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1.
Global Health ; 15(Suppl 1): 71, 2019 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of crowdfunding platforms to cover the costs of healthcare is growing rapidly within low-, middle-, and high-income countries as a new funding modality in global health. The popularity of such "medical crowdfunding" is fueled by health disparities and gaps in health coverage and social safety-net systems. Crowdfunding in its current manifestations can be seen as an antithesis to universal health coverage. But research on medical crowdfunding, particularly in global health contexts, has been sparse, and accessing robust data is difficult. To map and document how medical crowdfunding is shaped by, and shapes, health disparities, this article offers an exploratory conceptual and empirical analysis of medical crowdfunding platforms and practices around the world. Data are drawn from a mixed-methods analysis of medical crowdfunding campaigns, as well as an ongoing ethnographic study of crowdfunding platforms and the people who use them. RESULTS: Drawing on empirical data and case examples, this article describes three main ways that crowdfunding is impacting health equity and health politics around the world: 1) as a technological determinant of health, wherein data ownership, algorithms and platform politics influence health inequities; 2) as a commercial determinant of health, wherein corporate influence reshapes healthcare markets and health data; 3) and as a determinant of health politics, affecting how citizens view health rights and the future of health coverage. CONCLUSIONS: Rather than viewing crowdfunding as a social media fad or a purely beneficial technology, researchers and publics must recognize it as a complex innovation that is reshaping health systems, influencing health disparities, and shifting political norms, even as it introduces new ways of connecting and caring for those in the midst of health crises. More analysis, and better access to data, is needed to inform policy and address crowdfunding as a source of health disparities.


Assuntos
Crowdsourcing , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Obtenção de Fundos/métodos , Saúde Global , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Pesquisa Empírica , Humanos , Política , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Tecnologia
4.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 49(3): 183-191, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269627

RESUMO

At the dawn of the Republic of China, a group of doctors, educators, businessmen, officials, and the America returned Students in Tianjin jointly submitted a petition to American philanthropist for donation of a large-scale modern hospital. This petition, appended to a report to Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, has long been neglected by researchers. The memorandum may be informative to study local medical service at a transition period, and also helps understand the establishment and subsequent contribution of China Medical Board.


Assuntos
Obtenção de Fundos , Hospitais , Médicos , China , Humanos , Taiwan , Estados Unidos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252696

RESUMO

The sustainable development of the environment and society depends not only on firms' social responsibility initiatives, but also on employees' socially responsible behavior during their daily work life. Hence, it is important to study why and how employees go about the socially responsible behaviors (SRB), such as environmental protection and charitable donations. Although research has been done on the antecedents of employees' SRB from personal, contextual and leadership perspectives, little is known about the mechanism through which they affect these behaviors. Moreover, compared with the other two perspectives, research from the leadership perspective is relatively scarce. In this paper, we aim to fill these research gaps. Based on 936 respondents from 109 corporations, we empirically test the cross-level direct effect of ethical leadership on employees' SRB and the cross-level mediating effect of perceived organizational virtuousness. In our empirical analyses, we adopt statistical methodologies such as hierarchical linear modeling and multilevel mediation analysis. Our results show that perceived organizational virtuousness partly mediates the influence of ethical leadership on employees' environmental protection and charitable donation. In other words, ethical leadership enables employees to form the perception of organizational virtuousness, and therefore employees are more engaged in environmental protection and charitable donations. This research provides important insights for firms and their employees to become more socially and environmentally responsible.


Assuntos
Instituições de Caridade/estatística & dados numéricos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/estatística & dados numéricos , Obtenção de Fundos/estatística & dados numéricos , Liderança , Comportamento Social , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Pesquisa Empírica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Princípios Morais , Responsabilidade Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215805, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical crowdfunding is a growing phenomenon, and newspapers are publishing on the topic. This research analyzed how illness-related crowdfunding and crowdfunding campaigns have recently been represented in newspapers that are popular in the United States and Canada. METHODS: A sample of 336 articles about medical crowdfunding published during the two year time period from October 7, 2015 to October 6, 2017 was produced using a Factiva search of the English language newspapers with the largest Canadian and United States readership. A coding frame was developed for and applied to the sample to analyze content. RESULTS: Articles portrayed crowdfunding campaigns positively (43.75%) and neutrally (47.92%), but rarely negatively (4.76%). Articles mostly mentioned the crowdfunding phenomenon with a neutral characterization (93.75%). Few (8.63%) articles mentioned ethical issues with the phenomenon of crowdfunding. Ailments most commonly precipitating the need for a campaign included cancer (49.11%) and rare disease (as stated by the article, 36.01%). Most articles (83.04%) note where donations and contributions can be made, and 59.23% included a hyperlink to an online crowdfunding campaign website. Some articles (26.49%) mentioned a specific monetary goal for the fundraising campaign. Of the 70 (20.83%) articles that indicated the treatment sought may be inefficacious, was unproven, was experimental or lacked regulatory approval, 56 (80.00%) noted where contributions can be made and 36 (51.43%) hyperlinked directly to an online crowdfunding campaign. CONCLUSIONS: Crowdfunding campaigns are portrayed positively much more often than negatively, many articles promote campaigns for unproven therapies, and links directly to crowdfunding campaign webpages are present in most articles. Overall, crowdfunding is often either implicitly or explicitly endorsed.


Assuntos
Obtenção de Fundos/tendências , Internet , Meios de Comunicação de Massa/tendências , Transplante de Células-Tronco/tendências , Canadá/epidemiologia , Meios de Comunicação/tendências , Humanos , Marketing , Jornais como Assunto , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 104(4): 756-764, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885776

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To quantify the effects of opening a proton center (PC) on an academic medical center (AMC)/radiation oncology department. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Radiation treatment volume and relative value units from fiscal year 2015 (FY15) to FY17 were retrospectively analyzed at the AMC and 2 community-based centers. To quantify new patient referrals to the AMC, we reviewed the electronic medical record for all patients seen at the PC since consults were initiated in November 2015 (n = 1173). Patients were excluded if the date of entry into the AMC electronic medical record predated their PC consultation. Hospital resource use and professional and technical charges were obtained for these patients. Academic growth, philanthropy, and resident education were evaluated based on grant submissions, clinical trial enrollment, philanthropy, and pediatric case exposure, respectively, from PC opening through FY17. RESULTS: From FY15 to FY17, radiation fractions at the AMC and the 2 community sites decreased by 14% (95% confidence interval [CI], 12%-16%, P < .001) and increased by 19% (95% CI, 16%-23%, P < .001) and 2% (95% CI, -1.1 to 4.3%, P = NS), respectively; the number of new starts decreased by 3% (95% CI, -13% to 7%, P = NS) and 2% (95% CI, -20% to 16%, P = NS) and increased by 13% (95% CI -2% to 27%, P = NS), respectively. At the AMC, technical and professional relative value units decreased by 5% and 14%, respectively. The PC made 561 external referrals to the AMC, which resulted in $2.38 million technical and $2.13 million professional charges at the AMC. Fifteen grant submissions ($12.83 million) resulted in 6 awards ($3.26 million). Twenty-two clinical trials involving proton therapy were opened, on which a total of 5% (n = 54) of patients enrolled during calendar years 2017 and 2018. The PC was involved in gift donations of $1.6 million. There was a nonsignificant 37% increase in number of pediatric cases. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a slight decline in AMC photon patient volumes and relative value units, a positive downstream effect was associated with the addition of a PC, which benefited the AMC.


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Institutos de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros Comunitários de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Terapia com Prótons/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Institutos de Câncer/economia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros Comunitários de Saúde/economia , Intervalos de Confiança , Eficiência Organizacional , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Organização do Financiamento/economia , Organização do Financiamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Obtenção de Fundos/economia , Obtenção de Fundos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fótons/uso terapêutico , Terapia com Prótons/economia , Radioterapia (Especialidade)/economia , Radioterapia (Especialidade)/educação , Encaminhamento e Consulta/economia , Escalas de Valor Relativo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30634654

RESUMO

Green growth and environmental sustainability have become a significant focus in today's living. We believe that green crowdfunding project can make an important contribution to the creation and evaluation of environmental systems. This study aims to investigate the determinants of green crowdfunding project success. Contrary to the linear relationship in previous literature, we propose a non-liner decision model that includes three determinants, funds pledge, goal setting, and project duration to predict project success. The quantitative approach method was employed. We crawl data on 1389 green crowdfunding projects from Tencent Lejuan, a crowdfunding platform in China. By using ordinary least square method to conduct data analysis, we find that the effect of goal setting on project success is non-linear as low and moderate levels of goal setting are not always likely to have a significant impact on project success, but the presence of a higher goal is likely to exert a positive effect on project success. Moreover, results show that the effect of project duration on project success is non-linear as short and moderate levels of duration is not always certain to have significant impact on project success, but the presence of a long duration is likely to exert a positive effect on project success. This study has implications for fund-seekers for green crowdfunding projects and managers of crowdfunding platforms.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Crowdsourcing/métodos , Teoria da Decisão , Obtenção de Fundos/métodos , China , Humanos , Motivação , Fatores de Tempo
13.
15.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0208384, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30608943

RESUMO

Crowdfunding has gained traction as a mechanism to raise resources for entrepreneurial and artistic projects, yet there is little systematic evidence on the potential of crowdfunding for scientific research. We first briefly review prior research on crowdfunding and give an overview of dedicated platforms for crowdfunding research. We then analyze data from over 700 campaigns on the largest dedicated platform, Experiment.com. Our descriptive analysis provides insights regarding the creators seeking funding, the projects they are seeking funding for, and the campaigns themselves. We then examine how these characteristics relate to fundraising success. The findings highlight important differences between crowdfunding and traditional funding mechanisms for research, including high use by students and other junior investigators but also relatively small project size. Students and junior investigators are more likely to succeed than senior scientists, and women have higher success rates than men. Conventional signals of quality-including scientists' prior publications-have little relationship with funding success, suggesting that the crowd may apply different decision criteria than traditional funding agencies. Our results highlight significant opportunities for crowdfunding in the context of science while also pointing towards unique challenges. We relate our findings to research on the economics of science and on crowdfunding, and we discuss connections with other emerging mechanisms to involve the public in scientific research.


Assuntos
Crowdsourcing/economia , Obtenção de Fundos/economia , Pesquisa/economia , Autoria , Análise de Regressão
16.
Conserv Biol ; 33(1): 176-184, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29869438

RESUMO

Finding ways to increase financial support is critical to conservation efforts. We used conservation fundraising data, unprecedented in their resolution, to reveal spatial patterns in philanthropic giving to a major land protection organization in the United States. We also quantified the relationship between the amount of effort devoted to fundraising and donations received. Around 40% of the variation in the propensity to give and overall value of gifts was explained by sociodemographic and other predictors. For example, education level had greater predictive capacity than income, political views, and other factors often considered important. Fundraising effort was strongly predictive of the amount donated in an area. Our model estimated a doubling of funds raised with a 5-fold increase of effort. Conservation organizations could use our statistical framework to inform efforts aimed at increasing philanthropic giving by identifying locations with large model residuals. An example application of our framework showed an almost 40% increase (US$200 million) in fundraising revenue for the case-study conservation organization.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Obtenção de Fundos , Organizações , Estados Unidos
18.
J Am Acad Orthop Surg ; 27(1): e9-e16, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30320732

RESUMO

Despite the wealth of innovation in the orthopaedic sciences, few technologies translate to clinical use. By way of a 2-day symposium titled "AAOS/ORS Translating Orthopaedic Technologies into Clinical Practice: Pathways from Novel Idea to Improvements in Standard of Care Research Symposium," key components of successful commercialization strategies were identified as a passionate entrepreneur working on a concept aimed at improving patient outcomes and decreasing the cost and burden of disease; a de-risking strategy that has due recognition of the regulatory approval process and associated costs while maximizing the use of institutional, state, and federal resources; and a well thought-out and prepared legal plan and high quality, protected intellectual property. Challenges were identified as a lack of education on the scale-up and commercialization processes; few opportunities to network, get feedback, and obtain funding for early stage ideas; disconnect between the intellectual property and the business model; and poor adoption of new technologies caused in part by un-optimized clinical trials. By leveraging the network of professional orthopaedic societies, there exists an opportunity to create an enlightened community of musculoskeletal entrepreneurs who are positioned to develop and commercialize technologies and transform patient care.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Biomédica/organização & administração , Contrato de Risco/organização & administração , Ortopedia , Transferência de Tecnologia , Tecnologia Biomédica/economia , Tecnologia Biomédica/legislação & jurisprudência , Contrato de Risco/legislação & jurisprudência , Organização do Financiamento , Obtenção de Fundos , Humanos , Propriedade Intelectual , Mentores , Cultura Organizacional , Papel do Médico , Rede Social
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