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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(9)2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066343

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability of four methods of assessing vastus lateralis (VL) stiffness, and to describe the influence of structural characteristics on them. The stiffness of the dominant lower-limb's VL was evaluated in 53 healthy participants (28.4 ± 9.1 years) with shear wave elastography (SWE), strain elastography (SE), myotonometry and tensiomyography (TMG). The SWE, SE and myotonometry were performed at 50%, and TMG was assessed at 30%, of the length from the upper pole of the patella to the greater trochanter. The thickness of the VL, adipose tissue and superficial connective tissue was also measured with ultrasound. Three repeated measurements were acquired to assess reliability, using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated to determine the relationships between methodologic assessments and between structural characteristics and stiffness assessments of the VL. Myotonometry (ICC = 0.93; 95%-CI = 0.89,0.96) and TMG (ICC = 0.89; 95%-CI = 0.82,0.94) showed excellent inter-day reliability whereas with SWE (ICC = 0.62; 95%-CI = 0.41,0.77) and SE (ICC = 0.71; 95%-CI = 0.57,0.81) reliability was moderate. Significant correlations were found between myotonometry and VL thickness (r = 0.361; p = 0.008), adipose tissue thickness (r = -0.459; p = 0.001) and superficial connective tissue thickness (r = 0.340; p = 0.013). Myotonometry and TMG showed the best reliability values, although myotonometry stiffness values were influenced by the structural variables of the supra-adjacent tissue.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Músculo Quadríceps , Objetivos , Humanos , Músculo Quadríceps/diagnóstico por imagem , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ultrassonografia
2.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e047240, 2021 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059514

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Goal planning is widely recognised as an integral part of mental health service delivery and an important element in supporting recovery. Goal planning identifies priorities for treatment through discussion and negotiation between service users and health practitioners. Goal planning enhances motivation, directs effort, and focuses the development of strategies and treatment options to improve recovery outcomes and promote service users' ownership of the recovery process. While goal planning is a common practice in mental health settings, evidence regarding its impact on treatment outcomes is lacking. This paper outlines a protocol for a systematic review that aims to explore the types of goals planned, experiences of service users and practitioners, and the effectiveness of goal planning as a mental health intervention. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A systematic search will be conducted during March 2021 by searching Medline, CINAHL, Embase, Scopus and PsycINFO electronic databases to answer the following questions: (1) What types of goals are being developed within mental healthcare?; (2) What is the evidence for the effectiveness of goal planning on health and well-being for mental health service users?; (3) What are the experiences of mental health service users and their treating healthcare practitioners in relation to goal planning?; and (4) What are the barriers and facilitators to effective goal planning in mental health settings? Two independent researchers will screen the articles, selecting literature that meets criteria. All literature, regardless of study design that involves adult participants, with a mental illness and reporting on goal planning will be considered for inclusion. Data will be extracted from all eligible articles regardless of study design and summarised in a table. Appropriate quality assessment and data synthesis methods will be determined based on included study designs. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: No ethics approval is required. The results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020220595.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Adulto , Objetivos , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Saúde Mental , Motivação , Projetos de Pesquisa
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(11)2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073181

RESUMO

The purpose of this research is to explore the roles that sports trackers and running-related data play in runners' personal goal achievement. A two-week diary study and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 runners to explore how runners engage with their running-related data to set and achieve their running goals. We found that participants pursued and transitioned between different running goals as their needs, abilities, and surrounding environment changed. We also found multiple motivations that shaped the use of sports trackers. We identified two main categories in runners' motivations for using trackers and data to achieve their goals. These categories were (i) documenting and tracking in running, and (ii) supporting goal-oriented reflections and actions, with various reasons for use while preparing for and during running. This study provides insights into the psychological effects of running-related data and signals practical implications for runners and developers of tracking technology.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Corrida , Humanos , Motivação
4.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(4): 4532-4538, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33966401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) is a common type of AF, and patients with NVAF have a higher risk of ischemic stroke than non-AF patients. This study aims to investigate the goal attainment of international normalized ratio (INR) in patients with NVAF after anticoagulation therapy, and to analyze the risk factors that affect the goal attainment of INR. METHODS: NVAF patients who were admitted to our hospital from December 2019 to December 2020 and received anticoagulation therapy were selected as the research subjects. The INR goal attainment of patients was assessed, the risk factors affecting INR goal attainment were analyzed, and a ROC curve was drawn to evaluate the predictive value of risk factors for INR goal attainment in NVAF patients. RESULTS: After anticoagulation treatment, the INR of 42 cases reached the target (INR value ≥0.2, the goal attainment group), and the INR of 74 cases did not reach the target (INR value <2.0, the non-goal attainment group). The age, mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), and large platelet ratio (P-LCR) levels of patients in the goal attainment group were significantly lower than those in the non-goal attainment group, and the platelet count (PLT) level was higher than that of the non-goal attainment group (P<0.05). The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that MPV, PDW, and P-LCR were independent risk factors that affected the failure in INR goal attainment in patients with NVAF after anticoagulation therapy. The ROC curve showed that the AUC values of MPV, PDW, and P-LCR were 0.711, 0.748, 0.867, respectively, and the combined AUC was 0.876, which was higher than that of the single detection. CONCLUSIONS: MPV, PDW, and P-LCR are important factors that affect the goal attainment of INR after anticoagulant therapy in NVAF patients. For patients with risk factors, clinicians can formulate a reasonable individualized anticoagulant drug regimen based on the above-mentioned index levels.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Objetivos , Humanos , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Fatores de Risco , Varfarina
5.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(2(B)): 596-601, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941942

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate Pakistan's progress in the context of health-related Millennium Development Goals. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2016 to March 2017 at Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad and National Institution of Health, assessed the chronological landscape of health conditions with temporal limit of 2000 to 2015 while measuring progress in 5, 10 and 15 years of Millennium Development Goals in the Public Sector Health Care Segment. Data was analysed using SPSS 21. RESULTS: No significant difference in infrastructure was observed during the 2000-2015 era of Millennium Development Goals (p>0.05) except in the number of dispensaries (p=0.001). There was a significant increase in workforce (p<0.05), but no significant difference was observed in health expenditure (p>0.05). Family planning sector was also without any significant change (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference in most healthcare segments during 2000-2015 and Millennium Development Goals remained underachieved.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Estudos Transversais , Atenção à Saúde , Saúde Global , Humanos , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Setor Público
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946837

RESUMO

This paper aims to measure disparities among the variables associated with Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3 defined by the United Nations (UN) in the least developed countries (LDCs) of Asia. In the terms of the UN Conference on Trade and Development, LDCs are countries with profound economic and social inequalities. The indicator was constructed using a set of variables associated with SDG3: Good Health and Wellbeing. Applying Pena's DP2 distance method to the most recent data available (2018) enables regional ordering of Asia's LDCs based on the values of these variables. The index integrates socioeconomic variables that permit examination of the impact of each individual indicator to determine territorial disparities in terms of the partial indicators of SDG3. "Maternal education," "Proportion of women who make their own informed decisions regarding sexual relations, contraceptive use, and reproductive health care," and "Gender parity index in primary education" are the most important variables in explaining spatial disparities in good health and wellbeing in the LDCs of Asia.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Ásia , Economia , Feminino , Objetivos , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
Rehabilitation (Stuttg) ; 60(2): 124-131, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858021

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Childhood cancer often leads to physical and psychosocial burdens that can persist beyond the end of treatment. Family-oriented rehabilitation programs (FOR) focus on long-term consequences and support families in returning to daily life. The objectives of this study were to describe rehabilitation goals and goal attainment, to analyze the relationship between physical functioning and physical well-being and to examine predictors of changes in physical functioning during the FOR. METHODS: In a prospective observational study, statements of physicians regarding rehabilitation goals, goal achievement and physical functioning of 175 children (<18 years of age at the time of diagnosis of leukemia or central nervous system tumor) at the beginning and the end of a FOR were analyzed. The physical well-being of the patients was assessed from a parent and child perspective. Correlation coefficients were calculated to analyze the relation between physical functioning and physical well-being. Predictors of changes in physical functioning were examined with a multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: The most frequently mentioned rehabilitation goals were the increase of physical functioning and the integration into the peer group. Overall, the goal achievement ranged from 82 to 100%. Physical functioning improved significantly during the FOR. A significant positive correlation between the physician's assessment of physical functioning and the parental assessment of physical well-being could be found at the beginning of the FOR. According to the regression model, female gender of the child and a longer time since diagnosis were associated with a lower change in physical functioning. Furthermore, a higher degree of physical consequential damages was associated with a larger change. CONCLUSIONS: The 4-week multimodal rehabilitation program of the FOR addressed various physical and psychosocial burdens and was accompanied by a significant improvement of the physical functioning of childhood cancer patients. The change in physical functioning was associated with different sociodemographic and medical factors (eg, sex). The consideration of these factors could help with optimizing the program.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Neoplasias , Criança , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Pais , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852021

RESUMO

Population health - understood both as prevention and healthcare - needs good data. Data can support decision making on the system level as well as the delivery of services for each individual. Furthermore, data are a prerequisite for research and innovation. At the same time, health data are hard to come by: coverage is spotty or - for certain parts of the system - lacking, available data only provides a proxy view of actual prevention or healthcare, or it exists in formats that hamper or prevent automated processing at scale. Furthermore, the high sensitivity of health data necessitates an equally high degree of protection, further complicating access.These challenges are not specific to Germany but are common in all member states of the European Union. However, up to now, German stakeholders tend to neglect the potential of a joint European approach to these challenges. The article provides an overview of different European initiatives in the domain of health data. The focus is on how German stakeholders can gain better access to these initiatives to benefit from the knowledge and experiences of neighbouring countries, but also to feed back their own knowledge into the European loop.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Saúde Pública , Atenção à Saúde , Europa (Continente) , União Europeia , Alemanha
12.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807763

RESUMO

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have been proposed to give a possible future to humankind. Due to the multidimensional characteristic of sustainability, SDGs need research activities with a multidisciplinary approach. This work aims to provide a critical review of the results concerning sustainable materials obtained by Italian researchers affiliated to the National Interuniversity Consortium of Materials Science and Technology (INSTM) and their contribution to reaching specific indicators of the 17 SDGs. Data were exposed by using the Web of Science (WoS) database. In the investigated period (from 2016 to 2020), 333 works about sustainable materials are found and grouped in one of the following categories: chemicals (33%), composites (11%), novel materials for pollutants sequestration (8%), bio-based and food-based materials (10%), materials for green building (8%), and materials for energy (29%). This review contributes to increasing the awareness of several of the issues concerning sustainable materials but also to encouraging the researchers to focus on SDGs' interconnections. Indeed, the mapping of the achievements can be relevant to the decision-makers to identify the opportunities that materials can offer to achieve the final goals. In this frame, a "Sustainable Materials Partnership for SDGs" is envisaged for more suitable resource management in the future.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Poluentes Ambientais/química , Poluentes Ambientais/isolamento & purificação , Alimentos , Objetivos , Itália
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802749

RESUMO

Recent research suggests people typically "give up" pursuing their New Year resolutions within the first month. The present study investigated goal features proposed to be implicated in promoting both mental wellbeing and sustained New Year resolution pursuit. Australian and UK participants (n = 182) took part in an online longitudinal study, including four timepoints over a two-month period. At baseline, participants listed the New Year resolution to which they were most committed, and completed self-report measures to assess mental wellbeing, goal flexibility and tenacity. At the follow-up surveys, participants completed the wellbeing measure and their New Year resolution commitment, effort and stickability. As predicted, flexibility predicted wellbeing across time, however, tenacity did not. Counter to prediction, neither flexibility nor tenacity reported at baseline predicted "sticking" with one's New Year resolution. The predicted interaction between flexibility and tenacity was not significant. New Year resolutions focused predominantly on "diet" and "exercise" were predominantly the same resolutions previously pursued and tended to be relatively abstract. Although goal flexibility predicted greater wellbeing, the findings overall tend to support the view that people are not particularly good at sticking with their New Year resolutions. Implications of the findings are discussed.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Motivação , Austrália , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(7)2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810606

RESUMO

We live in complex times in the health, social, political, and energy spheres, and we must be aware of and implement new trends in intelligent social health systems powered by the Internet of Things (IoT). Sustainable development, energy efficiency, and public health are interrelated parameters that can transform a system or an environment for the benefit of people and the planet. The integration of sensors and smart devices should promote energy efficiency and ensure that sustainable development goals are met. This work is carried out according to a mixed approach, with a literature review and an analysis of the impact of the Sustainable Development Goals on the applications of the Internet of Things and smart systems. In the analysis of results, the following questions are answered about these systems and applications: (a) Are IoT applications key to the improvement of people's health and the environment? (b) Are there research and case studies implemented in cities or territories that demonstrate the effectiveness of IoT applications and their benefits to public health?


Assuntos
Internet das Coisas , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Cidades , Atenção à Saúde , Objetivos , Humanos
15.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 149, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A central goal of rehabilitation in patients with paralysis syndromes after stroke or spinal cord injury (SCI) is to restore independent mobility as a pedestrian or wheelchair user. However, after acute rehabilitation, the mobility frequently deteriorates in the ambulatory setting, despite the delivery of rehabilitative interventions such as physical therapy or the prescription of assistive devices. The aim of the NeuroMoves study is to identify factors that are associated with changes of mobility in the ambulatory setting after acute inpatient rehabilitation, with a particular focus on participation according to the ICF (International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health). METHODS: The NeuroMoves study is intended as a national multicenter observational cohort study with 9 clinical sites in Germany. A total of 500 patients with mobility-restricting paralysis syndromes (i.e. stroke or SCI) are to be recruited during acute inpatient rehabilitation prior to discharge to the ambulatory setting. Patients will have 8 months of follow-up in the ambulatory setting. Three study visits at the clinical sites (baseline, midterm, and final) are planned at 4-months intervals. The baseline visit is scheduled at the end of the acute inpatient rehabilitation. During the visits, demographical data, neurological, functional, quality of life, and implementation measures will be assessed. At baseline, each study participant receives an activity tracker (sensor for recording ambulatory mobility) along with a tablet computer for home use over the 8 months study duration. While mounted, the activity tracker records mobility data from which the daily distance covered by walking or wheelchair use can be calculated. Customized applications on the tablet computer remind the study participants to answer structured questionnaires about their health condition and treatment goals for physical therapy. Using the study participants' tablet, therapists will be asked to answer structured questionnaires concerning treatment goals and therapeutic measures they have applied. The primary analysis concerns the association between mobility (daily distance covered) and the degree of participation-oriented rehab interventions. Further exploratory analyses are planned. DISCUSSION: The findings could inform healthcare decision-making regarding ambulatory care in Germany focusing on mobility-promoting interventions for patients with mobility-restricting paralysis syndromes. STUDY REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS-ID: DRKS00020487 (18.02.2020).


Assuntos
Paralisia/reabilitação , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/reabilitação , Estudos de Coortes , Pessoas com Deficiência , Alemanha , Objetivos , Humanos , Alta do Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Equipamentos de Autoajuda , Inquéritos e Questionários , Síndrome
16.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 168: 112347, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901907

RESUMO

This bibliographic review provides an overview of techniques used to detect marine litter using remote sensing. The review classified studies in terms of platform (satellite, aircrafts, drones), sensors (passive or active), spectral (visible, infrared, microwaves), spatial resolution (<1 to >30 m), type and size (macroplastics, microplastics), or classification methodology (sighting, photointerpretation, supervised). Most studies applied satellite information to address marine litter using multi- and hyper- spectral optical sensors. The correspondence analysis on analyzed variables exhibited that aircrafts with high spatial resolution (<3 m) with optical sensors (λ = 400 to 2500 nm) seem to be the most optimum combination to target marine litter, while satellites carrying Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors (λ = 3.1 to 5.6 cm) may detect sea-slicks associated to surfactants that might contain high concentration of microplastics. Gaps indicate that future goals in marine litter detection should be addressed with platforms including optical and SAR sensors.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Monitoramento Ambiental , Objetivos , Radar
17.
Behav Brain Sci ; 44: e48, 2021 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899715

RESUMO

We introduce a distinct type of choice that has yet to be addressed by self-control research: Choosing between activities that offer both delayed and immediate rewards. We describe when and why such mixed-reward choices pose challenges to self-control, and suggest that self-control in mixed-reward choices may be supported (rather than undermined) by delay discounting.


Assuntos
Desvalorização pelo Atraso , Autocontrole , Objetivos , Humanos , Motivação , Recompensa
18.
Glob Health Action ; 14(1): 1903214, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33904370

RESUMO

If Sustainable Developmental Goal 3 and Universal Health Coverage are to be achieved, functioning is a third health indicator which must be assessed and integrated into global health population-based metrics alongside mortality and morbidity. In this paper, we define functioning according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and present why functioning is important to measure, especially when considering the need for, and outcome of, rehabilitation and assistive technology. We discuss examples of tools that measure components of functioning through clinical assessment and self-report methodologies, and present the development of a comprehensive population level tool which aligns with the ICF and combines self-report and clinical measurement methods to measure functioning and the need for rehabilitation and AT. Throughout the paper a survivor of Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) is given as an example to illustrate functioning according to the ICF and how access to the interventions of rehabilitation and assistive technology might be of benefit to improve and optimise his/her functioning. We argue that the Global Health community must take action and ensure that the measurement of functioning is well established, accepted and integrated as the third health indicator following the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Pessoas com Deficiência , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Objetivos , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Sobreviventes , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde
19.
Trends Plant Sci ; 26(6): 600-606, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893049

RESUMO

The European Commission's Farm to Fork (F2F) strategy, under the European Green Deal, acknowledges that innovative techniques, including biotechnology, may play a role in increasing sustainability. At the same time, organic farming will be promoted, and at least 25% of the EU's agricultural land shall be under organic farming by 2030. How can both biotechnology and organic farming be developed and promoted simultaneously to contribute to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)? We illustrate that achieving the SDGs benefits from the inclusion of recent innovations in biotechnology in organic farming. This requires a change in the law. Otherwise, the planned increase of organic production in the F2F strategy may result in less sustainable, not more sustainable, food systems.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Agricultura Orgânica , Biotecnologia , Europa (Continente) , Fazendas
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917074

RESUMO

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is the most common neuropsychological disorder in childhood and adolescence, affecting the basic psychological processes involved in learning, social adaptation and affective adjustment. From previous research, the disorder is linked to problems in different areas of development, with deficiencies in psychological processes leading to the development of the most common characteristics of the disorder such as inattention, excess of activity and lack of inhibitory control. As for the diagnosis, in spite of being a very frequent disorder, there are multiple controversies about which tools are the most suitable for evaluation. One of the most widespread tools in the professional field is behavior inventories such as the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires for Parents and Teachers or the ADHD Rating Scale-V. The main disadvantage of these assessment tools is that they do not provide an objective observation. For this reason, there are different studies focused on recording objective measures of the subjects' movement, since hyperkinesia is one of the most characteristic symptoms of this disorder. In this sense, we have developed an application that, using a Kinect device, is capable of measuring the movement of the different parts of the body of up to six subjects in the classroom, being a natural context for the student. The main objective of this work is twofold, on the one hand, to investigate whether there are correlations between excessive movement and high scores in the inventories for the diagnosis of ADHD, Rating Scale-V and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and, on the other hand, to determine which sections of the body present the most significant mobility in subjects diagnosed with ADHD. Results show that the control group, composed of neurotypical subjects, presents less kinaesthetic activity than the clinical group diagnosed with ADHD. This indicates that the experimental group presents one of the main characteristics of the disorder. In addition, results also show that practically all the measured body parts present significant differences, being higher in the clinical group, highlighting the head as the joint with the highest effect size.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Objetivos , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Estudantes
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