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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 556, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992707

RESUMO

Rivers are a major supplier of particulate and dissolved material to the ocean, but their role as sources of bio-essential dissolved iron (dFe) is thought to be limited due to rapid, efficient Fe removal during estuarine mixing. Here, we use trace element and radium isotope data to show that the influence of the Congo River margin on surface Fe concentrations is evident over 1000 km from the Congo outflow. Due to an unusual combination of high Fe input into the Congo-shelf-zone and rapid lateral transport, the Congo plume constitutes an exceptionally large offshore dFe flux of 6.8 ± 2.3 × 108 mol year-1. This corresponds to 40 ± 15% of atmospheric dFe input into the South Atlantic Ocean and makes a higher contribution to offshore Fe availability than any other river globally. The Congo River therefore contributes significantly to relieving Fe limitation of phytoplankton growth across much of the South Atlantic.


Assuntos
Compostos de Ferro/análise , Ferro/análise , Rios/química , Água do Mar/química , Oceano Atlântico , Congo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Oceanos e Mares , Fitoplâncton/metabolismo , Radioisótopos/análise , Rádio (Elemento)/análise , Oligoelementos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113389, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685327

RESUMO

The boreoatlantic gonate squid (Gonatus fabricii) represents important prey for top predators-such as marine mammals, seabirds and fish-and is also an efficient predator of crustaceans and fish. Gonatus fabricii is the most abundant cephalopod in the northern Atlantic and Arctic Ocean but the trace element accumulation of this ecologically important species is unknown. In this study, trace element concentrations (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn) were analysed from the mantle muscle and the digestive gland tissue of juveniles, adult females, and adult males that were captured south of Disko Island off West-Greenland. To assess the feeding habitat and trophic position of this species, stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) were measured in their muscle tissue. Mercury concentrations were positively correlated with size (mantle length) and trophic position. The Hg/Se ratio was assessed because Se has been suggested to play a protective role against Hg toxicity and showed a molar surplus of Se relative to Hg. Cadmium concentrations in the digestive gland were negatively correlated with size and trophic position (δ15N), which suggested a dietary shift from Cd-rich crustaceans towards Cd-poor fish during ontogeny. This study provides trace element concentration data for G. fabricii from Greenlandic waters, which represents baseline data for a northern cephalopod species. Within West-Greenland waters, G. fabricii appears to be an important vector for the transfer of Cd in the Arctic pelagic food web.


Assuntos
Bioacumulação , Decapodiformes/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Oceano Atlântico , Clima Frio , Ecossistema , Feminino , Cadeia Alimentar , Masculino , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
3.
Parasitol Int ; 74: 101976, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513918

RESUMO

Species in the genus Notocotylus (Trematoda, Notocotylidae) are cosmopolitan parasites of mainly aquatic birds and, to a lesser extent, mammals. In this paper we describe Notocotylus primulus n. sp. parasitizing the Crested Duck, Lophonetta specularioides, from the Patagonian coast, southwestern Atlantic Ocean, based on morphological and molecular data. The new species could be distinguished from its congeners by the combination of several features; among them, the position of the genital pore that is prebifurcal and located close to the posterior margin of the oral sucker, a greater number of both ventral papillae and uterine loops, and a large cirrus sac. Molecular results of the ITS2 sequence support the location of this new species in the genus Notocotylus due to a close relationship with Notocotylus malhamensis (the lower genetic distance of the ITS2 sequences).


Assuntos
Patos/parasitologia , Filogenia , Trematódeos/anatomia & histologia , Trematódeos/classificação , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , DNA Intergênico/genética , Feminino , Genitália/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética
4.
J Environ Radioact ; 212: 106129, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885364

RESUMO

Between October 2017 and May 2019, measurements of tritium in rainwater were carried out at several sites in north-west France. Tritium is an important tracer for hydroclimatic studies and this work provided up-to-date data that we compared with Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) measurements. Of the various sites studied, some could potentially be affected by atmospheric gaseous emissions from the nuclear industries in the region (reprocessing plant, nuclear power plant). On our reference site, the activities measured in rainwater are often below the decision threshold (<0.15 Bq.L-1). Two other sites with little impact from nuclear industries have mean activities of less than 0.7 Bq.L-1. At the two Cherbourg sites closer to the nuclear industries, the activities in rainwater are slightly higher on average, though still close to 1 Bq.L-1, but the activities are more variable when the rainfall accompanies an air mass from the Orano La Hague nuclear site. Using existing GNIP data and a simple model to simulate predicted data up to 2019, it is shown that all our measured data are comparable with the predicted activities for GNIP stations with a marine influence, in the case of the reference site and the sites with little impact from nuclear industries, and for GNIP stations with a continental influence, in the case of the other sites. Seasonal variation in activities was detected, with greater activities in the spring-summer period corresponding to the well known 'spring leak' phenomenon. This study also reveals significant differences between the activities measured on the western side of France (influenced by the Atlantic Ocean) and those measured in a continental zone. The mean levels of tritium in rainwater in France, excluding any nuclear influence, can be estimated on average at less than 0.3 Bq.L-1 in the western marine zone, and at around 1 Bq.L-1 in the continental zones.


Assuntos
Monitoramento de Radiação , Poluentes Radioativos do Ar , Oceano Atlântico , França , Trítio
5.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 143: 228-241, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789158

RESUMO

The marine macroflora of the ports of Le Havre and Antifer have been studied by citizen scientists since the late 1970s. In addition to analysis of the previous results, the field study was extended from 2010 to 2018. A total of 97 and 62 macroalgae were identified, respectively, including 14 NIS (non-indigenous species), the latter number being certainly an underestimate since microscopic species were not exhaustively sought and given the high number of cryptogenic species encountered. No new primary introduction of NIS for the NE Atlantic has been detected since the late 1970s. The origin of NIS and vector(s) of introduction were investigated. For all NIS, the donor region is the Indo-Pacific. Two likely vectors have been identified: maritime traffic for earlier introductions, and shellfish imports for more recent ones. The role of these ports and maritime traffic in the processes of introduction is discussed.


Assuntos
Espécies Introduzidas , Alga Marinha , Oceano Atlântico , Monitoramento Ambiental , França , Oceano Pacífico
6.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 143: 6-11, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789167

RESUMO

In a context where the problem of plastic pollution is globally increasing, more studies are needed to assess the real impact in oceanic megafauna. Here, we reported on the incidence of plastic and also retained hooks in two species of commercially exploited pelagic sharks in two ocean basins, the North Atlantic and South Pacific. In the South Pacific, 1.18% of caught blue sharks were observed with plastic debris on their body and 4.82% and with retained hooks, while 0.00% of shortfin makos had plastic debris and 1.76% were recorded with retained hooks. In the North Atlantic, 0.21% of blue sharks had plastic debris and 0.37% of blue, and 0.78% of shortfin makos were observed with retained hooks.


Assuntos
Plásticos/análise , Tubarões , Resíduos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Masculino , Oceano Pacífico , Tubarões/lesões
7.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 143: 81-91, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789170

RESUMO

The Atlantic Goliath Grouper Epinephelus itajara is currently a protected species in the southeastern United States waters of the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico and is considered vulnerable throughout its geographic range. In this study, I evaluated mercury concentrations in their tissues (muscle, liver), which revealed high concentrations (µg/g ww) of mercury (mean ±â€¯SE) in liver (6.18 ±â€¯0.86) and muscle (1.12 ±â€¯0.06) tissue that increased with size and age. Mercury concentrations were highest in fish caught off Florida's Atlantic coast, but varied on a finer regional scale. Mercury concentrations in muscle tissue were generally greater near urbanized areas with known mercury sources and environmental conditions appropriate for higher methylation rates. This suggests that management should consider improving the water quality in these areas to reduce the risk of health effects to human consumers and to the fish themselves.


Assuntos
Mercúrio/análise , Perciformes , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Fatores Etários , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Tamanho Corporal , Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Florida , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Golfo do México , Humanos , Fígado/química , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Músculos/química , Urbanização
8.
BMC Ecol ; 19(1): 49, 2019 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We analyse the distribution of Gastropods and Chitons from shallow to deep waters along the southwestern Atlantic Ocean off Argentina and discuss possible factors determining the observed biogeographic patterns. RESULTS: Three major biogeographic groups are defined on the basis of Gastropod and Chiton species associations, i.e., continental shelf (< 350 m), upper continental slope (> 350-2000 m) and lower continental slope (2000-3000 m). Bathymetry appears as the main factor modifying large-scale distribution of the fauna at a. In this scenario, species associations are determined by marine currents that clearly occur at a particular and well defined depth. No arrangement of species by geographic location was found in assemblages from the continental shelf and upper continental slope. CONCLUSIONS: We hypothesize that depth and marine currents are the main factor affecting the distribution of Gastropods and Chitons along the SW Atlantic between 200 and 3000 m depth.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Moluscos , Animais , Oceano Atlântico
9.
Zootaxa ; 4679(2): zootaxa.4679.2.2, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715957

RESUMO

The viviparous genus Barathronus Goode Bean, 1886 is known from 11 species. Examination of 68 specimens, not earlier published upon, and re-examination of older material have resulted in taxonomical changes and new distributions. B. unicolor Nielsen, 1984 has become a junior synonym of B. pacificus Nielsen Eagle, 1974, now known from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The number of specimens of B. parfaiti Vaillant, 1888 is restricted to the holotype and a specimen from off the Azores (MOM P01-0003665), often referred to B. parfaiti, represents a new species, B. roulei, herein described. B. diaphanus Brauer, 1906 is now recorded from off Madagascar eastwards to Tonga and Fiji Islands.


Assuntos
Peixes , Animais , Oceano Atlântico
10.
Zootaxa ; 4671(4): zootaxa.4671.4.2, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716030

RESUMO

The genus Clathria Schmidt, 1862 is the richest genus of the family Microcionidae, but only 20 species have been recorded from Brazil until now. Clathria (Axosuberites) Topsent, 1893 is characterized by having digitate, whip-like, arborescent and flabellate growth forms, lacking echinating spicules, well differentiated axial and extra-axial skeleton, styles and/or subtylostyles as principal spicules, and microscleres palmate isochelae and toxas. The subgenus contains 19 valid species, with worldwide distribution predominantly in shallow waters. Six species occur in the Atlantic Ocean and two of them are recorded from the Western Atlantic in South America: Clathria (Axosuberites) riosae Van Soest, 2017, and Clathria (Axosuberites) marplatensis (Cuartas, 1992). Specimens analyzed in this study were collected in 2015 at Mamanguape estuary, Paraíba State, and in 2017 at Tutóia beach, Maranhão State. Here we described two new species of Clathria (Axosuberites) for the first time in Brazilian waters: Clathria (Axosuberites) aurantia n. sp. and Clathria (Axosuberites) hillenburgi n. sp.


Assuntos
Poríferos , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Tamanho Corporal , Brasil
11.
Zootaxa ; 4624(1): zootaxa.4624.1.1, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716233

RESUMO

The snapping shrimp Alpheus macrocheles (Hailstone, 1835b) is widely distributed across the Atlantic Ocean and was originally described from Hastings, England, based on a very brief description with limited morphological details and diagnostic illustrations. The morphologically similar A. amblyonyx Chace, 1972, type locality Quintana Roo, Mexico, is a western Atlantic taxon. The superficial description of A. macrocheles by Hailstone and the high similarity with A. amblyonyx has led to taxonomic confusion regarding the precise identification of these species. Thus, our objective was to reexamine these two species, based on a combined analysis of morphological-including a redescription for A. macrocheles and new morphological characterization of A. amblyonyx-and molecular data. In total, 42 morphological characters were analyzed, in addition to a phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences. A Bayesian Inference analysis recovered A. macrocheles and A. amblyonyx as distinct clades supporting the taxonomic distinction between them. The tree topology suggests that A. macrocheles is more closely related to A. crockeri (Armstrong, 1941) and A. puapeba (Christoffersen, 1979) than to A. amblyonyx, which forms the sister group to a well-supported clade containing these three species. This contribution conclusively distinguishes between A. macrocheles and A. amblyonyx and points out the need for a comprehensive review involving all species of the larger A. macrocheles group.


Assuntos
Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Teorema de Bayes , Inglaterra , México , Filogenia
12.
Zootaxa ; 4619(1): zootaxa.4619.1.4, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716316

RESUMO

A new species of kitefin shark (Squaliformes; Dalatiidae) is described from the Gulf of Mexico (Western North Atlantic Ocean) based on five diagnostic features not seen on the only other known Mollisquama specimen, the holotype of Mollisquama parini Dolganov which was captured in the Eastern South Pacific Ocean. The new species, Mollisquama mississippiensis sp. nov., is distinguished from its congener by a putative pit organ located ventrally just posterior of the lower jaw margin center, photophores irregularly distributed along many areas of the body, 16 distinct ventral-abdominal photophore aggregations, and two differences associated with the dentition. Other potential distinguishing features are 10 fewer vertebrae than Mollisquama parini and six morphometric proportional differences that exceeded +/- 20% from the holotype.


Assuntos
Tubarões , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Dentição , Golfo do México , Oceano Pacífico
13.
Zootaxa ; 4613(3): zootaxa.4613.3.1, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716397

RESUMO

In this paper, we provide some available information about the occurrence and some taxonomic aspects of 19 species from the Superfamily Oplophoroidea in the southwestern Atlantic (Brazilian waters), with the update to 22 species of Oplophoroidea occurring in Brazilian waters. Samples were collected during two sets of surveys. The first was performed in 2009 and 2011 in the Potiguar Basin in northeast of Brazil (03-05°S; 38-35°W; between the States of Ceará and Rio Grande do Norte) under the framework of the project "Avaliação da biota bentônica e planctônica da Bacia Potiguar e Ceará (Bpot)", with samples collected from bottom trawls in the continental slope at depth ranging from 150-2068 m. Second, under the in the framework of the ABRACOS (Acoustic along the Brazilian coast), performed in 2015 and 2017 on seamounts and offshore areas in Northeast Brazil (Ceará Chain, Rio Grande do Norte and Rocas Atoll, Fernando de Noronha Archipelago and Pernambuco State), with samples with pelagic micronekton and mesopelagic nets, in depths ranging from 50-1260 m. We highlight the occurrence of 14 species of the family Acanthephyridae and 5 species of the family Oplophoridae, including the first occurrences of five species to Brazilian deep waters: Acanthephyra kingsleyi Spence Bate, 1888, Ephyrina ombango Crosnier Forest, 1973, Meningodora compsa (Chace, 1940), M. longisulca Kikuchi, 1985 and Systellapsis curvispina Crosnier, 1987. These records increase the knowledge on deep-sea shrimps occurring in Southwestern Atlantic.


Assuntos
Acústica , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Brasil , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Zootaxa ; 4613(1): zootaxa.4613.1.1, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716423

RESUMO

The triphorid genera Inella and Strobiligera are historically considered to represent one or two distinct groups, with recent studies claiming that Strobiligera comprises species with paucispiral or multispiral protoconchs, whereas only species with paucispiral protoconch occur in Inella. The present study aims to update the taxonomy of Inella and Strobiligera (with paucispiral protoconchs) from Brazil. Three main groups are recognized: Inella s.s. and Strobiligera show a simultaneous emergence of the three spiral cords of the teleoconch, the former possessing a discrete nucleus and the latter bearing a distinct globose protoconch; the "pseudo Inella" group has a late emergence of the median spiral cord of teleoconch. Four species were previously recorded from Brazil: I. unicornium, I. longissima, S. pompona and S. compsa, of which the three latter records are disregarded for being based on shells with broken apices and consequent uncertainty of identification. Twenty species in fact occur in Brazil: Inella s.s. is represented by I. apexbilirata and one possible new species; "pseudo Inella" includes "Inella" differens, "Inella" faberi, "Inella" galo sp. nov., "Inella" euconfio sp. nov., "Inella" leucocephala sp. nov., "Inella" faceta sp. nov., "Inella" maculata sp. nov., "Inella" vanilla sp. nov., and three possible new species; Strobiligera is represented by S. unicornium comb. nov., S. gaesona, S. dinea, Strobiligera campista sp. nov., Strobiligera santista sp. nov., and two possible new species. The "pseudo Inella" group is probably derived from unrelated lineages that converged to a simple type of paucispiral protoconch, requiring the examination of radular morphology to properly reallocate those species. The supposed restricted geographical range of triphorids with lecithotrophic development requires future investigations of the five species from the northwestern Atlantic/Caribbean that are herein recorded to Brazil. Key words: Triphoroidea, marine molluscs, lecithotrophic development, western Atlantic  Introduction Triphoridae is a speciose family of marine snails that feed on sponges, with 642 Recent valid species (WoRMS 2018) and hundreds of undescribed species (Albano et al. 2011). The genus Inella Bayle, 1879 is one of the most challenging taxa in Triphoridae, especially because of its uncertain taxonomic limits and high number of described species (Marshall 1983). Inella and Strobiligera Dall, 1924 are historically considered to represent one or two distinct groups, with recent studies claiming that Strobiligera comprises species with paucispiral or multispiral protoconchs, whereas only species with paucispiral protoconchs occur in Inella (Fernandes Pimenta 2014). A brief taxonomic overview of this issue will be addressed in the next lines.Hinds (1843) proposed the name Ino (preoccupied by the crustacean genus Ino Schrank, 1803; Inella Bayle is a replacement name) for cylindrical, elongated and acuminated triphorid shells. Jousseaume (1884) added that the shell of Inella is composed of at least 15 whorls, sculptured by spiral tubercles, with the last whorl presenting a depressed base and two apertures (i.e., the true aperture and the anterior canal). Laseron (1958) recognized that the Inella concept of Hinds (1843) mixed different shell types; however, Laseron broadened the definitions of Inella, as he also stated, warning that the use of protoconchs could need further generic revision. Kosuge (1966) defined Inella as having axial sculpture and three spiral cords on the teleoconch, a blunt and dome-shaped protoconch with a few spiral ridges, and suggested that Inella belongs to the most advanced group of triphorids. Marshall (1983) proposed the distinction between the "Triphora group" and the "Inella group" (composed of Inella Bayle and related genera) in Triphorinae, perhaps worthy of subfamily distinction, although this division is still informal (Marquet 1996). Marshall (1983: 19) also applied the term Inella s.l., recognizing that it contains "a number of natural groups that are worthy of genus-group status, most of which are as yet unnamed". Simone (2006) interpreted Inella as triphorids with a very elongated shell, a relatively straight spire profile and a projected aperture. Rolán Fernández-Garcés (2008) followed the concept of the catch-all taxon Inella s.l., uniting several species with very different shell forms under a more or less classical protoconch of Inella (i.e., without axial sculpture). Fernandes Pimenta (2014) recognized that lecithotrophic species of Strobiligera have a very inflated protoconch (following Dall 1924), which is distinct from the reduced nucleus observed in Inella s.l., thus substantially reducing the number of species from the Atlantic Ocean previously allocated to the latter.            Marshall (1983) did not indicate any junior synonym for Inella, but Rolán Fernández-Garcés (2008) placed the type species of Strobiligera within Inella, which was later rejected by Fernandes Pimenta (2014). Marquet (1996: 141) mentioned that "Marshall (1983) placed Norephora in synonymy with Inella"; this is not true, as Marshall (1983: 81) only indicated that "Norephora is probably closely related to Inella Bayle" when compared with Talophora Gründel, 1975. In fact, Fernandes Pimenta (2014) suggested that Norephora is probably a synonym of Subulophora Laseron, 1958, pending further investigation. Wenz (1938 apud Kosuge 1966) suggested that Tristoma Menke, 1830 and Biforina Bucquoy, Dautzenberg Dollfus, 1884 were synonyms of Inella, but Marshall (1983) stated that the first is a synonym of Triphora Blainville, 1828 and the second is a synonym of Monophorus Grillo, 1877.Although many species remain to be described in these genera, Inella and Strobiligera are represented altogether by 64 Recent species worldwide (Bouchet Rosenberg 2013; Bouchet Gofas 2014). Both genera are particularly common in mid-low depths of the continental shelf and in the continental slope, especially Strobiligera (Fernandes Pimenta 2017a). Species with paucispiral protoconchs in both groups are absent from the eastern Atlantic (e.g., Bouchet 1985; Rolán 2005), although well-represented in the western Atlantic, with 27 Recent species (Simone 2006; Rolán Fernández-Garcés 2008), mainly in the Caribbean and adjacent regions. Only four of these species were reported from Brazil: Inella unicornium Simone, 2006 is the only endemic species of this genus in Brazil; Strobiligera compsa (Dall, 1927) and Strobiligera pompona (Dall, 1927) were respectively considered misidentifications of Absalão (1989) and Rios (1975, 1985, 1994, 2009) by Fernandes Pimenta (2014); and Inella longissima (Dall, 1881), reported by Rios (1985, 2009) from southern Brazil, replacing his prior identification of Inella triserialis Dall, 1881 (Rios 1975).The main objective of the present work is to update the taxonomy of Inella and Strobiligera species with paucispiral protoconchs, given that Strobiligera species from Brazil with multispiral protoconchs were already reviewed by Fernandes Pimenta (2014), filling a large gap in taxonomic knowledge.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Tamanho Corporal , Brasil , Região do Caribe , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Índias Ocidentais
15.
Zootaxa ; 4613(1): zootaxa.4613.1.4, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716426

RESUMO

Three species in the gastropod genus Calliostoma are confirmed as living in Deep-Water Coral (DWC) habitats in the NE Atlantic Ocean: Calliostoma bullatum (Philippi, 1844), C. maurolici (Seguenza, 1876) and C. leptophyma Dautzenberg Fischer, 1896. Up to now, C. bullatum was only known as fossil from Early to Mid-Pleistocene outcrops in DWC-related habitats in southern Italy; our study confirmed its living presence in DWC off Mauritania. A discussion is provided on the distribution of DWC-related calliostomatids in the NE Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea from the Pleistocene to the present.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Gastrópodes , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Ecossistema , Itália , Mauritânia , Mar Mediterrâneo , Caramujos , Água
16.
Zootaxa ; 4613(1): zootaxa.4613.1.7, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716429

RESUMO

Phymaraphiniidae Schrammen 1924 (Porifera: Astrophorina) is a family of lithistid demosponges that has received little attention in the past decades. The systematic problems within this family have not been addressed for a long time due to the absence of new records and material. The genus Exsuperantia Özdikmen 2009 was first described by Schmidt (1879) as Rimella to allocate the species Rimella clava, found in the Caribbean. In 1892, Topsent found what he thought to be the same species described by Schmidt in the Azores, and synonymized it with Racodiscula clava, as he thought this species belonged to the family Theonellidae Lendenfeld 1903. However, Rimella and Racodiscula belong to distinct families: Rimella to Phymaraphiniidae, and Racodiscula to Theonellidae. Due to the fact that the genus Rimella was already preoccupied by a gastropod, it was renamed as Exsuperantia. In result of the poor preservation of Schmidt's material and the absence of new specimens, the attribution of Topsent's specimens to the family level remained obscure. Here, we review the genus Exsuperantia based on the analysis of new material recently collected during various research expeditions in the northeast Atlantic Ocean. The comparison of these new specimens with Schmidt's and Topsent's type material, allowed us to assign Topsent's specimens to a new species, Exsuperantia archipelagus sp. nov., and confirm its attribution to the family Phymaraphiniidae (not Theonellidae). Phylogenetic reconstructions using newly generated sequences of the cytochrome subunit (COI) marker also support the assignment of the new species to the family Phymaraphiniidae (not Theonellidae).


Assuntos
Poríferos , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Açores , Região do Caribe , Filogenia
17.
Zootaxa ; 4564(2): zootaxa.4564.2.12, 2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716511

RESUMO

During voyages in 2017 off southern and southeastern Australia, the Australian Research Vessel Investigator deployed a series of demersal beam trawls to depths of around 5000 metres. Nineteen specimens of the rarely caught aphyonid-clade of the ophidiiform family Bythitidae, representing five species, were caught. Four of these are new to Australian waters:  Barathronus pacificus Nielsen and Eagle, 1974 known from the northeastern and southwestern Pacific Ocean, Paraphyonus bolini (Nielsen, 1974) known from the western Indian and western Pacific Oceans, Paraphyonus rassi (Nielsen, 1975) known from the Atlantic Ocean and Sciadonus pedicellaris Garman, 1899, known from the northeastern Atlantic and northeastern and southwestern Pacific Oceans. Also included are Aphyonus gelatinosus Günther, 1878 known from all oceans including ten specimens from Australian waters, Barathronus maculatus Shcherbachev, 1976 known from South Africa to the westernmost Pacific including 13 specimens from Australian waters, Sciadonus longiventralis Nielsen, 2018 known from the holotype collected off New South Wales and finally Barathronus algrahami n. sp. known from the holotype caught off South Australia and four paratypes from off Taiwan and northern Philippines. Close examination of specimens collected during recent voyages combined with recent and ongoing studies by the first author and DNA COI barcoding analysis enabled an assessment of the aphyonid-clade species hitherto recorded from Australian waters. An identification key to the eight aphyonid clade species known from Australian waters is provided.


Assuntos
Peixes , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Austrália , Oceano Pacífico
18.
Zootaxa ; 4563(3): zootaxa.4563.3.7, 2019 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716533

RESUMO

The taxonomy of the southeastern Brazilian species of Psolus is reviewed and two new species described. Additionally, P. vitoriae is redescribed based on a newly designated neotype and supplemental material from the type locality and nearby regions. The synonymy of P. marcusi with P. patagonicus is called into question. The calcareous ring is useful for distinguishing between some Psolus species. Psolus tommasi sp. nov. is characterized by having five oral valves, an anus covered by a variable number of small, irregular anal valves, oral and anal valves distinct from body wall scales, calcareous ring interradial plates entire, calcareous ring simple, without posterior processes; radial and interradial plates entire, dorsal ossicles spheroid bodies and sole ossicles knobbed and smooth perforated plates. Psolus thandari sp. nov. is characterized by granules on body scales; mouth surrounded by five to seven triangular valves of equal size; anus surrounded by a variable number of small and irregular anal valves that grade into surrounding scales; calcareous ring with interradial plates entire. Six species of Psolus are known from the southwestern Atlantic and Magellanic region: P. vitoriae (São Paulo, Brazil); P. patagonicus (Mar del Plata to Tierra del Fuego, Argentina; Strait of Magellan and Cape Horn); P. segregatus (Patagonia, Argentina; Strait of Magellan, Chile; Hikurangi Margin and Chatham Rise, New Zealand); P. antarcticus (Magellanic region; South Georgia Island, southern Atlantic Ocean; Macquarie Island and Ridge, New Zealand); P. lawrencei (Mar del Plata, Argentina) and Psolus murrayi Théel, 1886 (Montevideo, Uruguay). A key to the species of Psolus from the southwestern Atlantic and Magellanic region, and a synoptic table to all southern Atlantic Psolus species is provided.


Assuntos
Pepinos-do-Mar , Animais , Oceano Atlântico
19.
Zootaxa ; 4560(2): zootaxa.4560.2.5, 2019 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716582

RESUMO

New records of Pasiphaea from the Southwestern Atlantic are reported. The material was sampled during the oceanographic projects REVIZEE and HABITATS and four species were collected: Pasiphaea alcocki (Wood-Mason, 1891); P. major Hayashi, 2006; P. taiwanica Komai et al., 2012 and P. tarda Krøyer, 1845. An identification key for the seven currently reported species of southwestern Atlantic Pasiphaea is provided.


Assuntos
Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Ecossistema
20.
Zootaxa ; 4671(1): zootaxa.4671.1.5, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716594

RESUMO

Three valid species of the genus Physiculus are known from the Brazilian marinewaters. A fourth, new species, Physiculus cirm n. sp.., is described based on seventeen specimens collected in the surroundings of Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, equatorial Atlantic. A review of the Brazilian species of Physiculus is provided, as well as a key to the species of the genus reported from the Atlantic Ocean. The new species is distinguished from all its congeners, except P. cynodon and P. karrerae, by the large number of longitudinal series of scales (156-189 vs. 70-150). P. cynodon from the Northern Pacific has about 200 longitudinal series of scales, and it differs from the new species by the number of rays of the first dorsal fin (6-8 vs. 10 in P. cynodon), pectoral-fin rays (20-25 vs. 27 in P. cynodon), and the presence of an outer row of large canine teeth on upper and lower jaw. From P. karrerae, which has 134-160 longitudinal series of scales, the new species differs by the presence of scales on the tip of the snout and dorsal-fin membrane, and the number of pectoral-fin rays (20-25 vs. 24-27 in P. karrerae). [Zoobank URL: urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:1AFBC251-2BB1-4479-98A4-307188EC5D66].


Assuntos
Characidae , Gadiformes , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Brasil
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