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1.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1642020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32395951

RESUMO

In the late 1970s, the American bioethicists Tom Beauchamp and James Childress described the four ethical principles that should guide a physician's actions in individual patient care. These principles are: (a) respect for autonomy; (b) doing well (beneficence); (c) not harming (non-maleficence); and (d) justice. In many countries, the global outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 has led to overloaded healthcare systems due to large numbers of COVID-19 patients. In order to provide care to this high volume of patients, far-reaching measures are taken that affect everyone. These measures are not taken from an individual patient's perspective but in the interest of public health; nonetheless, they can directly affect the individual patient's interests. This article examines the extent to which Beauchamp and Childress' ethical principles may be compromised during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Pandemias/ética , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Beneficência , Infecções por Coronavirus , Humanos , Obrigações Morais , Autonomia Pessoal , Pneumonia Viral , Justiça Social
2.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e72, 2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349800

RESUMO

Tomasello describes how the sense of moral obligation emerges from a shared perspective with collaborative partners and in-group members. Our commentary expands this framework to accommodate multiple social identities, where the normative standards associated with diverse group memberships can often conflict with one another. Reconciling these conflicting obligations is argued to be a central part of human morality.


Assuntos
Obrigações Morais , Princípios Morais , Humanos , Comportamento Social
3.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e78, 2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349801

RESUMO

Tomasello argues that humans' sense of moral obligation emerges early in development, relies on a shared "we," and serves as the foundation of cooperation. This perspective complements our theoretical view of the human self as information agent. The shared "we" promotes not only proximal cooperative goals but also distal ones via the construction of shared understanding - it promotes culture.


Assuntos
Obrigações Morais , Princípios Morais , Humanos
4.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e87, 2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349804

RESUMO

Tomasello's novel and insightful theory of obligation explains why we sometimes sense an obligation to treat each other equally, but he has not yet explained why human morality also allows and enables much inequality in wealth and power. Ullman-Margalit's (1977) account of norms of partiality suggested a different source and kind of norms that might help to fill out Tomasello's picture.


Assuntos
Obrigações Morais , Princípios Morais , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos
5.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e60, 2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349808

RESUMO

Tomasello offers a compelling account of the emergence of humans' sense of obligation. We suggest that more needs to be said about the role of affect in the creation of obligations. We also argue that positive emotions such as gratitude evolved to encourage individuals to fulfill cooperative obligations without the negative quality that Tomasello proposes is inherent in obligations.


Assuntos
Obrigações Morais , Princípios Morais , Emoções , Humanos
6.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e75, 2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349809

RESUMO

Morality has two key features: (1) moral judgments are not solely determined by what your group thinks, and (2) moral judgments are often applied to members of other groups as well as your own group. Cooperative motives do not explain how young children reject unfairness, and assert moral obligations, both inside and outside their groups. Resistance and experience with conflicts, alongside cooperation, is key to the emergence and development of moral obligation.


Assuntos
Obrigações Morais , Princípios Morais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Julgamento
7.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e64, 2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349811

RESUMO

In place of Tomasello's explanation for the source of moral obligation, we suggest that it develops from the concern for others already implicit in the human developmental system. Mutual affection and caring make the development of communication and thinking possible. Humans develop as persons within such relationships and this develops into respect and moral obligation.


Assuntos
Obrigações Morais , Estanho , Humanos , Princípios Morais
8.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e57, 2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349814

RESUMO

We argue that Tomasello's account overlooks important psychological distinctions between how humans judge different types of moral obligations, such as prescriptive obligations (i.e., what one should do) and proscriptive obligations (i.e., what one should not do). Specifically, evaluating these different types of obligations rests on different psychological inputs and has distinct downstream consequences for judgments of moral character.


Assuntos
Obrigações Morais , Princípios Morais , Humanos , Julgamento
9.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e70, 2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349818

RESUMO

Tomasello's account of the origins and nature of moral obligation rightly emphasises the key roles of social relations and a cooperative sense of "we." However, we suggest that it overlooks the complexity of those social relations and the resulting prevalence of a divided "we" in moral social groups. We argue that the social identity dynamics that arise can lead to competing obligations in a single group, and this has implications for the evolution of obligation.


Assuntos
Obrigações Morais , Princípios Morais , Identificação Social
10.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e86, 2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349820

RESUMO

Satisfying one's obligations is an important part of being human. However, people's obligations can often prescribe contradictory behaviors. Moral obligations conflict (loyalty vs. fairness), and so do obligations to different groups (country vs. family when one is called to war). We propose that a broader framework is needed to account for how people balance different social and moral obligations.


Assuntos
Obrigações Morais , Princípios Morais , Humanos
11.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e77, 2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349821

RESUMO

Tomasello provides compelling evidence that children understand that people are morally obligated toward members of their social group. We call for expanding the scope of inquiry to encompass the full developmental trajectory of humans' understanding of the relation between moral obligation, sociality, and stancetaking in interaction. We suggest that humans display a lifelong preoccupation with the sociality of moral obligation.


Assuntos
Obrigações Morais , Princípios Morais , Criança , Humanos
12.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e58, 2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349823

RESUMO

Tomasello strives to understand the underlying psychology behind the human sense of obligation, but he only addresses a specific kind of obligation: to other human beings. We argue that in order to account for the psychological underpinning of human behavior, one should also consider people's sense of commitment to non-human entities, such as ideals, values, and moral principles.


Assuntos
Ética Médica , Princípios Morais , Humanos , Masculino , Obrigações Morais
13.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e63, 2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349825

RESUMO

Is it particularly human to feel coerced into fulfilling moral obligations, or is it particularly human to enjoy them? I argue for the importance of taking into account how culture promotes prosocial behavior, discussing how Confucian heritage culture enhances the satisfaction of meeting one's obligations.


Assuntos
Obrigações Morais , Princípios Morais , Humanos , Recompensa
14.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e68, 2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349828

RESUMO

An adequate moral psychology of obligation must bear in mind that although the "sense of obligation" is psychological, what it is a sense of, moral obligation itself, is not. It is irreducibly normative. I argue, therefore, that the "we" whose demands the sense of obligation presupposes must be an ideal rather than an actual "we."


Assuntos
Obrigações Morais , Princípios Morais
15.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e66, 2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349849

RESUMO

Tomasello argues in the target article that a sense of moral obligation emerges from the creation of a collaborative "we" motivating us to fulfill our cooperative duties. We suggest that "we" takes many forms, entailing different obligations, depending on the type (and underlying functions) of the relationship(s) in question. We sketch a framework of such types, functions, and obligations to guide future research in our commentary.


Assuntos
Princípios Morais , Psicologia Social , Obrigações Morais , Resolução de Problemas
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32326618

RESUMO

To investigate the effect of villagers' moral obligation and village cadres' public leadership on villagers' collective action for epidemic prevention and control, against the background of the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emergency in China, we constructed models based on the institutional analysis and development (IAD) framework and employed principal component analysis (PCA) and ordered probit regression, drawing on survey data from 533 villagers in Henan province adjacent to the COVID-19 origin province, Hubei, China. The results indicate that: (1) generally, both moral obligation and public leadership as well as their constituent indicators contributed positively to collective action for COVID-19 prevention and control; (2) moreover, moral obligation and public leadership can strengthen each other's positive role in collective action for COVID-19 prevention and control. Based on the above findings, this paper suggests that villagers' moral obligation can be perfected through internalizing epidemic prevention and control norms into the villagers' moral norms by the way of villagers mastering the rural public health governance scheme. In addition, public leadership can be improved through professional training of village cadres and by motivating village elites to run for village cadres. With improved villagers' moral obligation and village cadres' public leadership, collective action for epidemic prevention and control could be more likely to be realized.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Coronavirus , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Liderança , Obrigações Morais , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Am J Bioeth ; 20(3): 79-81, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32116174
19.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 33(2): 203-210, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904696

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review analyzed legal and ethical issues surrounding recent doctor and healthcare worker (HCW) strikes and considered whether HCW strikes are legally and morally justifiable, underlying causes, and impact of such strikes on healthcare service delivery. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent reports show that doctor and HCW strikes are an ongoing phenomenon globally, occurring in both developed and developing countries. The main reasons for HCW strikes are failed employer-employee negotiations regarding fair wages and working conditions, policy issues, infrastructural deficiencies in poorer countries, and concerns by HCWs regarding personal security in the workplace. The main impact of HCW strikes is disruption of healthcare service delivery, such as canceled outpatients' appointments, hospital admissions, and elective surgeries. There was no clear evidence of increased patients' mortality during strikes, except in isolated cases, where emergency services were also withdrawn during strikes. SUMMARY: Doctors and HCWs strikes are lawful deadlock-breaking mechanisms when collective bargaining negotiations have reached an impasse. Doctors' strikes appear to create an ethical conflict with the Hippocratic tradition and obligation to place patients' best interests as the primary moral consideration in medical practice. However, the rise of consumerism in healthcare, and loss of power by doctors, many of whom now work as employees, subject to regulations imposed by different stakeholders, including governments, health-maintenance organizations, and healthcare insurers, has impacted on modern medical practice. Therefore, doctors, like other employees may occasionally resort to strikes to extract concessions from employers. Mortality is rarely increased during HCW strikes, especially where emergency healthcare services are provided.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Médicos , Greve/ética , Greve/legislação & jurisprudência , Ética Médica , Humanos , Obrigações Morais
20.
Recurso educacional aberto em Espanhol | CVSP - Argentina | ID: oer-3881

RESUMO

1º Jornada «Derecho a la Salud», organizada por el CVSP Nodo Argentina, la Sala de Derecho a la Salud del Colegio de Abogados de Córdoba y la Escuela de Salud Pública y Ambiente de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas–UNC. La misma se llevó a cabo el día 4 de diciembre del corriente año en el Salón Rojo de la Secretaría de Graduados en Ciencias de la Salud FCM-UNC. La jornada contó con la presencia de Profesionales de la Salud, Profesionales del Derecho, alumnos de postgrado de las Carreras de Ciencias Médicas, Derecho y Ciencias Sociales y público en general. Conferencia por el Prof. Dr. Eduardo Cuestas. Miembro del COEIS. Gobierno de la Provincia de Córdoba. Profesor de la Cátedra de Pediatría de la FCM de la UNC. Investigador Clínico del CONICET


Assuntos
Obrigações Morais , Pesquisa Biomédica/ética , Pesquisa em Sistemas de Saúde Pública/ética
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