspecies with chronic metabolic diseases. In this review, we examine type 2 diabetes (T2D) and explore our current understanding of how obesity, insulin resistance, and hyperglycemia affect, and may be affected by, HDL subspeciation. We discuss mechanistic aspects of how insulin resistance may alter lipoprotein profiles and how this may impact the ability of HDL to mitigate both atherosclerotic disease and diabetes itself. Finally, we call for more detailed studies examining the impact of T2D on specific HDL subspecies and their functions. If these particles can be isolated and their compositions and functions fully elucidated, it may become possible to manipulate the levels of these specific particles or target the protective functions to reduce the incidence of coronary heart disease.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Dislipidemias/sangue , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/epidemiologia
15.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(2): e20180547, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038539

RESUMO

Dynamic thiol-disulfide homeostasis is considered to have critical roles in maintenance of physiological functioning. We aimed to reveal whether there is any specific aberration in thiol-disulfide homeostasis in three distinct categories of individuals, including those who 1) exercise regularly (fitness group), 2) have a sedentary lifestyle (sedentary group) and 3) are overweight or obese (overweight/obese group). 72 male individuals were included in the study, 21 of whom were in fitness group, 28 of whom were overweight or obese and 23 of whom had a sedentary lifestyle. Plasma native thiol (-SH) and total thiol [(-SH) + (-S-S-)] levels were quantitatively determined. Total thiol levels in sedentary group were significantly lower than those in overweight/obese (p<0.05) and fitness groups (p<0.001). Also, disulfide values in fitness group were significantly higher than those in sedentary and overweight/obese groups (p<0.005, p<0.05). On the other hand, disulfide level, reduced and oxidized thiol ratios and oxidation/reduction ratio in fitness group differed significantly from the other groups (p<0.05). Thiol-disulfide homeostasis varies depending on lifestyle. The results of our study indicate that higher total thiol and disulfide levels are conspicuously distinctive features of thiol-disulfide homeostasis in individuals exercising regularly.


Assuntos
Dissulfetos/sangue , Exercício/fisiologia , Obesidade/sangue , Sobrepeso/sangue , Comportamento Sedentário , Compostos de Sulfidrila/sangue , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Antioxidantes/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Homeostase/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Curva ROC , Valores de Referência , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
16.
Maturitas ; 125: 45-49, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133216

RESUMO

In recent decades, there has been a marked increase in the prevalence of thyroid cancer. This phenomenon has paralleled the increase in the prevalence of obesity worldwide, which is associated with insulin resistance. Associations between these entities have been hypothesized, mainly for older and female populations, but they remain unclear. The aim of this article is to systematically review the literature in an attempt to determine whether the increase in the prevalence of thyroid cancer is due to obesity or due only to improved detection with the better imaging techniques available. A thorough literature search on PubMed and application of selection criteria identified 15 appropriate studies. The detailed analysis of the data from these studies indicated that there is a suggestive association between thyroid cancer, obesity, insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia for both genders. Therefore, the increased prevalence of thyroid cancer is not dependent on improved detection only. Further research should be performed for complete understanding of the pathophysiological associations, especially regarding adipose tissue and genetics, but also for the improvement of preventive public health policies.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/complicações , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/sangue , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/complicações , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Glicemia/análise , Homeostase , Humanos , Obesidade/terapia , Prevalência , Risco , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/terapia
17.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 180(6): 417-427, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042670

RESUMO

Objective To investigate how weight loss by different diets impacts postprandial levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon. Methods In this single-centre, parallel group 2-year trial, 70 healthy postmenopausal obese women were randomised to the Paleolithic diet or a healthy control diet based on Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. Both diets were without calorie restriction. The primary outcome was the change in fat mass. Here, secondary analyses on GLP-1, GIP and glucagon measured during an OGTT are described. Results In the Paleolithic diet group, mean weight loss compared to baseline was 11% at 6 months and 10% at 24 months. In the control diet group, mean weight loss was 6% after 6 and 24 months (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.049 for the comparison between groups at 6 and 24 months respectively). Compared to baseline, the mean incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for GLP-1 increased by 34 and 45% after 6 and 24 months in the Paleolithic diet group and increased by 59% after 24 months in the control diet group. The mean iAUC for GIP increased only in the Paleolithic diet group. The area under the curve (AUC) for glucagon increased during the first 6 months in both groups. The fasting glucagon increase correlated with the ß-hydroxybutyrate increase. Conclusions Weight loss caused an increase in postprandial GLP-1 levels and a further rise occurred during weight maintenance. Postprandial GIP levels increased only after the Paleolithic diet. Reduced postprandial glucagon suppression may be caused by a catabolic state.


Assuntos
Dieta Paleolítica , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/sangue , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Glucagon/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia
18.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013835

RESUMO

It has been established that OMEGA-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may improve lipid and glucose homeostasis and prevent the "low-grade" state of inflammation in animals. Little is known about the effect of PUFAs on adipocytokines expression and biologically active lipids accumulation under the influence of high-fat diet-induced obesity. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of fish oil supplementation on adipocytokines expression and ceramide (Cer) and diacylglycerols (DAG) content in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue of high-fat fed animals. The experiments were carried out on Wistar rats divided into three groups: standard diet-control (SD), high-fat diet (HFD), and high-fat diet + fish oil (HFD+FO). The fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were examined. Expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) protein was determined using the Western blot method. Plasma adipocytokines concentration was measured using ELISA kits and mRNA expression was determined by qRT-PCR reaction. Cer, DAG, and acyl-carnitine (A-CAR) content was analyzed by UHPLC/MS/MS. The fish oil supplementation significantly decreased plasma insulin concentration and Homeostatic Model Assesment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) index and reduced content of adipose tissue biologically active lipids in comparison with HFD-fed subjects. The expression of CPT1 protein in HFD+FO in both adipose tissues was elevated, whereas the content of A-CAR was lower in both HFD groups. There was an increase of adiponectin concentration and expression in HFD+FO as compared to HFD group. OMEGA-3 fatty acids supplementation improved insulin sensitivity and decreased content of Cer and DAG in both fat depots. Our results also demonstrate that PUFAs may prevent the development of insulin resistance in response to high-fat feeding and may regulate the expression and secretion of adipocytokines in this animal model.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Resistência à Insulina , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/sangue , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Carnitina/análogos & derivados , Carnitina/sangue , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/sangue , Ceramidas/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Diglicerídeos/metabolismo , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Óleos de Peixe/farmacologia , Insulina/sangue , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Masculino , Obesidade/etiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Wistar , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo
19.
Diab Vasc Dis Res ; 16(2): 144-152, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reaven originally described the clustering of insulin resistance/hyperinsulinaemia, obesity (particularly visceral), altered cytokine levels, glucose intolerance, hypertriglyceridaemia and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Subsequently, a potentially highly atherogenic small, dense low-density lipoprotein was also reported. We have studied the effect of bariatric surgery on this and other risk factors for atherosclerosis. METHODS: Forty patients (20 with type 2 diabetes mellitus) undergoing bariatric surgery were studied before and 1 year after bariatric surgery. RESULTS: Twelve months after bariatric surgery, median body mass index had decreased from 49.5 to 36.5 kg/m2, fasting insulin from 21.3 to 7.8 mU/L and insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance) from 5.9 to 1.8 (all p < 0.001). Thirteen out of 20 patients had remission from type 2 diabetes mellitus. Highly sensitive C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, fasting triglycerides ( p < 0.001) and small, dense low-density lipoprotein ( p < 0.001) decreased, while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased ( p < 0.001) significantly, irrespective of having type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or being treated with statin therapy before surgery. CONCLUSION: The association between marked weight loss and change in insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia with the change in small, dense low-density lipoprotein and interleukin-6 warrants further investigation. Bariatric surgery provides a model for investigating the mechanisms linking insulin resistance/hyperinsulinaemia to atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Derivação Gástrica/métodos , Resistência à Insulina , Interleucina-6/sangue , Laparoscopia , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Modelos Biológicos , Obesidade/cirurgia , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Tamanho da Partícula , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010129

RESUMO

Secondhand smoke (SHS), a common environmental exposure factor, has become a serious public health problem. Metabolic syndrome is another worldwide clinical challenge. Our study tried to determine the age differences in the relationship between SHS and the risk of metabolic syndrome. Studies were searched in PubMed and Web of Science from 11 November to 30 November 2018. Eighteen studies were finally included based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The relationship between SHS and the risk indicators of metabolic syndrome was analyzed. The weighted mean difference (WMD) of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC), and the standard mean difference (SMD) of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low- and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, HDL-C) were calculated in a meta-analysis. SHS was positively associated with the level of insulin and WC. According to the subgroup analysis based on age difference, SHS was positively associated with FPG in the upper age group, and positively associated with LDL-C and negatively associated with HDL-C in the lower age group. BMI showed a more obvious positive correlation in the adults group than in the children and the teenagers group. In conclusion, the association of metabolic syndrome with SHS varies with age. When exposed to SHS, older people may be more susceptible to glucose metabolic disorder, but younger people may be more susceptible to lipid metabolic disorder.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Glicemia/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade Abdominal/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Circunferência da Cintura
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