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1.
Virology ; 555: 71-77, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454559

RESUMO

This review summarizes the presentations given at the 22nd International conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases in the Pacific Rim. The purpose of this annual meeting is to foster international collaborations and address important public health issues in the Asia-Pacific region. This meeting was held in Bangkok in February 2020 and focused on emerging virus infections. Unexpectedly, the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic was in the initial stages leading to a special session on COVID-19 in addition to talks on dengue, influenza, hepatitis, AIDS, Zika, chikungunya, rabies, cervical cancer and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Saúde Global , Cooperação Internacional , Ásia , Humanos , Japão , Oceania , Estados Unidos
2.
Food Chem ; 334: 127555, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711268

RESUMO

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of ruminant milk reported in published research papers (n = 65) from January 1995 to March 2020 around the world were analyzed to estimate the overall mean CLA value. The CLA content of ruminant milk samples was grouped according to geographical regions (Europe, South America, North America, Oceania, Asia, and Africa). The total CLA content of milk samples from cows, sheep, goats, yaks, and llama retrieved from the collected data ranged between 0.06 and 2.96% of total fatty acids. There is a wide variation of pooled estimated mean content of CLA in milk among the study regions and were highest in Oceania with 1.33% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16 - 1.49%) of total fatty acids. Though several factors have been reported to influence the CLA content of milk, the effect of the "geographical origin" was only considered in the present manuscript as one of the main factors in this respect.


Assuntos
Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/análise , Leite/química , África , Animais , Ásia , Bovinos , Europa (Continente) , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Cabras , América do Norte , Oceania , Ruminantes , Ovinos , América do Sul
3.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239635, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006998

RESUMO

To evaluate the overseas investment risks of enterprises and expand the application and development of deep learning methods in risk assessment, 15 national clusters are utilized as samples to analyze and discuss the overseas investment risk indicators of enterprises. First, based on the indicator system of overseas investment risks, five major types of investment risks are identified. Second, the Deep Neural Network (DNN) is introduced; a risk evaluation model is constructed for enterprise overseas investment. Finally, the investment attractiveness index in the Fraser risk assessment learning label is adopted as the evaluation results of the model. According to the classification of risks, the model is trained and its performance is tested. The results show that the major source of overseas investment risks includes basic resources, political systems, economic and financial development, and environmental protection. The corresponding risk score is high. North American country clusters and Oceanian country clusters have lower investment risks, while the investment risks in Africa, Latin America, and Asia are affected by multiple factors of the specific cities. This is closely related to the resources and legal systems possessed by the country clusters. This is of great significance for enterprises to conduct risk assessment in overseas investment.


Assuntos
Indústrias/economia , Investimentos em Saúde , Medição de Risco , África , América , Ásia , Aprendizado Profundo , Europa (Continente) , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Indústrias/estatística & dados numéricos , Investimentos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Oceania , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco
4.
J Cross Cult Gerontol ; 35(4): 455-478, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064233

RESUMO

Successful aging is a concept that has gained popularity and relevance internationally among gerontologists in recent decades. Examining lay older adults' perspectives on successful aging can enhance our understanding of what successful aging means. We conducted a systematic review of peer reviewed studies from multiple countries published in 2010-2020 that contained qualitative responses of lay older adults to open-ended questions such as "What does successful aging mean to you?" We identified 23 studies conducted in 13 countries across North America, Western Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and Oceania. We identified no studies meeting our criteria in Africa, South America, Eastern Europe, North Asia, or Pacific Islands. Across all regions represented in our review, older adults most commonly referred to themes of social engagement and positive attitude in their own lay definitions of successful aging. Older adults also commonly identified themes of independence and physical health. Least mentioned were themes of cognitive health and spirituality. Lay definitions of successful aging varied by country and culture. Our findings suggest that gerontology professionals in fields including healthcare, health psychology, and public health may best serve older adults by providing services that align with older adults' priority of maintaining strong social engagement as they age. Lay perspectives on successful aging acknowledge the importance of positive attitude, independence, and spirituality, in addition to physical and cognitive functioning.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/etnologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde/etnologia , Comparação Transcultural , Envelhecimento Saudável/etnologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ásia , Cognição , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Geriatria , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Oriente Médio , América do Norte , Oceania , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Apoio Social , Espiritualidade
5.
Zootaxa ; 4810(3): zootaxa.4810.3.1, 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055729

RESUMO

The region from New Guinea through Oceania sustains the world's most diverse set of columbids. We describe osteological characters of the hindlimb (femur, tibiotarsus, tarsometatarsus) that divide the Papuan-Oceanic pigeons and doves into three groups based on functional morphology: "arboreal" (Hemiphaga, Ducula, Ptilinopus, Drepanoptila, Gymnophaps), "intermediate" (Columba, Macropygia, Reinwardtoena), and "terrestrial" (Gallicolumba [includes Alopecoenas], Trugon, Microgoura, Goura, Chalcophaps, Geopelia, Henicophaps, Caloenas, Didunculus, Otidiphaps). The arboreal and terrestrial groups are each distinctive osteologically, especially in the tibiotarsus and tarsometatarsus, which are short relative to the femur in the arboreal group, and long relative to the femur in the terrestrial group. The intermediate pigeons are more similar to arboreal than to terrestrial pigeons, but nonetheless fit in neither group. To estimate the phylogenetic relationships among or within these three groups is somewhat tentative using hindlimb osteology alone, although all five genera of arboreal pigeons have independent molecular evidence of relatedness, as do most of the genera of terrestrial pigeons.                Using the hindlimb and other osteological data as a framework, we describe a new extinct genus and species of pigeon, Tongoenas burleyi, from Holocene archaeological and Pleistocene paleontological sites on six islands (Foa, Lifuka, `Uiha, Ha`afeva, Tongatapu, and `Eua) in the Kingdom of Tonga. Tongoenas was a large-sized member of the "arboreal" pigeon group, with osteological characters that relate it to Ducula, Gymnophaps, and Hemiphaga (generally canopy frugivores) rather than with the "terrestrial" pigeons (more ground-dwelling and granivorous) such as Gallicolumba, Trugon, Microgoura, Goura, etc. (others listed above). Among volant columbids, living or extinct, only the species of Goura (from New Guinea) are larger than Tongoenas. From most of the same prehistoric sites, we also report new material of the nearly as large, extinct pigeon Ducula shutleri Worthy Burley, recently described from islands in the Vava`u Group of Tonga. Thus, D. shutleri also was widespread in Tonga before human impact. The prehistoric anthropogenic loss in Tonga of Tongoenas burleyi, Ducula shutleri, and other columbids undoubtedly had a negative impact on the dispersal regimes of Tongan forest trees. At first human contact about 2850 years ago, at least nine species of columbids in six genera inhabited the Tongan islands, where only four species in three genera exist today.


Assuntos
Columbidae , Osteologia , Animais , Membro Posterior , Humanos , Oceania , Filogenia , Tonga
6.
Virology ; 550: 70-77, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890979

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an emergent RNA virus that spread around the planet in about 4 months. The consequences of this rapid dispersion are under investigation. In this work, we analyzed thousands of genomes and protein sequences from Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania. We provide statistically significant evidence that SARS-CoV-2 phylogeny is spatially structured. Remarkably, the virus phylogeographic patterns were correlated with ancestral amino acidic substitutions, suggesting that such mutations emerged along colonization events. We hypothesize that geographic structuring is the result of founder effects occurring as a consequence of, and local evolution occurring after, long-distance dispersion. Based on previous studies, the possibility that this could significantly affect the virus biology is not remote.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , África/epidemiologia , América/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Evolução Molecular , Humanos , Oceania/epidemiologia , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Pandemias , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Proteínas Virais/genética
8.
Nat Rev Genet ; 21(9): 509, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690946
9.
J Crit Care ; 59: 70-75, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570052

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To survey healthcare workers (HCW) on availability and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) caring for COVID-19 patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). MATERIALS AND METHOD: A web-based survey distributed worldwide in April 2020. RESULTS: We received 2711 responses from 1797 (67%) physicians, 744 (27%) nurses, and 170 (6%) Allied HCW. For routine care, most (1557, 58%) reportedly used FFP2/N95 masks, waterproof long sleeve gowns (1623; 67%), and face shields/visors (1574; 62%). Powered Air-Purifying Respirators were used routinely and for intubation only by 184 (7%) and 254 (13%) respondents, respectively. Surgical masks were used for routine care by 289 (15%) and 47 (2%) for intubations. At least one piece of standard PPE was unavailable for 1402 (52%), and 817 (30%) reported reusing single-use PPE. PPE was worn for a median of 4 h (IQR 2, 5). Adverse effects of PPE were associated with longer shift durations and included heat (1266, 51%), thirst (1174, 47%), pressure areas (1088, 44%), headaches (696, 28%), Inability to use the bathroom (661, 27%) and extreme exhaustion (492, 20%). CONCLUSIONS: HCWs reported widespread shortages, frequent reuse of, and adverse effects related to PPE. Urgent action by healthcare administrators, policymakers, governments and industry is warranted.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pessoal de Saúde , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Trabalhador , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adulto , África , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde , Ásia , Betacoronavirus , Europa (Continente) , Dispositivos de Proteção dos Olhos , Feminino , Luvas Protetoras , Cefaleia/etiologia , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Máscaras/efeitos adversos , Máscaras/provisão & distribução , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Oceania , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/efeitos adversos , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal , Médicos , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória/efeitos adversos , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória/provisão & distribução , América do Sul , Vestimenta Cirúrgica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sede
10.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 179, 2020 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 is a RNA coronavirus responsible for the pandemic of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (COVID-19). RNA viruses are characterized by a high mutation rate, up to a million times higher than that of their hosts. Virus mutagenic capability depends upon several factors, including the fidelity of viral enzymes that replicate nucleic acids, as SARS-CoV-2 RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Mutation rate drives viral evolution and genome variability, thereby enabling viruses to escape host immunity and to develop drug resistance. METHODS: We analyzed 220 genomic sequences from the GISAID database derived from patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 worldwide from December 2019 to mid-March 2020. SARS-CoV-2 reference genome was obtained from the GenBank database. Genomes alignment was performed using Clustal Omega. Mann-Whitney and Fisher-Exact tests were used to assess statistical significance. RESULTS: We characterized 8 novel recurrent mutations of SARS-CoV-2, located at positions 1397, 2891, 14408, 17746, 17857, 18060, 23403 and 28881. Mutations in 2891, 3036, 14408, 23403 and 28881 positions are predominantly observed in Europe, whereas those located at positions 17746, 17857 and 18060 are exclusively present in North America. We noticed for the first time a silent mutation in RdRp gene in England (UK) on February 9th, 2020 while a different mutation in RdRp changing its amino acid composition emerged on February 20th, 2020 in Italy (Lombardy). Viruses with RdRp mutation have a median of 3 point mutations [range: 2-5], otherwise they have a median of 1 mutation [range: 0-3] (p value < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the virus is evolving and European, North American and Asian strains might coexist, each of them characterized by a different mutation pattern. The contribution of the mutated RdRp to this phenomenon needs to be investigated. To date, several drugs targeting RdRp enzymes are being employed for SARS-CoV-2 infection treatment. Some of them have a predicted binding moiety in a SARS-CoV-2 RdRp hydrophobic cleft, which is adjacent to the 14408 mutation we identified. Consequently, it is important to study and characterize SARS-CoV-2 RdRp mutation in order to assess possible drug-resistance viral phenotypes. It is also important to recognize whether the presence of some mutations might correlate with different SARS-CoV-2 mortality rates.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Viral/genética , Mutação , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , /genética , Adulto , Ásia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Mutação , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Oceania/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , /metabolismo
11.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231201, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging studies have found inconsistent results on the potential relationship between cigarette smoking and dysmenorrhea. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantitatively synthesize the previous findings on the preceding relationship using meta-analysis. METHODS: Previous studies on the association between cigarette smoking and dysmenorrhea, published not later than November 2019, were systematically searched, using MeSH heading and/or relevant terms, in the electronic databases of PubMed, Medline, Web of Science and EMBASE. The I2 statistic was used to assess heterogeneity, whose source was explored using subgroup analysis. A pooled effect size was obtained using random effects model, and sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the consistency of the pooled effect size. RESULTS: After a rigorous screening process, 24 studies involving 27,091 participants were included in this meta-analysis. The results indicated that smokers were 1.45 times more likely to develop dysmenorrhea than non-smokers (odds ratio (OR) = 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30-1.61). In addition, individuals classified as currently smoking were 1.50 times more likely to develop dysmenorrhea than those who were classified as never smoking (OR = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.33-1.70), whereas being a former smoker was 1.31 times more likely to develop dysmenorrhea than being a never smoker (OR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.18-1.46). Sensitivity analysis showed that exclusion of any single study did not materially alter the overall combined effect. CONCLUSION: The evidence from this meta-analysis indicated a significant association between cigarette smoking (both current and former smoking) and dysmenorrhea. The adverse effects of smoking provide further support for prevention of dysmenorrhea and emphasize the need to target women.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Dismenorreia/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Ásia/epidemiologia , Criança , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Oceania/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Adulto Jovem
12.
Sci Adv ; 6(13): eaay4573, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232149

RESUMO

The emergence of agriculture was one of the most notable behavioral transformations in human history, driving innovations in technologies and settlement globally, referred to as the Neolithic. Wetland agriculture originated in the New Guinea highlands during the mid-Holocene (8000 to 4000 years ago), yet it is unclear if there was associated behavioral change. Here, we report the earliest figurative stone carving and formally manufactured pestles in Oceania, dating to 5050 to 4200 years ago. These discoveries, at the highland site of Waim, occur with the earliest planilateral axe-adzes in New Guinea, the first evidence for fibercraft, and interisland obsidian transfer. The combination of symbolic social systems, complex technologies, and highland agricultural intensification supports an independent emergence of a Neolithic ~1000 years before the arrival of Neolithic migrants (Lapita) from Southeast Asia.


Assuntos
Agricultura/história , Agricultura/métodos , Geografia , História Antiga , Humanos , Invenções , Nova Guiné , Oceania , Dinâmica Populacional , Datação Radiométrica , Solo/química
13.
Science ; 367(6484)2020 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193295

RESUMO

Genome sequences from diverse human groups are needed to understand the structure of genetic variation in our species and the history of, and relationships between, different populations. We present 929 high-coverage genome sequences from 54 diverse human populations, 26 of which are physically phased using linked-read sequencing. Analyses of these genomes reveal an excess of previously undocumented common genetic variation private to southern Africa, central Africa, Oceania, and the Americas, but an absence of such variants fixed between major geographical regions. We also find deep and gradual population separations within Africa, contrasting population size histories between hunter-gatherer and agriculturalist groups in the past 10,000 years, and a contrast between single Neanderthal but multiple Denisovan source populations contributing to present-day human populations.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Genoma Humano , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , África , América , Animais , Ásia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Haplótipos , Hominidae/genética , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Homem de Neandertal/genética , Oceania , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Densidade Demográfica
14.
J Dent ; 95: 103309, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119966

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the current arrangements and trends in the teaching of removable partial dentures (RPDs) in dental schools in Oceania. METHODS: A validated and trialled 30-item electronic survey was sent via e-mail to 12 dental schools in Oceania that offered undergraduate dentistry. The survey explored various aspects of the teaching of RPDs in preclinical and clinical courses including: educational content and process, staff members involved, facilities and techniques utilized, clinical requirements, coursework evaluation and perceived challenges to RPD teaching. RESULTS: The response rate of the survey was 75 % (n = 9). All respondent schools taught a preclinical course in RPD design and production, with the majority (67 %) starting the clinical provision of RPD patients in Year 3. The mean duration of the course was 63 h for hands-on activities and 23 h for didactic teaching. The courses were mainly taught by senior lecturers. On average, students made four units of acrylic RPD and two cobalt-chromium RPDs during the course. All respondent schools taught prescription writing for RPD. The majority of schools (n = 8) stated that they had an adequate patient pool for students to treat. Lack of adequately trained staff for teaching and pressure on teaching time from other sources were the most commonly reported challenges. CONCLUSION: The structure and content of RPD courses in dental schools of Oceania provide an adequate level of competence on the subject, and is broadly similar to other parts of the world. Plans should be in place to maintain and improve the quality of educational programmes to keep pace with growing student numbers and the rapidly evolving profession. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: With increasing numbers of patients presenting to general dental practitioners requiring complex RPDs, it is paramount that undergraduate training programs produce graduates with the competencies necessary to care for such patients to a high standard.


Assuntos
Prótese Parcial Removível , Faculdades de Odontologia , Currículo , Odontólogos , Educação em Odontologia , Humanos , Oceania , Papel Profissional , Prostodontia , Ensino
15.
Lancet ; 395(10225): 709-733, 2020 02 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health system planning requires careful assessment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) epidemiology, but data for morbidity and mortality of this disease are scarce or non-existent in many countries. We estimated the global, regional, and national burden of CKD, as well as the burden of cardiovascular disease and gout attributable to impaired kidney function, for the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017. We use the term CKD to refer to the morbidity and mortality that can be directly attributed to all stages of CKD, and we use the term impaired kidney function to refer to the additional risk of CKD from cardiovascular disease and gout. METHODS: The main data sources we used were published literature, vital registration systems, end-stage kidney disease registries, and household surveys. Estimates of CKD burden were produced using a Cause of Death Ensemble model and a Bayesian meta-regression analytical tool, and included incidence, prevalence, years lived with disability, mortality, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). A comparative risk assessment approach was used to estimate the proportion of cardiovascular diseases and gout burden attributable to impaired kidney function. FINDINGS: Globally, in 2017, 1·2 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 1·2 to 1·3) people died from CKD. The global all-age mortality rate from CKD increased 41·5% (95% UI 35·2 to 46·5) between 1990 and 2017, although there was no significant change in the age-standardised mortality rate (2·8%, -1·5 to 6·3). In 2017, 697·5 million (95% UI 649·2 to 752·0) cases of all-stage CKD were recorded, for a global prevalence of 9·1% (8·5 to 9·8). The global all-age prevalence of CKD increased 29·3% (95% UI 26·4 to 32·6) since 1990, whereas the age-standardised prevalence remained stable (1·2%, -1·1 to 3·5). CKD resulted in 35·8 million (95% UI 33·7 to 38·0) DALYs in 2017, with diabetic nephropathy accounting for almost a third of DALYs. Most of the burden of CKD was concentrated in the three lowest quintiles of Socio-demographic Index (SDI). In several regions, particularly Oceania, sub-Saharan Africa, and Latin America, the burden of CKD was much higher than expected for the level of development, whereas the disease burden in western, eastern, and central sub-Saharan Africa, east Asia, south Asia, central and eastern Europe, Australasia, and western Europe was lower than expected. 1·4 million (95% UI 1·2 to 1·6) cardiovascular disease-related deaths and 25·3 million (22·2 to 28·9) cardiovascular disease DALYs were attributable to impaired kidney function. INTERPRETATION: Kidney disease has a major effect on global health, both as a direct cause of global morbidity and mortality and as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. CKD is largely preventable and treatable and deserves greater attention in global health policy decision making, particularly in locations with low and middle SDI. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Carga Global da Doença , Gota/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , África/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Australásia/epidemiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Causas de Morte , Nefropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Gota/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Incidência , América Latina/epidemiologia , Mortalidade , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Oceania/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Sistema de Registros , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Medição de Risco
16.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(5): 489-495, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959924

RESUMO

Remote Oceania, which largely consists of islands covered in tropical forests, was the last region on earth to be successfully colonized by humans, beginning 3,000 years ago. We examined human dental calculus from burials in an ancient Lapita culture cemetery to gain insight into the early settlement of this previously untouched tropical environment, specifically on the island of Efate in Vanuatu. Dental calculus is an ideal material to analyse questions of human and plant interactions due to the ingestion of plant-derived microparticles that become incorporated into the calculus as it forms throughout a person's life. Most of the microparticles identified here are from tree and shrub resources, including a ~2,900 calibrated (cal) BP example of banana in Remote Oceania, providing direct evidence for the importance of forests and arboriculture during the settlement of Remote Oceania.


Assuntos
Cálculos Dentários/química , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/história , Floresta Úmida , Fósseis , História Antiga , Humanos , Oceania , Plantas , Vanuatu
17.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 39, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Of all lifestyle behaviours, smoking caused the most deaths in the last century. Because of the time lag between the act of smoking and dying from smoking, and because males generally take up smoking before females do, male and female smoking epidemiology often follows a typical double wave pattern dubbed the 'smoking epidemic'. How are male and female deaths from this epidemic differentially progressing in high-income regions on a cohort-by-age basis? How have they affected male-female survival differences? METHODS: We used data for the period 1950-2015 from the WHO Mortality Database and the Human Mortality Database on three geographic regions that have progressed most into the smoking epidemic: high-income North America, high-income Europe and high-income Oceania. We examined changes in smoking-attributable mortality fractions as estimated by the Preston-Glei-Wilmoth method by age (ages 50-85) across birth cohorts 1870-1965. We used these to trace sex differences with and without smoking-attributable mortality in period life expectancy between ages 50 and 85. RESULTS: In all three high-income regions, smoking explained up to 50% of sex differences in period life expectancy between ages 50 and 85 over the study period. These sex differences have declined since at least 1980, driven by smoking-attributable mortality, which tended to decline in males and increase in females overall. Thus, there was a convergence between sexes across recent cohorts. While smoking-attributable mortality was still increasing for older female cohorts, it was declining for females in the more recent cohorts in the US and Europe, as well as for males in all three regions. CONCLUSIONS: The smoking epidemic contributed substantially to the male-female survival gap and to the recent narrowing of that gap in high-income North America, high-income Europe and high-income Oceania. The precipitous decline in smoking-attributable mortality in recent cohorts bodes somewhat hopeful. Yet, smoking-attributable mortality remains high, and therefore cause for concern.


Assuntos
Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Epidemias , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Fumar/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Oceania/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Sexo , Fumar/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida
18.
Brain Dev ; 42(3): 277-288, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies on clinical practice for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) have been conducted in Western countries. However, there have been only a few similar studies in Asia and Oceania. Here, we investigate the steroid therapy-related clinical practice for DMD among the local experts. In 2015, we conducted a DMD expert survey in Asia and Oceania to acquire information regarding patients with DMD and to assess current clinical practice with the cooperation of Asian and Oceanian Myology Centre, a neuromuscular disease research network. RESULTS: We obtained survey responses from 87 out of 148 clinicians (62%) from 13 countries and regions. In China, 1385 DMD patients were followed-up by 5 respondent neurologists, and 84% were between 0 and 9 years of age (15% were 10-19 years, 1% > 19 years). While in Japan, 1032 patients were followed-up by 20 clinicians, and the age distribution was similar between the 3 groups (27% were 0-9 years, 35% were 10-19 years, 38% were >19 years). Most respondent clinicians (91%) were aware of DMD standard of care recommendations. Daily prednisolone/prednisone administration was used most frequently at initiation (N = 45, 64%). Inconsistent opinion on steroid therapy after loss of ambulation and medication for bone protection was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Rare disease research infrastructures have been underdeveloped in many of Asian and Oceanian countries. In this situation, our results show the snapshots of current medical situation and clinical practice in DMD. For further epidemiological studies, expansion of DMD registries is necessary.


Assuntos
Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/tratamento farmacológico , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Japão , Masculino , Oceania , Sociedades Médicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Neurourol Urodyn ; 39(2): 826-832, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985854

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is a large amount of intra and inter observer variability in defining curve shapes. This study aims to evaluate inter and intra rater reliability (RR) on evaluating uroflow curves in a broad spectrum of international practitioners. METHODS: Eight hundred sixty-four questionnaires were sent by email to health professionals that care for children with voiding dysfunction. It included demographic questions and 11 different uroflow curves and two duplicates. RESULTS: Four hundred forty-one emails were opened and 29.5% of those responded. Seventy percent of responders were physicians, including 46% pediatric urologists. Europe, South America, North America, Oceania, and Asia represented respondents. For the repeated bell smooth curve the intra rater agreement was 82.1% utilizing the International Children's Continence Society (ICCS) classification and 92.3% for the shape of the curve (bell, plateau, and tower [BPT]) (P = .04). For the repeated interrupted plateau curve it was 69.5% and 97.5% for ICCS and for the continuity of the curve (smooth or fractionated [SF]) classifications, respectively (P < .001). The curves were then divided into two groups for evaluation of inter RR. For the set of seven smooth curves, the inter RR was low in all classifications with α = .282, .497, and .242 for ICCS, SF, and BPT, respectively. The group of six fractionated curves showed a slightly better agreement with α = .533, .404, and .662 for ICCS, SF, and BPT, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest study looking at inter and intra RR of uroflows in a disparate population of readers. It was evident from our findings that inter RR was poor and additionally intra RR was equally poor, indicating the unreliability of uroflow shapes to be used for research purposes.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Diagnóstico Urológico , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Pediatras , Cirurgiões , Transtornos Urinários/diagnóstico , Urodinâmica , Urologistas , Ásia , Criança , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Nefrologistas , América do Norte , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Oceania , Fisioterapeutas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Pesquisadores , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Mol Biol Evol ; 37(2): 442-454, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593241

RESUMO

JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) is one of the most prevalent human viruses. Findings based on the geographic distribution of viral subtypes suggested that JCPyV codiverged with human populations. This view was however challenged by data reporting a much more recent origin and expansion of JCPyV. We collected information on ∼1,100 worldwide strains and we show that their geographic distribution roughly corresponds to major human migratory routes. Bayesian phylogeographic analysis inferred a Subsaharan origin for JCPyV, although with low posterior probability. High confidence inference at internal nodes provided strong support for a long-standing association between the virus and human populations. In line with these data, pairwise FST values for JCPyV and human mtDNA sampled from the same areas showed a positive and significant correlation. Likewise, very strong relationships were found when node ages in the JCPyV phylogeny were correlated with human population genetic distances (nuclear-marker based FST). Reconciliation analysis detected a significant cophylogenetic signal for the human population and JCPyV trees. Notably, JCPyV also traced some relatively recent migration events such as the expansion of people from the Philippines/Taiwan area into Remote Oceania, the gene flow between North-Eastern Siberian and Ainus, and the Koryak contribution to Circum-Arctic Americans. Finally, different molecular dating approaches dated the origin of JCPyV in a time frame that precedes human out-of-Africa migration. Thus, JCPyV infected early human populations and accompanied our species during worldwide dispersal. JCPyV typing can provide reliable geographic information and the virus most likely adapted to the genetic background of human populations.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA Viral/genética , Vírus JC/classificação , Infecções por Polyomavirus/genética , Regiões Antárticas , Teorema de Bayes , Evolução Molecular , Fluxo Gênico , Migração Humana , Humanos , Vírus JC/genética , Oceania , Filipinas , Filogeografia , Infecções por Polyomavirus/virologia , Taiwan
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