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1.
J Fish Dis ; 42(8): 1107-1118, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140193

RESUMO

Piscine orthoreovirus genotype 1 (PRV-1) is widespread in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) populations in northern Europe, Canada and Chile. PRV-1 occurs in wild fish in Norway and Canada; however, little information of its geographical distribution in wild populations is currently available, and the effect of PRV-1 infection in wild populations is currently unknown. In this study, we present the findings of a survey conducted on 1,130 wild salmonids sampled in Denmark, Sweden, Ireland, Faroe Islands, France, Belgium and Greenland between 2008 and 2017. PRV-1 is reported for the first time in wild salmonids in Denmark, Sweden, Faroe Island and Ireland. The annual PRV-1 prevalence ranged from 0% in France, Belgium and Greenland to 43% in Faroe Islands. In total, 66 samples tested positive for PRV-1, including Atlantic salmon broodfish returning to spawn and Atlantic salmon collected at the feeding ground north of Faroe Islands. The phylogenetic analysis of S1 sequences of the PRV-1 isolates obtained in this survey did not show systematic geographical distribution. This study sheds light on the spread and genetic diversity of the virus identified in populations of free-living fish and provides rationale for screening wild broodfish used in restocking programmes.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Orthoreovirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/veterinária , Salmonidae , Animais , Oceano Atlântico/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Orthoreovirus/genética , Prevalência , Infecções por Reoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/virologia , Salmo salar , Truta
2.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 297: 27-31, 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870722

RESUMO

The Argentinean short-finned squid (Illex argentinus) is an oceanic, neritic species widely distributed off the east coast of South America, representing the most abundant commercially exploited squid species in these waters. Despite the great commercial importance of Argentinean short-finned squid as a food resource, and as frozen product exported to Europe, the presence of zoonotic anisakid nematodes, especially in the mantle of the squid, is poorly known. The occurrence and site of infection of larval ascaridoid nematodes in 70 I. argentinus caught off the Falkland Islands were investigated. Squids were examined using the UV-Press method. In total, 30 nematodes were detected in the viscera and mantle. According to morphology, 27 were third-stage larvae (L3) belonging to genus Anisakis, while three were L3 assigned to Hysterothylacium. Anisakis pegreffii (n = 27) were identified by sequence analysis of the mtDNA cox2 and the partial EF1 α-1 region of nDNA genes; Hysterothylacium aduncum (N = 3) were identified by sequence analysis of the ITS rDNA region. These findings represent the first molecular identification of A. pegreffii and H. aduncum in I. argentinus. Both prevalence (P = 15.7%) and abundance (A = 0.39) of infection with A. pegreffii were low, and even lower values of infection were recorded for H. aduncum (P = 2.1%, A = 0.04). Only 3 out of 70 (4.3%) squids hosted A. pegreffii larvae in the mantle. Larvae infecting viscera were coiled and mainly attached to outer surface of visceral organs. Mantle-infecting larvae were situated in the posterior half. Thus, these results suggest that - although low - the risk of acquiring anisakiasis from consumption of raw, marinated and/or undercooked short-finned squid products still exists.


Assuntos
Anisaquíase/parasitologia , Ascaridoidea/genética , Decapodiformes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Alimentos Marinhos/parasitologia , Animais , Anisaquíase/epidemiologia , Anisakis/genética , Ascaridoidea/classificação , Oceano Atlântico/epidemiologia , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Ilhas Malvinas , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Larva
3.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 131(2): 133-142, 2018 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30460919

RESUMO

Amberjacks, Seriola spp., are a group of carangid fishes of economic importance for fisheries and aquaculture worldwide. A survey of the parasites of greater amberjack S. dumerili and almaco jack or longfin yellowtail S. rivoliana from the Madeira archipelago (including the Madeira and Selvagens Islands) was carried out. This work is the first parasitological study of these 2 species in the Eastern Atlantic. A total of 14 parasite taxa were detected in the 47 fish analysed: Allencotyla mcintoshi, Stephanostomum petimba, Rhadinorhynchus sp. and Caligus aesopus (in both Seriola spp.); Dionchus agassizi, Zeuxapta seriolae, Tormopsolus orientalis, Didymocystis sp. and Anisakis sp. (in S. rivoliana); Tetrochetus coryphaenae, Stephanostomum sp., S. ditrematis, Oncophora melanocephala and Hysterothylacium seriolae (in Seriola dumerili). The monogenean Dionchus agassizi and the nematode O. melanocephala constitute new host records for the genus Seriola, and the species Allencotyla mcintoshi, Z. seriolae, Tormopsolus orientalis, H. seriolae, and C. aesopus are reported in the region of Madeira for the first time. Some of the parasites detected, in particular Z. seriolae and C. aesopus, could constitute a threat to amberjack aquaculture, and measures should be taken to prevent their introduction into sea cages.


Assuntos
Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Animais , Oceano Atlântico/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Portugal
4.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 583, 2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the marine environment, transitional zones between major water masses harbour high biodiversity, mostly due to their productivity and by containing representatives of species characteristic of adjacent communities. With the aim of assessing the value of larval Anisakis as zoogeographical indicators in a transitional zone between subtropical and sub-Antarctic marine currents, larvae obtained from Zenopsis conchifer were genetically identified. Larvae from Pagrus pagrus and Merluccius hubbsi from two adjacent zoogeographical provinces were also sequenced. RESULTS: Four species were genetically identified in the whole sample, including Anisakis typica, A. pegreffii, A. berlandi and a probably new species related to A. paggiae. Anisakis typica and A. pegreffii were identified as indicators of tropical/subtropical and sub-Antarctic waters, respectively, and their presence evidenced the transitional conditions of the region. Multivariate analyses on prevalence and mean abundance of Anisakis spp. of 18 samples represented by 9 fish species caught south of 35°S determined that host trophic level and locality of capture were the main drivers of the distribution of parasites across zoogeographical units in the South-West Atlantic. CONCLUSIONS: Most samples followed a clear zoogeographical pattern, but the sample of Z. conchifer, composed mostly of A. typica, was an exception. This finding suggests that population parameters of A. typica and A. pegreffii could differ enough to be considered as a surrogates of the identity of larvae parasitizing a given host population and, therefore, a step forward the validation of the use of larval Anisakis as biological indicators for studies on host zoogeography.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Anisaquíase/veterinária , Anisakis/fisiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Movimentos da Água , Animais , Anisaquíase/epidemiologia , Anisaquíase/parasitologia , Anisakis/isolamento & purificação , Oceano Atlântico/epidemiologia , Biodiversidade , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Larva/fisiologia , Filogenia
5.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 131(1): 29-37, 2018 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30324912

RESUMO

The morphology and molecular phylogeny of the parasitic dinoflagellates Ichthyodinium chabelardi and Amyloodinium ocellatum was investigated off Brazil (South Atlantic Ocean). This is the first record of Ichthyodinium and the first molecular data of both parasites from the southern hemisphere. I. chabelardi infected the yolk of eggs of wild populations of Argentine anchovy Engraulis anchoita (Engraulidae) and Brazilian sardinella Sardinella brasiliensis (Clupeidae) in different seasons. The small subunit (SSU) rRNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene sequences were identical and confirmed Ichthyodinium as a host generalist. The new sequences clustered with the type species I. chabelardi from the North Atlantic and environmental sequences from the Pacific Ocean. A second species from the western Pacific remains undescribed. A. ocellatum was isolated from the gills of a cultured cobia Rachycentron canadum after causing mortality. The SSU rRNA gene sequence of the Brazilian isolate was almost identical to those from the northern hemisphere. This suggests a single species with a widespread distribution, although it is uncertain whether the species has a natural pantropical distribution or is the result of artificial distribution due to human-induced fish transport.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/fisiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Oceano Atlântico/epidemiologia , Dinoflagelados/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico/genética
6.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 128(1): 73-79, 2018 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29565255

RESUMO

We report the gross and microscopic findings and molecular identification of 2 cases of hyphate fungal infection in cetaceans from Brazil. The first case involved an adult male Atlantic spotted dolphin Stenella frontalis with localized pulmonary disease characterized by pyogranulomatous and necrotizing bronchopneumonia with intralesional hyphae. The second case involved an adult male Bryde's whale Balaenoptera edeni with orchitis, periorchitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis and pyogranulomatous bronchopneumonia with intralesional hyphae. PCR analysis from the dolphin's lung yielded Aspergillus fumigatus, and the fungus from the whale's mesenteric lymph node showed the greatest identity to Nanniziopsis obscura and Stagonosporopsis cucurbitacearum These cases represent the first reports of pulmonary aspergillosis by A. fumigatus in an Atlantic spotted dolphin and systemic mycosis by a possibly novel Onygenales in marine mammals.


Assuntos
Balaenoptera , Micoses/veterinária , Stenella , Animais , Oceano Atlântico/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Masculino , Micoses/epidemiologia
7.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 267: 20-28, 2018 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29277002

RESUMO

In order to evaluate the infestation by anisakids present in elasmobranchs and their distribution in the Argentine Sea, this study was carried at a regional scale with the following aims: 1) to identify those anisakid species present in skates under exploitation; 2) to characterize quantitatively these infestations and 3) to determine those factors driving the variability in parasite burdens across skate species. A total of 351 skates, belonging to 3 species (218 Sympterygia bonapartii, 86 Zearaja chilensis and 47 Atlantoraja castelnaui) and from different localities of the Argentine Sea were examined for anisakids. Parasites were found in the stomach wall at high prevalence in some samples. Based on morphology and mtDNA cox2 sequences analyses (from 24 larval worms), specimens were identified as Anisakis berlandi, A. pegreffii and Pseudoterranova cattani; the last two known as potentially pathogenic for humans. Differential distribution patterns were observed across parasite and hosts species. In general, fish caught in southern and deeper waters exhibited higher loads of Anisakis spp., whereas infestation levels by P. cattani increase in larger skates. Taking into account that the mere presence of worms or their antigens in fish meat can provoke allergic responses, information on distribution of parasites and their variability is essential for the implementation of food safety practices.


Assuntos
Anisaquíase/parasitologia , Anisakis/fisiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , /parasitologia , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Anisaquíase/epidemiologia , Anisakis/genética , Oceano Atlântico/epidemiologia , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Pesqueiros , Larva , Carga Parasitária
8.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 123(1): 45-54, 2017 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28177292

RESUMO

Large oceanic sharks represent a suitable model to investigate the influence of a host's oceanic conditions on the structure of its helminth communities. In this study, we describe the intestinal helminth fauna, and investigate determinants of infracommunity structure, in 39 specimens of shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus collected in the NE Atlantic. Six cestode species were found in the spiral valve of makos: 3 are typical from lamnid sharks, namely, gravid specimens of Clistobothrium montaukensis, Gymnorhynchus isuri and Ceratobothrium xanthocephalum, and 3 are immature specimens of cestode species common to several elasmobranchs, namely, Dinobothrium septaria, Nybelinia lingualis, and Phyllobothrium cf. lactuca. In addition, L3 larvae of Anisakis sp. type I were detected. Infracommunities were species poor and had low total helminth abundance. The result of Schluter's variance ratio test was compatible with the hypothesis of independent colonization of helminth taxa. These results conform to previous studies on oceanic predators that have hypothesized that these hosts should have depauperate and unpredictable helminth infracommunities because oceanic conditions hamper parasite transmission. However, mean species richness and mean total abundance of cestodes of shortfin mako and other oceanic sharks did not significantly differ from those of elasmobranchs from other habitats. This suggests that the large body size and prey consumption rates of oceanic sharks offset the negative 'dilution' effect of oceanic habitat on transmission rates. Additionally, or alternatively, parasites of oceanic sharks may have expanded the use of intermediate hosts through the trophic web to spread out the risk of failure to complete their life cycles.


Assuntos
Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Helmintos/classificação , Tubarões/parasitologia , Animais , Oceano Atlântico/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia
9.
Vet Parasitol ; 230: 25-32, 2016 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27884438

RESUMO

The occurrence of the zoonotic protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii in marine mammals remains a poorly understood phenomenon. In this study, samples from 589 marine mammal species and 34 European otters (Lutra lutra), stranded on the coasts of Scotland, Belgium, France, The Netherlands and Germany, were tested for the presence of T. gondii. Brain samples were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of parasite DNA. Blood and muscle fluid samples were tested for specific antibodies using a modified agglutination test (MAT), a commercial multi-species enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Out of 193 animals tested by PCR, only two harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) cerebrum samples, obtained from animals stranded on the Dutch coast, tested positive. The serological results showed a wide variation depending on the test used. Using a cut-off value of 1/40 dilution in MAT, 141 out of 292 animals (41%) were positive. Using IFA, 30 out of 244 tested samples (12%) were positive at a 1/50 dilution. The commercial ELISA yielded 7% positives with a cut-off of the sample-to-positive (S/P) ratio≥50; and 12% when the cut-off was set at S/P ratio≥20. The high number of positives in MAT may be an overestimation due to the high degree of haemolysis of the samples and/or the presence of lipids. The ELISA results could be an underestimation due to the use of a multispecies conjugate. Our results confirm the presence of T. gondii in marine mammals in The Netherlands and show exposure to the parasite in both the North Sea and the Eastern Atlantic Ocean. We also highlight the limitations of the tests used to diagnose T. gondii in stranded marine mammals.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/parasitologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/normas , Mamíferos/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Testes de Aglutinação/normas , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Oceano Atlântico/epidemiologia , Caniformia/parasitologia , Cetáceos/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/normas , Imunofluorescência/normas , Mar do Norte/epidemiologia , Lontras/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/normas , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasma/fisiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/sangue , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
10.
Int J Parasitol ; 46(12): 809-818, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27597650

RESUMO

With the aim of evaluating the utility of marine parasites as indicators of ecotonal regions in the marine environment, we analysed data on assemblages of long-lived larval parasites of Zenopsis conchifer inhabiting the region of convergence of three masses of water in the southwestern Atlantic Oceans. These masses of water with different origins are expected to affect the structure of parasite communities by acting as sources of infective stages of helminth species typical of adjacent zoogeographical regions. Multivariate analyses at both infracommunity and component community levels, including data of four other species recognised as harbouring parasite assemblages representatives of these zoogeographical regions, were carried out to corroborate the existence of repeatable distribution patterns and to provide further evidence of the utility of parasites as zoogeographic indicators in the region. Results showed a tight correspondence with the existing zoogeographical classification in the study region, namely two zoogeographical provinces, one of which is subdivided into two districts demonstrating the ecotonal nature of parasite assemblages from the convergence region, which were characterised by a species rich component community but depauperate and heterogeneous infracommunities. The borders of biological communities have been suggested as priority areas for conservation where a fully functioning ecosystem can be protected and parasite communities can be considered as reliable indicators to define such transitional regions.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Água do Mar , Animais , Argentina , Oceano Atlântico/epidemiologia , Brasil , Análise por Conglomerados , Copépodes/fisiologia , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Peixes , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Análise Multivariada , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Uruguai
11.
BMC Vet Res ; 12(1): 176, 2016 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27566667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Screening Atlantic cetacean populations for Cetacean Morbillivirus (CeMV) is essential to understand the epidemiology of the disease. In Europe, Portugal and Spain have the highest cetacean stranding rates, mostly due to the vast extension of coastline. Morbillivirus infection has been associated with high morbidity and mortality in cetaceans, especially in outbreaks reported in the Mediterranean Sea. However, scarce information is available regarding this disease in cetaceans from the North-East Atlantic populations. The presence of CeMV genomic RNA was investigated by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR in samples from 279 specimens stranded along the Portuguese and Galician coastlines collected between 2004 and 2015. RESULTS: A total of sixteen animals (n = 16/279, 5.7 %) were positive. The highest prevalence of DMV was registered in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) (n = 14/69; 20.3 %), slightly higher in those collected in Galicia (n = 8/33; 24.2 %) than in Portugal (n = 6/36; 16.7 %). CONCLUSIONS: Phylogenetic analysis revealed that, despite the low genetic distances between samples, the high posterior probability (PP) values obtained strongly support the separation of the Portuguese and Galician sequences in an independent branch, separately from samples from the Mediterranean and the Canary Islands. Furthermore, evidence suggests an endemic rather than an epidemic situation in the striped dolphin populations from Portugal and Galicia, since no outbreaks have been detected and positive samples have been detected annually since 2007, indicating that this virus is actively circulating in these populations and reaching prevalence values as high as 24 % among the Galician samples tested.


Assuntos
Cetáceos/virologia , Infecções por Morbillivirus/veterinária , Morbillivirus/genética , Animais , Oceano Atlântico/epidemiologia , Infecções por Morbillivirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Morbillivirus/virologia , Filogenia , Portugal/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
12.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 120(2): 91-107, 2016 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27409233

RESUMO

Surveillance for pathogens of Atlantic herring, including viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), Ichthyophonus hoferi, and hepatic and intestinal coccidians, was conducted from 2012 to 2016 in the NW Atlantic Ocean, New Jersey, USA. Neither VHSV nor I. hoferi was detected in any sample. Goussia clupearum was found in the livers of 40 to 78% of adult herring in varying parasite loads; however, associated pathological changes were negligible. Phylogenetic analysis based on small subunit 18S rRNA gene sequences placed G. clupearum most closely with other extraintestinal liver coccidia from the genus Calyptospora, though the G. clupearum isolates had a unique nucleotide insertion between 604 and 729 bp that did not occur in any other coccidian species. G. clupearum oocysts from Atlantic and Pacific herring were morphologically similar, though differences occurred in oocyst dimensions. Comparison of G. clupearum genetic sequences from Atlantic and Pacific herring revealed 4 nucleotide substitutions and 2 gaps in a 1749 bp region, indicating some divergence in the geographically separate populations. Pacific G. clupearum oocysts were not directly infective, suggesting that a heteroxenous life cycle is likely. Intestinal coccidiosis was described for the first time from juvenile and adult Atlantic herring. A novel intestinal coccidian species was detected based on morphological characteristics of exogenously sporulated oocysts. A unique feature in these oocysts was the presence of 3 long (15.1 ± 5.1 µm, mean ±SD) spiny projections on both ends of the oocyst. The novel morphology of this coccidian led us to tentatively name this parasite G. echinata n. sp.


Assuntos
Coccídios/classificação , Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes , Intestinos/parasitologia , Hepatopatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Animais , Oceano Atlântico/epidemiologia , Sequência de Bases , Coccídios/genética , Coccídios/isolamento & purificação , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Hepatopatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Hepatopatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Filogenia , Vigilância da População
13.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 232: 111-6, 2016 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27289194

RESUMO

Our study determined parameters of parasitization of Anisakis simplex s.l. in Micromesistius poutassou in a confluence zone of the Atlantic and Mediterranean, with a total prevalence of 82%. Also, in the three seasons analyzed, high prevalence's values were found, reaching 100% in spring; however mean intensity and abundance values were higher in winter. The use of molecular techniques to differentiate between Anisakis genotypes of the larvae characterized allowed obtaining values of 99.7% Anisakis simplex s.l. (50.1% A. simplex s.s., 42.9% A. pegreffii, 7.0% A. simplex s.s. - A. pegreffii hybrids) and 0.3% A. typica. The infections found in the fish were of both single and mixed species, in all the different possible combinations. The presence of A. simplex s.l. in the viscera varied according to genotype and season. Likewise, factors associated with the presence of the parasite in the ventral or dorsal musculature were different, where A. simplex s.s. proportion was double than that of A. pegreffii. The ecology of the two sibling species with regard to their location in fish and the influence of the season were different.


Assuntos
Anisaquíase/epidemiologia , Anisakis/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Gadiformes/parasitologia , Larva/genética , Epidemiologia Molecular , Animais , Anisaquíase/parasitologia , Oceano Atlântico/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Mar Mediterrâneo/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Alimentos Marinhos/parasitologia , Estações do Ano
14.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 117(1): 59-75, 2015 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26575156

RESUMO

We report on the epidemiology of lobomycosis-like disease (LLD), a cutaneous disorder evoking lobomycosis, in 658 common bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from South America and 94 Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins T. aduncus from southern Africa. Photographs and stranding records of 387 inshore residents, 60 inshore non-residents and 305 specimens of undetermined origin (inshore and offshore) were examined for the presence of LLD lesions from 2004 to 2015. Seventeen residents, 3 non-residents and 1 inshore dolphin of unknown residence status were positive. LLD lesions appeared as single or multiple, light grey to whitish nodules and plaques that may ulcerate and increase in size over time. Among resident dolphins, prevalence varied significantly among 4 communities, being low in Posorja (2.35%, n = 85), Ecuador, and high in Salinas, Ecuador (16.7%, n = 18), and Laguna, Brazil (14.3%, n = 42). LLD prevalence increased in 36 T. truncatus from Laguna from 5.6% in 2007-2009 to 13.9% in 2013-2014, albeit not significantly. The disease has persisted for years in dolphins from Mayotte, Laguna, Salinas, the Sanquianga National Park and Bahía Málaga (Colombia) but vanished from the Tramandaí Estuary and the Mampituba River (Brazil). The geographical range of LLD has expanded in Brazil, South Africa and Ecuador, in areas that have been regularly surveyed for 10 to 35 yr. Two of the 21 LLD-affected dolphins were found dead with extensive lesions in southern Brazil, and 2 others disappeared, and presumably died, in Ecuador. These observations stress the need for targeted epidemiological, histological and molecular studies of LLD in dolphins, especially in the Southern Hemisphere.


Assuntos
Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa , Lobomicose/veterinária , Animais , Oceano Atlântico/epidemiologia , Lobomicose/epidemiologia , Lobomicose/patologia , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Oceano Pacífico/epidemiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , América do Sul/epidemiologia
15.
Mar Environ Res ; 106: 42-50, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25756900

RESUMO

The deep-sea environment is a sink for a wide variety of contaminants including heavy metals and organic compounds of anthropogenic origin. Life history traits of many deep-water fish species including longevity and high trophic position may predispose them to contaminant exposure and subsequent induction of pathological changes, including tumour formation. The lack of evidence for this hypothesis prompted this investigation in order to provide data on the presence of pathological changes in the liver and gonads of several deep-water fish species. Fish were obtained from the north east region of the Bay of Biscay (north east Atlantic Ocean) by trawling at depths between 700 and 1400 m. Liver and gonad samples were collected on board ship and fixed for histological processing and subsequent examination by light microscopy. Hepatocellular and nuclear pleomorphism and individual cases of ovotestis and foci of cellular alteration (FCA) were detected in black scabbardfish (Aphanopus carbo). Six cases of FCA were observed in orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus) (n = 50) together with a single case of hepatocellular adenoma. A wide variety of inflammatory and degenerative lesions were found in all species examined. Deep-water fish display a range of pathologies similar to those seen in shelf-sea species used for international monitoring programmes including biological effects of contaminants. This study has confirmed the utility of health screening in deep-water fish for detecting evidence of prior exposure to contaminants and has also gained evidence of pathology potentially associated with exposure to algal toxins.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Gônadas/patologia , Hepatopatias/veterinária , Fígado/patologia , Transtornos Ovotesticulares do Desenvolvimento Sexual/patologia , Adenoma de Células Hepáticas/patologia , Adenoma de Células Hepáticas/veterinária , Animais , Oceano Atlântico/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/induzido quimicamente , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Peixes , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Hepatopatias/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/veterinária , Transtornos Ovotesticulares do Desenvolvimento Sexual/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos Ovotesticulares do Desenvolvimento Sexual/epidemiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
16.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 198: 1-8, 2015 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25584776

RESUMO

The consumption of the hake Merluccius merluccius is widespread in European countries, where this fish has a high commercial value. To date, different larval species of Anisakis have been identified as parasites in M. merluccius from European waters, Anisakis pegreffii and Anisakis simplex (s. s.) being the two most common. The aim of the study is to present data on the occurrence of Anisakis spp. larvae in the viscera and flesh of M. merluccius. Consequently, the distribution and infection rates of different species of Anisakis in different sites (viscera, and dorsal and ventral fillets) were investigated in hake caught in the central Tyrrhenian Sea (FAO 37.1.3) and the NE Atlantic Ocean (FAO 27 IXa). A sample of N=65 fish individuals (length>26 cm) was examined parasitologically from each fishing ground. The fillets were examined using the pepsin digestion method. A large number (1310) of Anisakis specimens were identified by multilocus allozyme electrophoresis (MAE) and mtDNA cox2 sequence analysis; among these, 814 larvae corresponded to A. simplex (s. s.) and 476 to A. pegreffii. They were found to infect both the flesh and the viscera. The two species co-infected the same individual fish (both in the viscera and in the flesh) from the FAO 27 area, whereas only A. pegreffii was found in hake from the Tyrrhenian Sea. The average parasite burden of A. pegreffii in hake from the Tyrrhenian Sea was significantly lower to that observed from hake off the Atlantic coast of Spain, both in prevalence and in abundance. In addition, whereas no significant difference in overall prevalence values was recorded between the two Anisakis species in the viscera of the FAO 27 sample, significant differences were found in the abundance levels observed between these species in the flesh, with A. simplex (s. s.) exhibiting significantly higher levels than that observed for A. pegreffii (p<0.001). Given that the pathogenic role in relation to man is known for these two species of Anisakis, both the flesh inspection and the infection rates of the different anisakid species assume particular importance in terms of assessing the risk they pose to humans.


Assuntos
Anisaquíase/epidemiologia , Anisaquíase/parasitologia , Anisakis/genética , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Gadiformes/parasitologia , Animais , Anisakis/classificação , Oceano Atlântico/epidemiologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Larva/genética , Oceanos e Mares , Carga Parasitária , Filogenia , Espanha/epidemiologia
17.
Vet Parasitol ; 207(1-2): 72-80, 2015 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25498327

RESUMO

Parasitic anisakid nematodes commonly occur in the musculature and visceral organs of many fish species from the North Atlantic. In this respect, the presence of the third stage larvae of Anisakis spp. in the fish musculature may pose a potential consumer hazard due to the parasite's ability to cause anisakidosis. Thus, knowledge on the occurrence and distribution of these potentially zoonotic parasites in the commercially important North Atlantic fish species is crucial in order to evaluate and consequently prevent human infections. In the present study, 300 Sebastes mentella from three North Atlantic fishing grounds (Northern North Sea: Tampen; Barents Sea: off Bear Island; Irminger Sea: off SE Greenland) were examined for anisakid nematodes, with emphasis on occurrence and distribution in the musculature. Overall larval prevalence and mean intensity were significantly higher in redfish from Tampen (94%; 13.5±20.0) and Bear Island (94%; 14.5±19.4) than in fish from SE Greenland (75%; 6.0±5.8; p<0.01). The same trend was observed for larval infection in the musculature showing prevalence and mean intensities of 79%, 73%, and 55%, and 5.9±6.6, 5.8±6.5, and 3.2±2.4, in the musculature of redfish from Tampen, Bear Island, and Greenland, respectively. Conventional microscopy and rDNA ITS-gene sequencing of various subsamples of muscle-dwelling nematode larvae of redfish from every catching locality revealed the presence of two anisakid species; Anisakis simplex sensu stricto and the non-zoonotic Hysterothylacium aduncum. Since the larvae of H. aduncum typically occur in or on the viscera of fish, our findings of two specimens in the belly flaps of redfish were unusual. Additionally, more than 92% of the muscle-dwelling larvae occurred in the belly flaps, i.e. the hypaxial part of the musculature surrounding the visceral organs on either fish side. Thus, trimming the fillets of beaked redfish by removal of most of the belly flaps would significantly reduce the probability of anisakid nematode larvae to be present in the final product.


Assuntos
Anisaquíase/veterinária , Anisakis/classificação , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Perciformes/parasitologia , Animais , Anisaquíase/epidemiologia , Anisaquíase/parasitologia , Anisakis/genética , Anisakis/isolamento & purificação , Oceano Atlântico/epidemiologia , Sequência de Bases , DNA de Helmintos/química , DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Groenlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Larva , Músculos/parasitologia , Mar do Norte/epidemiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária
18.
Parasitol Res ; 114(2): 693-8, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25418072

RESUMO

The occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium was investigated in cetacean specimens stranded on the northwestern coast of Spain (European Atlantic coast) by analysis of 65 samples of large intestine from eight species. The parasites were identified by direct immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and by PCR amplification of the ß-giardin gene, the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and the SSU-rDNA gene of Giardia and the SSU-rDNA gene of Cryptosporidium. Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected in 7 (10.8 %) and 9 samples (13.8 %), respectively. In two samples, co-infection with both parasites was observed. Giardia duodenalis assemblages A, C, D and F, and Cryptosporidium parvum were identified. This is the first report of G. duodenalis in Balaenoptera acutorostrata, Kogia breviceps and Stenella coeruleoalba and also the first report of Cryptosporidium sp. in B. acutorostrata and of C. parvum in S. coeruleoalba and Tursiops truncatus. These results extend the known host range of these waterborne enteroparasites.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Giardia/isolamento & purificação , Giardíase/veterinária , Animais , Oceano Atlântico/epidemiologia , Sequência de Bases , Cetáceos , Coinfecção/veterinária , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium parvum/genética , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Giardia/classificação , Giardia/genética , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/parasitologia , Humanos , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária , Espanha/epidemiologia
19.
J Parasitol ; 101(1): 50-6, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25302790

RESUMO

Recently, Pterois volitans, a Pacific species of lionfish, invaded the Atlantic Ocean, likely via the aquarium trade. We examined for internal and external parasites 188 individuals from 8 municipalities of Puerto Rico collected during 2009-2012, 91 individuals from Little Cayman, Cayman Islands, collected during the summers of 2010 and 2011, and 47 individuals from Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas, collected during the summer of 2009. In total, 27 parasite taxa were found, including 3 previously reported species from lionfish, the digenean Lecithochirium floridense, the leech Trachelobdella lubrica, and an Excorallana sp. isopod. We also report another 24 previously unreported parasite taxa from lionfish, including digeneans, monogeneans, cestodes, nematodes, isopods, a copepod, and an acanthocephalan. Among these parasites, several were previously unreported at their respective geographic origins: We report 5 new locality records from Puerto Rico, 9 from Cayman Islands, 5 from the Bahamas, 5 from the Caribbean, and 3 from the subtropical western Atlantic region. Three parasites are reported to associate with a fish host for the first time. The parasite faunas of P. volitans among our 3 study sites were quite different; most of the species infecting lionfish were generalists and/or species that infect carnivorous fishes. Although our study did not assess the impact of parasites on the fitness of invasive lionfish, it provides an important early step. Our results provide valuable comparative data for future studies at these and other sites throughout the lionfish's invaded range.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Perciformes/parasitologia , Animais , Oceano Atlântico/epidemiologia , Bahamas/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Brânquias/parasitologia , Espécies Introduzidas , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Porto Rico/epidemiologia , Pele/parasitologia , Índias Ocidentais/epidemiologia
20.
J Aquat Anim Health ; 26(4): 233-42, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25321153

RESUMO

A study conducted from August to October 2013 surveyed Threespine Sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus (n = 822) for the presence of parasitic copepods in the vicinity of large sea-cage salmonid farms in Bay d'Espoir, Newfoundland. The majority of parasitic copepods surveyed were Ergasilus labracis (n = 4,684). Other parasitic copepods observed on Threespine Sticklebacks during the survey included chalimus-stage Lepeophtheirus spp. (n = 3), adult Argulus alosae (n = 2), and a single Thersitina gasterostei. This represents a new host record for E. labracis. The copepods were present on fish collected in a broad range of temperatures (6.9-17.7°C) and salinities (10.2-30.2 [Practical Salinity Scale]). The parasitic copepods were most commonly found on larger hosts estimated to be age 1 or older. Surprisingly, the highest infestations (approximately 65%) were found on regions of the hosts outside of the gills (behind the pectoral fins and pelvic spines); in some cases, the copepods had inflicted significant damage to the skin of their hosts. Among host fish with evidence of an additional infection, such as microsporidian tumors (xenomas) or hemorrhagic-like symptoms (dark red abdomens and bloody mucus), the prevalence of E. labracis was significantly higher (43.4%) than among healthy fish (28.9%) despite there being no significant difference in size between the two fish health groups. In contrast, intensity (mean number of individual parasites per host) was significantly higher among healthy hosts (23.6) than among unhealthy ones (7.63). Although this parasite has been listed as present in Newfoundland previously, it has a broad host range and has been reported to be pathogenic to farmed salmonids. Therefore, its potential impact on wild and farmed fish populations around Newfoundland should not be underestimated.


Assuntos
Copépodes/classificação , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Smegmamorpha , Animais , Oceano Atlântico/epidemiologia , Baías , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Terra Nova e Labrador
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