Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 19.230
Filtrar
1.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-5, 01/jan./2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358203

RESUMO

Objectives: The present study was designed to examine the efficacy of Cissus quadrangularis paste on fracture healing in artificially induced fractured rabbits. Methods: Fifteen rabbits were separated into three groups namely A, B, and C. Veldt grape paste was applied in groups B and C (Treatment Group) by close reduction and open reduction methods of fracture management; respectively, while group A was kept as control. The blood parameter and fracture healing properties in all animals have been monitored and examined routinely during the study period. Results: Both treated groups revealed lower serum calcium levels (SCL) than the control group after 24 hours of fracture that became within the normal range on the 14th day. Fracture healing in the treated groups has been commenced more rapidly than the control group with complete bridging of discontinuity by a distinct osseous callus in the fracture line on day 7 and complete effacing of fracture line on day 14. Conclusion: We did not find any type of anomalousness, clinical deviations, and alteration of serum calcium level on the 14th day of the fracture in treated animals hence Veldt Grape paste could be readily applicable to the management of the fracture in animals.


Objetivos: avaliar a eficácia da pasta de Cissus quadrangularis na consolidação de fraturas em coelhos fraturados artificialmente. Metodos: quinze coelhos foram separados em três grupos (A, B e C). A pasta foi aplicada nos grupos B e C (Grupo de Tratamento) pelos métodos de redução fechada e redução aberta de gerenciamento de fraturas; respectivamente. O grupo A foi mantido como controle. O parâmetro sanguíneo e as propriedades de cicatrização de fraturas em todos os animais foram monitorados e examinados, rotineiramente, durante o período do estudo. Resultados: ambos os grupos tratados revelaram níveis séricos de cálcio (SCL) mais baixos do que o grupo controle, após 24 horas de fratura que se tornou normal no 14º dia. A cicatrização da fratura nos grupos tratados foi iniciada mais rapidamente do que o grupo controle, com ponte completa de descontinuidade por um calo ósseo distinto na linha de fratura no dia 7 e apagamento completo da linha de fratura no dia 14. Conclusao: não encontramos nenhum tipo de anomalia, desvios clínicos e alteração do nível sérico de cálcio no 14º dia da fratura nos animais tratados, portanto, a pasta Veldt Grape pode ser aplicável ao manejo da fratura em animais.


Assuntos
Consolidação da Fratura , Cissus , Pomadas , Terapêutica , Calo Ósseo , Fraturas Ósseas , Objetivos , Animais de Laboratório , Métodos
2.
Cognition ; 225: 105178, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35644091

RESUMO

People often rely on habitual, serial processing when presented with to-be-learned information. We tested how strategic processing can override more bottom-up, serial processes when remembering information by having participants study a list of word triads (e.g., "dollar phone pizza"). Participants' goal was manipulated by maximizing either (i) their recall for each of the studied words or (ii) their total score associated with recalling certain words in each triad that were more valuable (worth more points) to engage either serial or strategic processing and retrieval mechanisms. Results revealed that when learners were told to maximize their total recall, they frequently engaged in serial remembering-remembering guided by an item's location within the study phase (i.e., words were retrieved according to a habitual reading bias). However, when words were paired with point values that counted towards participants' scores if recalled, participants were not only selective for high-value words but also attempted to overcome the tendency to engage in serial remembering; instead, they appeared to engage in strategic remembering whereby retrieval is guided by value. Thus, to maximize memory utility, it may be beneficial to override habitual processes and initiate retrieval with high-value words, and when making recall transitions, to recall high-value words together. Importantly, when certain to-be-remembered words were more valuable than their neighbors, participants still demonstrated some serial processing of the to-be-remembered words, indicating that even when engaging in strategic memory, some habitual processes can persist.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Rememoração Mental , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Memória , Motivação
3.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 7(1): 50, 2022 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35713814

RESUMO

Statistical knowledge of a target's location may benefit visual search, and rapidly understanding the changes in regularity would increase the adaptability in visual search situations where fast and accurate performance is required. The current study tested the sources of statistical knowledge-explicitly-given instruction or experience-driven learning-and whether they affect the speed and location spatial attention is guided. Participants performed a visual search task with a statistical regularity to bias one quadrant ("old-rich" condition) in the training phase, followed by another quadrant ("new-rich" condition) in the switching phase. The "instruction" group was explicitly instructed on the regularity, whereas the "no-instruction" group was not. It was expected that the instruction group would rely on goal-driven attention (using regularities with explicit top-down knowledge), and the no-instruction group would rely on habit-like attention (learning regularities through repetitive experiences) in visual search. Compared with the no-instruction group, the instruction group readjusted spatial attention following the regularity switch more rapidly. The instruction group showed greater attentional bias toward the new-rich quadrant than the old-rich quadrant; however, the no-instruction group showed a similar extent of attentional bias to two rich quadrants. The current study suggests that the source of statistical knowledge can affect attentional allocation. Moreover, habit-like attention, a different type of attentional source than goal-driven attention, is relatively implicit and inflexible.


Assuntos
Viés de Atenção , Atenção , Objetivos , Hábitos , Humanos , Tempo de Reação
4.
Health Psychol ; 41(7): 463-473, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35727323

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Two longitudinal studies were conducted to examine how habits and goal-related constructs determine toothbrushing behavior from a dual-process perspective. We aimed to describe the variations of habit strength, intention, and attitude and to test their associations with actual behavior at both inter- and intraindividual levels. In addition, toothbrushing behavior was measured both by self-report and sensors with the goal to compare these measures. METHOD: In Study 1, 40 young adults were instructed to brush their teeth twice a day, and their behaviors were measured by accelerometers for 3 weeks. Participants also self-reported their instrumental and affective attitude, habit strength, and behavior frequency weekly. Effects of interest were estimated using structural equation modeling. Study 2 replicated Study 1 with a larger and more diverse sample (N = 79), adding a measure of behavioral intention. RESULTS: Supporting the dual-process account, habit strength predicted future behavior in addition to goal-related constructs. Habit strength also attenuated the influences of goal-related constructs on behavior, but this pattern only emerged interindividually and for self-reported behavior. In addition, toothbrushing behavior was more strongly driven by affective rather than instrumental attitude. In both studies, associations among variables were weaker within-person and when sensor-measured behavior was modeled. CONCLUSIONS: The partial support for the dual-process account suggests the need of using habit-based interventions to complement intention-based interventions when attempting to change oral health routines. Our findings also highlight the importance of affective aspects of toothbrushing behavior and the potential to incorporate sensor-based objective measures in research and interventions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Escovação Dentária , Objetivos , Hábitos , Humanos , Intenção , Estudos Longitudinais , Escovação Dentária/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0270255, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35727801

RESUMO

The history of artificial intelligence (AI) is filled with hype and inflated expectations. Notwithstanding, AI is finding its way into numerous aspects of humanity including the fast-growing helping profession of coaching. Coaching has been shown to be efficacious in a variety of human development facets. The application of AI in a narrow, specific area of coaching has also been shown to work. What remains uncertain, is how the two compare. In this paper we compare two equivalent longitudinal randomised control trial studies that measured the increase in clients' goal attainment as a result of having received coaching over a 10-month period. The first study involved human coaches and the replication study used an AI chatbot coach. In both studies, human coaches and the AI coach were significantly more effective in helping clients reach their goals compared to the two control groups. Surprisingly however, the AI coach was as effective as human coaches at the end of the trials. We interpret this result using AI and goal theory and present three significant implications: AI coaching could be scaled to democratize coaching; AI coaching could grow the demand for human coaching; and AI could replace human coaches who use simplistic, model-based coaching approaches. At present, AI's lack of empathy and emotional intelligence make human coaches irreplicable. However, understanding the efficacy of AI coaching relative to human coaching may promote the focused use of AI, to the significant benefit of society.


Assuntos
Tutoria , Inteligência Artificial , Empatia , Objetivos , Humanos , Motivação
6.
N Z Med J ; 135(1548): 65-76, 2022 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35728131

RESUMO

AIM: To provide preliminary high-level modelling estimates of the impact of denicotinisation of tobacco on changes in smoking prevalence in Aotearoa New Zealand relative to the New Zealand Government's Smokefree 2025 goal. METHODS: An Excel spreadsheet was populated with smoking and vaping prevalence data from the New Zealand Health Survey and we projected business-as-usual trends. Using various parameters from the literature (New Zealand trial data, New Zealand EASE-ITC Study results), we modelled the potential impact of denicotinisation of tobacco (with no other tobacco permitted for sale) out to 2025. In addition to the base case (considered most likely), Scenario 1 used estimates from a published expert knowledge elicitation process, and Scenario 2 considered the addition of extra mass-media campaign and Quitline support to the base case. RESULTS: With the denicotinisation intervention, adult daily smoking prevalences were estimated to decline to under 5% by 2025 for the European/Other ethnic grouping (in the base case and both scenarios) and in one scenario (Scenario 1) for Maori (2.5%). However, prevalence did not fall below 5% in the base case for Maori (7.7%) or in Scenario 2 (5.2%). In the base case, vaping was estimated to increase to 7.9% in the adult population by 2025, and up to 10.7% in one scenario (Scenario 1). CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary high-level modelling suggests that mandated denicotinisation has a plausible chance of achieving the New Zealand Government's Smokefree 2025 goal. The probability of success would increase if supplemented with interventions such as mass-media campaigns offering Quitline support (especially if predominantly designed for a Maori audience). Nevertheless, there is much uncertainty with these results and more sophisticated modelling is forthcoming.


Assuntos
Produtos do Tabaco , Tabaco , Adulto , Objetivos , Humanos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Fumar
7.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3559, 2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35729171

RESUMO

Robotics and autonomous systems are reshaping the world, changing healthcare, food production and biodiversity management. While they will play a fundamental role in delivering the UN Sustainable Development Goals, associated opportunities and threats are yet to be considered systematically. We report on a horizon scan evaluating robotics and autonomous systems impact on all Sustainable Development Goals, involving 102 experts from around the world. Robotics and autonomous systems are likely to transform how the Sustainable Development Goals are achieved, through replacing and supporting human activities, fostering innovation, enhancing remote access and improving monitoring. Emerging threats relate to reinforcing inequalities, exacerbating environmental change, diverting resources from tried-and-tested solutions and reducing freedom and privacy through inadequate governance. Although predicting future impacts of robotics and autonomous systems on the Sustainable Development Goals is difficult, thoroughly examining technological developments early is essential to prevent unintended detrimental consequences. Additionally, robotics and autonomous systems should be considered explicitly when developing future iterations of the Sustainable Development Goals to avoid reversing progress or exacerbating inequalities.


Assuntos
Robótica , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Objetivos , Humanos
8.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 811, 2022 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35733190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several active ingredients contribute to the purposes and mechanisms of goal-setting in rehabilitation. Active ingredients in the goal-setting process include, interdisciplinary teamworking, shared decision-making, having meaningful and specific goals, and including action planning, coping planning, feedback, and review. Clinicians have expressed barriers and enablers to implementing these active ingredients in rehabilitation teams. Interventions designed to improve goal-setting practices need to be tailored to address context specific barriers and enablers. Attempts to understand and enhance goal-setting practices in rehabilitation settings should be supported using theory, process models and determinant frameworks. Few studies have been undertaken to enhance goal-setting practices in varied case-mix rehabilitation settings. METHODS: This study is part of a larger program of research guided by the Knowledge to Action (KTA) framework. A multisite, participatory, codesign approach was used in five sites to address three stages of the KTA. (1) Focus groups were conducted to understand barriers and enablers to implementing goal-setting at each site. Following the focus groups three staff co-design workshops and one consumer workshop were run at each site to (2) adapt knowledge to local context, and to (3) select and tailor interventions to improve goal-setting practices. Focus groups were analysed using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) and informed the selection of behaviour change techniques incorporated into the implementation plan. RESULTS: Barriers and enablers identified in this study were consistent with previous research. Clinicians lacked knowledge and understanding of the differences between a goal and an action plan often confusing both terms. Clinicians were unable to demonstrate an understanding of the importance of comprehensive action planning and review processes that extended beyond initial goal-setting. Interventions developed across the sites included staff training modules, a client held workbook, educational rehabilitation service flyers, interdisciplinary goal-based case conference templates, communication goal boards and a key worker model. Implementation plans were specifically established for each site. CONCLUSIONS: Rehabilitation teams continue to struggle to incorporate a truly client-centred, interdisciplinary model of goal-setting in rehabilitation. Whilst clinicians continue to lack understanding of how they can use aspects of goal-setting to enhance client outcomes and autonomy in rehabilitation settings.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Objetivos , Humanos , Conhecimento
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9470, 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35676518

RESUMO

Trust in vaccines and in the institutions responsible for their management is a key asset in the global response to the COVID-19 pandemic. By means of a structured multi-scales survey based on the socio-cognitive model of trust, this study investigates the interplay of institutional trust, confidence in COVID-19 vaccines, information habits, personal motivations, and background beliefs on the pandemic in determining willingness to vaccinate in a sample of Italian respondents (N = 4096). We observe substantial trust in public institutions and a strong vaccination intention. Theory-driven structural equation analysis revealed what factors act as important predictors of willingness to vaccinate: trust in vaccine manufacturers (which in turn is supported by trust in regulators), collectivist goals, self-perceived knowledgeability, reliance on traditional media for information gathering, and trust in institutional and scientific sources. In contrast, vaccine hesitancy, while confined to a minority, is more prominent in less educated and less affluent respondents. These findings can inform institutional decisions on vaccine communication and vaccination campaigns.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Objetivos , Humanos , Motivação , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Confiança , Vacinação
10.
Behav Ther ; 53(4): 725-737, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35697434

RESUMO

This study focused on the well-being of the survivors of suicide attempts and the well-being of their interpersonal relationships after the attempt. The data came from a sample of 392 college students from 10 Muslim majority countries who reported having attempted suicide in the last 4 years. Suicide was conceptualized as a goal-directed behavior embedded in a sociocultural context and motivated by personal or interpersonal goals. We tested a process that linked culturally shaped self-construal to the postsuicidal personal and interpersonal well-being. We posited that this process would operate through the attitudes towards suicide, motives for suicide, the strength of the intention to die. Our model indicated that the acceptability of suicide was positively associated with escape motives, and this association was even stronger for the individuals with interdependent self-construals. Escape motives were negatively associated with postsuicidal personal and interpersonal well-being, but communication motives were not associated with these outcomes. We also found evidence that having an interdependent self-construal might be beneficial for postsuicidal personal and interpersonal well-being. Our results further suggested that the postsuicidal personal and interpersonal well-being of highly interdependent individuals may depend on the interpretation of their act of suicide by their close others.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Tentativa de Suicídio , Humanos , Intenção , Relações Interpessoais , Motivação
11.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 768, 2022 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35689276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ethiopia signed the VISION 2020 Global Declaration and launched its eye health program in 2002. Since then, there has been limited systematic and comprehensive evaluation of the progress towards VISION 2020 goals in Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate Gurage Zone progress towards VISION 2020 targets and process indicators. METHOD: An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted among all public and private eye health care facilities in the Gurage Zone within the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People Region of Ethiopia. The evaluation protocol was adopted from the VISION 2020 situational analysis data collection tool. We used this structure to evaluate progress in terms of human resources for eye health, infrastructure, and service delivery at the zonal health office and health facilities. At the time of the study, Gurage Zone had a 1.7 million catchment area population. There were a total of five eye care centers, one of which was established by a non-governmental organization. Three of these facilities were secondary eye care centers with an operating theatre and two facilities were primary eye care centers. At the zonal level, there was no survey data available on the prevalence of blindness. RESULT: There was no systemic evaluation of VISION 2020 process indicators. The budget allocation specific to eye health care was less than 0.7% of the total budget of the zonal health office. The human resources for eye health (HReH) in the catchment area were: one ophthalmologist, two cataract surgeons, five optometrists, and 12 ophthalmic nurses, which is below the VISION 2020 targets for HReH. In terms of equipment, neither primary eye care center had a slit lamp biomicroscope, and two of the three secondary eye care centers did not have intraocular pressure measuring equipment. Only one secondary eye care center was providing glaucoma surgical services, and no center provided emergency and elective pediatric surgery. The cataract surgical rate determined by the study was 1967. CONCLUSION: Gurage Zone showed significant improvement in terms of cataract surgical rate. But it had not achieved VISION 2020 goals in terms of critical HReH and service delivery. We recommend that the zonal health office carries out a focused and baseline evaluation of eye health care service achievements.


Assuntos
Catarata , Objetivos , Catarata/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos
12.
Adv Chronic Kidney Dis ; 29(1): 76-82, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35690408

RESUMO

The Executive Order on Advancing American Kidney Health aimed to slow the progression of kidney disease, increase access to kidney transplantation, and expand home dialysis. In order to support the kidney health strategy laid out by the Advancing American Kidney Health, the National Institutes of Health, the National Institute of Diabetes, and Digestive, and Kidney Diseases, as well as other funding agencies must dedicate robust research funding to kidney disease. Currently, federal research investment for kidney health is less than 1% of Medicare fee-for-service expenditures for Americans with kidney disease. To address disparities in federal research funding, nephrology organizations are working together to advocate for increased federal commitment to kidney disease research. Underfunding of kidney disease research impedes scientific opportunities and innovation and prevents the collaboration of young investigators with research faculty that can accelerate the exodus of talent within the nephrology research workforce. This review provides an overview of the current state of federal research funding for kidney disease within the United States. In addition, we discuss ongoing advocacy efforts and programs that aim to increase federal funding for kidney-related research and accelerate the development of new and better therapies.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Nefropatias , Idoso , Humanos , Rim , Nefropatias/terapia , Medicare , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Estados Unidos
14.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3201, 2022 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35680874

RESUMO

Self-regulation has been studied across levels of analysis; however, little attention has been paid to the extent to which self-report, neural, and behavioral indices predict goal pursuit in real-life. We use a mixed-method approach (N = 201) to triangulate evidence among established measures of different aspects of self-regulation to predict both the process of goal pursuit using experience sampling, as well as longer-term goal progress at 1, 3, and 6-month follow-ups. While self-reported trait self-control predicts goal attainment months later, we observe a null relationship between longitudinal goal attainment and ERPs associated with performance-monitoring and reactivity to positive/rewarding stimuli. Despite evidence that these ERPs are reliable and trait-like, and despite theorizing that suggests otherwise, our findings suggest that these ERPs are not meaningfully associated with everyday goal attainment. These findings challenge the ecological validity of brain measures thought to assess aspects of self-regulation.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Autocontrole , Atenção , Encéfalo , Potenciais Evocados , Humanos
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35681970

RESUMO

China's government has enforced a series of renewable energy policies to promote renewable energy development and achieve the dual decarbonization goals. However, there exists great disparity in previous studies on the effectiveness and suitability of renewable energy policies in abating carbon emissions. This study employs a dynamic general equilibrium model and assesses the effectiveness and trade-offs of renewable energy policies in achieving the dual decarbonization goals by 2060 in China. These policies include carbon market (CRP), the reduction of feed-in tariffs (FIT), the reduction of fossil fuel subsidies (FSB), the reduction of renewable energy costs (REC), resource taxes (RTX), and renewable portfolio standards (REP) as well as the mix of these policies. We find that renewable energy policies together could abate China's CO2 emissions in 2060 by 2.57 billion tons, but their effectiveness is very different. The REC would have the greatest effectiveness in abating CO2 emissions, followed by REP and CRP. Renewable energy policies would cause relatively slight damage to China's GDP, with the exception of the REC (raising GDP by 1.1713%). Regarding trade-offs, most policies will sacrifice China's internal and external demand but benefit employment. Renewable energy policies will effectively promote the low-carbon transformation of China's energy structure.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Objetivos , Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Políticas , Energia Renovável
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682091

RESUMO

The 2016 "empty-goal" rule change in team handball allowed for swift goalkeeper-player substitutions, which opened the door to a variety of tactical solutions that could not be implemented prior to the change. This change is one of many rule changes that have taken place in ball games in general and in handball in particular that were aimed to improve the competition and make gameplay more interesting. Previous literature shows that more often than not, such rule changes have led to unforeseen and undesired effects on players' and teams' behavior and performance. The aim of the current study was to consider the empty-goal rule from the goalkeeper's perspective, as their offense-defense game routine was drastically transformed following the introduction of this new rule. Results of a survey among 95 professional goalkeepers, 80 of whom participated in international matches, revealed that the keepers' level of confidence in empty-goal situations is moderate to high, that empty goal is rarely practiced more than once a week, and that less experienced goalkeepers are more positive regarding this rule change. Additionally, we found that the amount of empty-goal practice is positively related to the approval of the empty-goal rule among goalkeepers.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Esportes , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10020, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35705589

RESUMO

Human environments comprise plenty of task-irrelevant sensory inputs, which are potentially distracting. Auditory distractors often possess an inherent temporal structure. However, it is largely unknown whether and how the temporal regularity of distractors interferes with goal-directed cognitive processes, such as working memory. Here, we tested a total sample of N = 90 participants across four working memory tasks with sequences of temporally regular versus irregular distractors. Temporal irregularity was operationalized by a final tone onset time that violated an otherwise regular tone sequence (Experiment 1), by a sequence of tones with irregular onset-to-onset delays (Experiment 2), and by sequences of speech items with irregular onset-to-onset delays (Experiments 3 and 4). Across all experiments, temporal regularity of distractors did not modulate participants' primary performance metric, that is, accuracy in recalling items from working memory. Instead, temporal regularity of distractors modulated secondary performance metrics: for regular versus irregular distractors, recall of the first item from memory was faster (Experiment 3) and the response bias was more conservative (Experiment 4). Taken together, the present results provide evidence that the temporal regularity of task-irrelevant input does not inevitably affect the precision of memory representations (reflected in the primary performance metric accuracy) but rather the response behavior (reflected in secondary performance metrics like response speed and bias). Our findings emphasize that a comprehensive understanding of auditory distraction requires that existing models of attention include often-neglected secondary performance metrics to understand how different features of auditory distraction reach awareness and impact cognition and behavior.


Assuntos
Atenção , Objetivos , Atenção/fisiologia , Cognição , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
18.
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol ; 26(3): 354-358, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35654100

RESUMO

The future of musculoskeletal (MSK) radiology is being built on research developments in the field. Over the past decade, MSK imaging research has been dominated by advancements in molecular imaging biomarkers, artificial intelligence, radiomics, and novel high-resolution equipment. Adequate preparation of trainees and specialists will ensure that current and future leaders will be prepared to embrace and critically appraise technological developments, will be up to date on clinical developments, such as the use of artificial tissues, will define research directions, and will actively participate and lead multidisciplinary research. This review presents an overview of the current MSK research landscape and proposes tangible future goals and strategic directions that will fortify the future of MSK radiology.


Assuntos
Sistema Musculoesquelético , Radiologia , Inteligência Artificial , Previsões , Objetivos , Humanos , Sistema Musculoesquelético/diagnóstico por imagem
19.
Int J Hyperthermia ; 39(1): 758-771, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35654473

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Healthy tissue hotspots are a main limiting factor in administering deep hyperthermia cancer therapy. We propose an optimization scheme that uses time-multiplexed steering (TMPS) among minimally correlated (nearly) Pareto-optimal solutions to suppress hotspots without reducing tumor heating. Furthermore, tumor heating homogeneity is maximized, thus reducing toxicity and avoiding underexposed tumor regions, which in turn may reduce recurrence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The novel optimization scheme combines random generation of steering parameters with local optimization to efficiently identify the set of (Pareto-) optimal solutions of conflicting optimization goals. To achieve simultaneous suppression of hotspots, multiple steering parameter configurations with minimally correlated hotspots are selected near the Pareto front and combined in TMPS. The performance of the novel scheme was compared with that of a multi-goal Genetic Algorithm for a range of simulated treatment configurations involving a modular applicator heating a generic tumor situated in the bladder, cervix, or pelvic bone. SAR cumulative histograms in tumor and healthy tissue, as well as hotspot volumes are used as metrics. RESULTS: Compared to the non-TMPS optimization, the proposed scheme was able to reduce the peak temperature in healthy tissue by 0.2 °C-1.0 °C (a thermal dose reduction by at least 26%) and, importantly, the hotspot volume above 42 °C in healthy tissue by 41%-86%. At the same time, tumor heating homogeneity was maintained or improved. CONCLUSIONS: The extremely rapid optimization (5 s for TMPS part, on a standard PC) permits closed-loop treatment reoptimization during treatment administration, and empowers physicians with a selection of optimal treatment scenarios reflecting different weighting of conflicting treatment goals.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Hipertermia Induzida , Feminino , Calefação , Humanos , Hipertermia
20.
An. psicol ; 38(2): 382-394, may. 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-202899

RESUMO

Las conductas dirigidas a lograr metas y a gestionar tareas en un periodo de tiempo determinado desempeñan un papel importante cuando las personas realizan actividades de aprendizaje. Estos comportamientos, denominados como orientación a metas y gestión del tiempo, han sido ampliamente estudiados desde los modelos de aprendizaje autorregulado. Estudios previos han empleado tradicionalmente auto-informes para estudiar estas variables. Sin embargo, esta metodología subjetiva presenta limitaciones, por lo que algunos autores han enfatizado las ventajas del empleo de medidas objetivas. En este trabajo, empleamos test objetivos para evaluar la orientación a metas, la gestión del tiempo y estudiar su relación con resultados de aprendizaje. Se emplea un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales para examinar las relaciones. Los resultados muestran un buen ajuste del modelo a los datos. La orientación al aprendizaje muestra un efecto directo sobre la gestión del tiempo y ambas variables muestran un efecto directo sobre una tarea de aprendizaje. La gestión del tiempo mostró un efecto directo sobre el rendimiento académico. Se discuten las implicaciones teóricas y prácticas.(AU)


Behaviors directed to achieving goals and managing tasks in a set period of time play important roles when people engage in learning ac-tivities. These behaviors, labeled goal orientation and time management, have been widely studied as part of self-regulated learning models. Previ-ous works have traditionally employedself-reports to study these variables. However, these subjective methodologies suffer from limitations, and some researchers highlight the advantages of using objective measures. In the present work, we employ objective tests to study goal orientation, time management and their relation to learning outcomes. We propose a model and employ structural equation modeling to examine the hypothesized re-lations. The results provided a good fit to the data. Goal orientation (mas-tery) has a direct effect on time management, and both variables have di-rect effects on scores in a learning task. Time management also has a direct effect on academic performance. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Ciências da Saúde , Gerenciamento do Tempo , Objetivos , Desempenho Acadêmico , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...