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1.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127520, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791363

RESUMO

Although climate change occurs alongside other anthropogenic ecosystem impacts, little is known about how sea-surface temperature variability influences the ecotoxicology of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). We analyzed POP contaminant levels, and stable isotopes δ15N and δ13C as measures of trophic position, in eggs collected from the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea between 1999 and 2010 from two similar avian species with different trophic positions: common murres (Uria aalge) and thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia). The ebb and flow of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), a long-lived El Niño-like pattern of climate variability in the Pacific Ocean, predicted both trophic position and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels in thick-billed murres, but not in common murres. There was a similar pattern of association of the PDO with organochlorine pesticide levels in thick-billed murres, but not in common murres. The magnitude of association in thick-billed murres of PDO with the level of a specific PCB congener was a function of the number of chlorine groups on the PCB congener. Although this statistical analysis does not account for all factors contributing to climate variation, this contrast between the species suggests that facultative changes in foraging behavior, reflected in trophic position, can determine how POPs flow through and thereby alter ecosystems under climate change.


Assuntos
Charadriiformes , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Óvulo/química , Alaska , Animais , Aves , Ecossistema , Ovos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Oceano Pacífico , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 141453, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882547

RESUMO

Trace metals such as Cu, Hg, and Zn have been widely investigated in marine ecotoxicological studies considering their bioaccumulation, transfer along trophic webs, and the risks they pose to ecosystems and human health. Comparatively, Li has received little attention, although this element is increasingly used in the high-tech, ceramics/glass, and medication industries. Here, we report Li concentrations in more than 400 samples, including whole organisms and different organs of bivalves, cephalopods, crustaceans, and fish. We investigated species from three contrasting biogeographic areas, i.e. temperate (Bay of Biscay, northeast Atlantic Ocean), tropical (New Caledonia, Pacific Ocean), and subpolar climates (Kerguelen Islands, southern Indian Ocean), among diverse trophic groups (filter-feeders to meso-predators) and habitats (benthic, demersal, and pelagic). Although Li is homogeneously distributed in the ocean (at 0.18 µg/mL), Li concentrations in soft tissues vary greatly, from 0.01 to 1.20 µg/g dry weight. Multiple correspondence analyses reveal two clusters of high and low Li concentrations. Li distributions in marine organisms appear to be mostly geographically independent, though our results highlight a temperature dependency in fish muscles. Li is consistently bio-reduced through the trophic webs, with filter-feeders showing the highest concentrations and predatory fish the lowest. Strong variations are observed among organs, consistent with the biochemical similarity between Na and Li during transport in the brain and in osmoregulatory organs. Fish gills and kidneys show relatively high Li concentrations (0.26 and 0.15 µg/g, respectively) and fish brains show a large range of Li contents (up to 0.34 µg/g), whereas fish liver and muscles are Li depleted (0.07 ± 0.03 and 0.06 ± 0.08 µg/g, respectively). Altogether, these results provide the first exhaustive baseline for future Li ecotoxicology studies in marine coastal environments.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Oceano Índico , Lítio , Nova Caledônia , Oceano Pacífico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
Zootaxa ; 4786(4): zootaxa.4786.4.8, 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056465

RESUMO

Bregmaceros retrodorsalis sp. nov., a new codlet species is described based on specimens from shallow to deep waters off Japan and Melanesia. It differs from all congeners by having the origin of second dorsal-fin well posterior, above bases of 5th to 7th anal-fin rays and combination of the following characters: a pointed snout distinctly longer than eye diameter; upper lobe of opercle branched distally; body relatively slender, its depth 10.0‒13.0% SL; 13 principal caudal-fin rays (middle 11 branched); 52‒57 second dorsal-fin rays; 58‒63 anal-fin rays; 16‒18 transverse scale rows below dorsal-fin origin; 86‒93 longitudinal scale rows along body axis; vertebrae 55‒58; entire body evenly covered with melanophores, those on lateral sides forming regular longitudinal rows, one melanophores per scale; head and isthmus entirely, but loosely, covered with variably sized melanophores.


Assuntos
Gadiformes , Animais , Cabeça , Oceano Pacífico
4.
Zootaxa ; 4834(2): zootaxa.4834.2.5, 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056123

RESUMO

East Timor is an island located to the south of the Indonesian Archipelago and to the north of Australia, between the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is included in the Coral Triangle and houses an amazing quantity of marine biodiversity. However, only two species of Syllidae (Annelida) have been reported up to now: Trypanosyllis migueli and T. devae. Based on a small collection from the Australian Museum, we have identified nine genera and 17 species: Brevicirrosyllis mariae, Opisthodonta morena, Sphaerosyllis densopapillata, Branchiosyllis australis, B. exilis, B. maculata, B. verruculosa, Haplosyllis djiboutiensis, Opisthosyllis brunnea, Syllis alternata, S. broomensis, S. corallicola, S. erikae, S. gerlachi, S. hyalina, S. setoensis and Trypanosyllis luzonensis. This is the first record of S. gerlachi outside the Indian Ocean, and B. mariae, O. morena, S. densopapillata, H. djiboutiensis, S. corallicola and S. erikae have not been previously reported in tropical Asia. A specimen of Parahaplosyllis sp. could not be identified due to its poor condition. Three species belonging to Syllis are herein described as new: S. cambuk n. sp. has a large size body, with anterior segments much wider and shorter than posterior ones, long whip-shaped dorsal cirri and bidentate midbody and posterior chaetae, with both teeth equal in size and shape; Syllis hampirmenyatu n. sp. has three chaetae per posterior parapodium, with short and wide blades appearing to be fused with shafts, but still clearly distinguishable from each other, bidentate, with proximal tooth clearly smaller and thinner than distal one; and S. maganda n. sp. is easily recognizable because of its spectacular orange and blue colouration, only observable in living specimens, with broad transverse red stripes on the dorsum forming a distinctive pattern and red spots on the cirri and prostomium observable in both living and fixed specimens. Additionally, Philippine samples from the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales of Madrid have been examined corresponding to S. maganda n. sp. A Philippine specimen of S. maganda n. sp. had a small unidentified specimen of Haplosyllis attached to a posterior dorsal cirrus, which is the first documented case of such an interaction between two species of Syllidae. This provisionally called Haplosyllis sp. is characterized by its simple chaetae with short spur and two very long, distinct curved teeth, very close to each other. A regenerated prostomium and a stolon were also found in other Philippine specimens of S. maganda n. sp.


Assuntos
Anelídeos , Animais , Austrália , Oceano Pacífico , Filipinas , Timor-Leste
5.
Zootaxa ; 4860(2): zootaxa.4860.2.4, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056163

RESUMO

A new species of Eunicidae, Eunice decolorhami sp. n., from the southeastern Pacific Ocean, is described. The species was collected at the slope of the Desventuradas Islands (San Félix and San Ambrosio) and in three nearby seamounts of the Nazca Ridge, in dead coral rubble bottoms from 180 to 340 m depth and inhabiting inside parchment-like branched tubes. Eunice decolorhami sp. n. can be distinguished from other species of the genus, mainly by the coloration pattern of the subacicular hooded hooks along the body segments, the beginning of the subacicular hooded hooks, the beginning of the branchiae, the maximum number of branchial filaments, and the maxillary formula. A key for the seven Eunice species recorded off the coast of Chile and Peru, including the new species described herein, is provided.


Assuntos
Poliquetos , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Ilhas , Oceano Pacífico
6.
Zootaxa ; 4827(1): zootaxa.4827.1.1, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056259

RESUMO

Nearly one hundred names have been proposed for Caecidae within the eastern Pacific. For the first time a comprehensive review of the extant members of Caecidae has been completed for this region. During this twelve year long deciphering effort, tens of thousands of specimens from Alaska to Chile were examined. All known type material was studied and whenever possible has been illustrated herein.                Whenever possible the descriptions include details of each growth stage from the protoconch through to the final adult stage. Then, the growth stages have been reconstructed to show what the caecid might have looked like, if it had not discarded its previous stages. In doing so, a better understanding of the growth morphology is provided for each species. In addition, this effort shows that not only the apertures of late subadult stages can appear different from their adult stage, but there can also be multiple differences in the varices.                The resulting product is a taxonomic resource for Caecidae identification and growth morphology. Forty-three species are treated herein. Neotypes have been designated for Caecum glabriforme, C. semilaeve and C. subaustrale, and a lectotype has been designated for C. mirificum. Five species are described as new to science, plus one replacement name: Caecum lightfootanum sp. nov., C. draperi sp. nov., C. shaskyi sp. nov., C. galapagoense sp. nov. and C. spiculum sp. nov. and C. adamsi nom. nov.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Animais , Oceano Pacífico
7.
Zootaxa ; 4767(1): zootaxa.4767.1.3, 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056573

RESUMO

Three new species of the genus Lestidium with complete lateral line are described from the Indo-west Pacific Ocean. Lestidium longilucifer sp. nov., from Western Australia and Taiwan, belongs to the Lestidium atlanticum species complex and can be separated from other congeners by having 41-43 prehaemal vertebrae, 85-88 total vertebrae and 126-146 total lateral-line scales; and body proportions. Lestidium australis sp. nov. from eastern Australia and Lestidium rofeni sp. nov. from Taiwan and the Philippines together with Lestidium prolixum form the L. prolixum species complex. These three species can be separated from each other by a combination of different fin positions, vertebral formula, number of lateral-line scales and pigmentation.


Assuntos
Peixes , Animais , Oceano Pacífico
8.
Zootaxa ; 4801(3): zootaxa.4801.3.8, 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056649

RESUMO

A new codlet species is described from Japan, Taiwan, Indonesia and Australia. It is distinguished from its congeners by having a pointed snout extending beyond jaws, a stripe of black dots above anal-fin base, a black vertical band on caudal-fin base, and the following combination of characters: ventral surface of head and abdomen devoid of melanophores; ventral portion of abdominal vertebrae with a pointed parapophysis and a blunt ventral post-zygapophysis; peritoneum, pyloric caeca, and intestine pale; dorsal-fin rays 46-52; anal-fin rays 47-55; pectoral-fin rays 15-17; principal caudal-fin rays 12‒14; caudal vertebrae 35‒39; total vertebrae 50-54. Furthermore, as a result of this study, Bregmaceros pescadorus Shen described from southwestern Taiwan is herein recognized as a junior synonym of Bregmaceros nectabanus Whitley.


Assuntos
Gadiformes , Animais , Oceano Pacífico
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5069, 2020 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093493

RESUMO

Ongoing climate change is predicted to trigger major shifts in the geographic distribution of marine plankton species. However, it remains unclear whether species will successfully track optimal habitats to new regions, or face extinction. Here we show that one significant zooplankton group, the radiolaria, underwent a severe decline in high latitude species richness presaged by ecologic reorganization during the late Neogene, a time of amplified polar cooling. We find that the majority (71%) of affected species did not relocate to the warmer low latitudes, but went extinct. This indicates that some plankton species cannot track optimal temperatures on a global scale as assumed by ecologic models; instead, assemblages undergo restructuring and extinction once local environmental thresholds are exceeded. This pattern forewarns profound diversity loss of high latitude radiolaria in the near future, which may have cascading effects on the ocean food web and carbon cycle.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática/história , Ecossistema , Rhizaria/fisiologia , Zooplâncton/fisiologia , Aclimatação/fisiologia , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , Extinção Biológica , História Antiga , Modelos Biológicos , Oceanos e Mares , Oceano Pacífico , Temperatura
10.
Zootaxa ; 4816(1): zootaxa.4816.1.1, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055711

RESUMO

Marphysa sanguinea Montagu, 1813, the type species of genus Marphysa, was described with few characteristics and subsequently reported in tropical and temperate waters as a cosmopolitan species. Recent comparative studies have shown that M. sanguinea has a limited distribution to the Northeast Atlantic. As a result, species from the tropical and subtropical zones are now being redescribed as new species. However, this issue is not completely resolved because of the taxonomic status of seven nominal species, considered as junior synonymies of M. sanguinea. Herein, we examined the type and additional materials from five species in synonymy M. sanguinea and performed a compared analysis with the neotype of M. sanguinea. Additionally, we reviewed specimens from two localities in the mid-Pacific Ocean and the Adriatic Sea, where M. sanguinea was previously reported. As a result of this study, three species were reinstated (M. californica Moore, 1909, M. leidii de Quatrefages, 1866, and M. parishii Baird, 1869) and two subspecies, are now raised to species level (M. americana n. status and M. brevibranchiata n. status). In addition, two new species from Hawaii and Croatia are described: M. baileybrockae n. sp. and M. birgeri n. sp., respectively. Morphological comparisons with most species currently assigned to the M. sanguinea complex are presented. This work provides more support for rejecting the hypothesis that M. sanguinea is a cosmopolitan species and we encourage the use of novel and traditional morphological characters to differentiate species within the complex.


Assuntos
Anelídeos , Poliquetos , Animais , Oceano Pacífico
11.
Zootaxa ; 4790(2): zootaxa.4790.2.13, 2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055850

RESUMO

The use of SCUBA diving for marine research in the Chilean fjords has increased the possibility of obtaining information on the sponge assemblages living in this environment. However, much work is still needed to achieve a satisfactory knowledge of the benthos of this wide region. As to sponges, just consider that seventeen new species have been recently described by several authors (Hajdu et al., 2013; Fernandez et al., 2016; Bertolino et al., 2019) with detailed information of this benthic fauna for this area. Aim of this work is the description of a new species of Acanthella (Dictyonellidae van Soest, Diaz Pomponi, 1990), Acanthella danerii sp. nov.. It was collected at "Seno Magdalena" (44°61'48.63" S 72°95'83.12" W) (Chilean fjords) by SCUBA, at 20 m depth, on hard substrates of a vertical wall ending on a rocky bottom that slopes down to 32 m during a survey in August 2016.


Assuntos
Poríferos , Animais , Chile , Estuários , Oceano Pacífico
12.
Zootaxa ; 4808(3): zootaxa.4808.3.12, 2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055971

RESUMO

A new species of Trimma is described from the northern Palaun islands. Trimma kalum n. sp. lacks scales on the cheeks, opercle and nape, has an elongate second spine of the first dorsal fin, reaching posteriorly to the base of the 2nd-10th ray of the second dorsal fin when adpressed, 17-18 pectoral-fin rays with 12-13 branched rays in the middle of the fin, a single dichotomous branch point in the 5th pelvic-fin ray, which is 51-75% the length of the 4th ray, a very well developed dermal crest in the midline between the base of the first dorsal spine and the posterior interorbital region, a U-shaped interorbital trench with no fleshy median ridge, a poorly developed postorbital trench ending between the 4th to 5th papillae in row p, which has 6 papillae in total, and there are 5 papillae in row c beneath the eye. When live and freshly collected, the species is very similar in appearance to T. sheppardi, with an overall yellow body, three yellow bars across the cheek, and a double dark spot above the posterior portion of the opercle.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Ilhas , Oceano Pacífico , Palau
13.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(10): 5561-5566, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924915

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, facultatively anaerobic, yellow-pigmented, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated zrk23T, was isolated from a deep-sea cold seep. The strain was characterized by a polyphasic approach to clarify its taxonomic position. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed zrk23T within the genus Sphingosinithalassobacter and showed the highest similarity to Sphingosinithalassobacter portus FM6T (97.93 %). Growth occurs at temperatures from 16 to 45 °C (optimum, 30 °C), at pH values between pH 6.0 and 8.5 (optimum, pH 7.0) and in 0-5.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 1.5 %). The major fatty acids were C16 : 0, C14 : 0 2-OH and summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c). The major isoprenoid quinone was ubiquinone-10. Predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, one unidentified phosphoglycolipid, three unidentified glycolipids and three unidentified phospholipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 64.69 %. The average nucleotide identity values between zrk23T and the most closely related available genome, of Sphingosinithalassobacter portus FM6T, was 82.21 %, indicating that zrk23T was clearly distinguished from S. portus. The analysis of genome sequence of zrk23T revealed that there were many genes associated with degradation of aromatic compounds existing in the genome of zrk23T. As a result of the combination of the results of phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data, zrk23T was considered to represent a novel species of the genus Sphingosinithalassobacter, for which the name Sphingosinithalassobacter tenebrarum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is zrk23T (=KCTC 72896T=MCCC 1K04416T).


Assuntos
Filogenia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Sphingomonadaceae/classificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , Temperatura Baixa , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Glicolipídeos/química , Oceano Pacífico , Fosfolipídeos/química , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sphingomonadaceae/isolamento & purificação , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Ubiquinona/química
14.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(10): 5576-5585, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941125

RESUMO

Two novel Gram-stain-positive bacteria, designated as SCSIO 52909T and SCSIO 52915T, were isolated from a deep-sea sediment sample collected at about 3448 m water depth of the South China Sea. Phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genomic characteristics were investigated. These strains were aerobic and tested positive for catalase activity, oxidase activity and nitrate reduction. Optimal growth occurred at 28 °C, pH 7 and 3% salinity over 14 days cultivation. Its peptidoglycan structure was type A3α (l-Lys-l-Ala) and the only menaquinone was MK-8. Both strains possessed diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified phosphoglycolipid, an unidentified glycolipid and an unidentified phospholipid. Their major fatty acids differed, but both contained iso-branched components of C16 : 0 12-methyl. Genome sequencing revealed two large genomes of 4.58 Mbp with G+C content of 67.0 mol% in SCSIO 52909T and of 4.42 Mbp with G+C content of 69.1 % in SCSIO 52915T. The two novel strains encoded genes for metabolism that are absent in most other Rubrobacter species, and possessed many more gene copy numbers of alkaline phosphatase and thioredoxin reductase. Results of gANI and 16S rRNA gene analyses suggested that the two strains represent two new species, with 74.9, 95.0 % pairwise similarity between each other, and less than 74.3 and 93.5 % to other recognized Rubrobacter species, respectively. In the phylogenetic analysis, strains SCSIO 52909T and SCSIO 52915T were separately clustered together and formed a well-separated phylogenetic branch distinct from the other known species in the genus Rubrobacter. Based on the data presented here, these two strains should be recognized as two new species in the genus Rubrobacter, for which the names Rubrobacter tropicus sp. nov., with the type strain SCSIO 52909T (=KCTC 49412T=CGMCC 1.13853T), and Rubrobacter marinus sp. nov., with the type strain SCSIO 52915T (=KCTC 49411T=CGMCC 1.13852T), are proposed.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/classificação , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Filogenia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Glicolipídeos/química , Oceano Pacífico , Peptidoglicano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
15.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238405, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936809

RESUMO

In the California Current Ecosystem, El Niño acts as a natural phenomenon that is partially representative of climate change impacts on marine bacteria at timescales relevant to microbial communities. Between 2014-2016, the North Pacific warm anomaly (a.k.a., the "blob") and an El Niño event resulted in prolonged ocean warming in the Southern California Bight (SCB). To determine whether this "marine heatwave" resulted in shifts in microbial populations, we sequenced the rpoC1 gene from the biogeochemically important picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus at 434 time points from 2009-2018 in the MICRO time series at Newport Beach, CA. Across the time series, we observed an increase in the abundance of Prochlorococcus relative to Synechococcus as well as elevated frequencies of ecotypes commonly associated with low-nutrient and high-temperature conditions. The relationships between environmental and ecotype trends appeared to operate on differing temporal scales. In contrast to ecotype trends, most microdiverse populations were static and possibly reflect local habitat conditions. The only exceptions were microdiversity from Prochlorococcous HLI and Synechococcus Clade II that shifted in response to the 2015 El Niño event. Overall, Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus populations did not return to their pre-heatwave composition by the end of this study. This research demonstrates that extended warming in the SCB can result in persistent changes in key microbial populations.


Assuntos
El Niño Oscilação Sul , Prochlorococcus/isolamento & purificação , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Synechococcus/isolamento & purificação , Organismos Aquáticos/genética , Organismos Aquáticos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Organismos Aquáticos/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , California , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Ecótipo , Genes Bacterianos , Microbiota/genética , Oceano Pacífico , Filogenia , Prochlorococcus/genética , Prochlorococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estações do Ano , Synechococcus/genética , Synechococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Temperatura
16.
J Environ Radioact ; 223-224: 106382, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916431

RESUMO

The spatial variations of low-level 134Cs concentrations (activities) in seawater off the Japanese Archipelago, particularly in the eastern East China Sea (ECS), in 2018 and 2019 were examined. The 134Cs concentrations, decay-corrected to the date of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, in seawaters were 0.5-2.0 mBq/L. High 134Cs concentrations (1.1-2.0 mBq/L) of the Kuroshio Current subsurface water (densities of 25-26σθ) in the eastern ECS could indicated the contribution of the subtropical mode water from the Pacific Ocean side, and total column inventories were 330-426 Bq/m2. In contrast, as indicated by the same 134Cs concentration level at the surface of the eastern ECS and Sea of Japan, larger portions of the subsurface waters remained in the ECS and Yellow Sea side in response to the existence of the shallow Tsushima Strait.


Assuntos
Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Monitoramento de Radiação , Poluentes Radioativos da Água , Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Japão , Oceano Pacífico , Água do Mar , Poluentes Radioativos da Água/análise
17.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238866, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941444

RESUMO

During the last 10 years, we have learned a great deal about the potential for a coastal peopling of the Americas and the importance of marine resources in early economies. Despite research at a growing number of terminal Pleistocene archaeological sites on the Pacific Coast of the Americas, however, important questions remain about the lifeways of early Paleocoastal peoples. Research at CA-SRI-26, a roughly 11,700 year old site on California's Santa Rosa Island, provides new data on Paleoindian technologies, subsistence strategies, and seasonality in an insular maritime setting. Buried beneath approximately two meters of alluvium, much of the site has been lost to erosion, but its remnants have produced chipped stone artifacts (crescents and Channel Island Amol and Channel Island Barbed points) diagnostic of early island Paleocoastal components. The bones of waterfowl and seabirds, fish, and marine mammals, along with small amounts of shellfish document a diverse subsistence strategy. These data support a relatively brief occupation during the wetter "winter" season (late fall to early spring), in an upland location several km from the open coast. When placed in the context of other Paleocoastal sites on the Channel Islands, CA-SRI-26 demonstrates diverse maritime subsistence strategies and a mix of seasonal and more sustained year-round island occupations. Our results add to knowledge about a distinctive island Paleocoastal culture that appears to be related to Western Stemmed Tradition sites widely scattered across western North America.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos , Arqueologia , Ecologia , Paleontologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Tecnologia/história , Animais , História Medieval , Humanos , Oceano Pacífico , Alimentos Marinhos
18.
Sci Data ; 7(1): 297, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901022

RESUMO

Zooplankton biomass data have been collected in Australian waters since the 1930s, yet most datasets have been unavailable to the research community. We have searched archives, scanned the primary and grey literature, and contacted researchers, to collate 49187 records of marine zooplankton biomass from waters around Australia (0-60°S, 110-160°E). Many of these datasets are relatively small, but when combined, they provide >85 years of zooplankton biomass data for Australian waters from 1932 to the present. Data have been standardised and all available metadata included. We have lodged this dataset with the Australian Ocean Data Network, allowing full public access. The Australian Zooplankton Biomass Database will be valuable for global change studies, research assessing trophic linkages, and for initialising and assessing biogeochemical and ecosystem models of lower trophic levels.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Zooplâncton , Animais , Austrália , Oceano Índico , Oceano Pacífico
19.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111584, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896714

RESUMO

In the South Pacific (SP) pearl farming atolls, wind is the main driver of lagoon water circulation, affecting dispersal and survival of pearl oyster larvae. To characterize typical wind conditions in the SP, wind regime classifications are performed from regional climate simulations using the WRF model, for present-day and for the end of the 21st century under RCP8.5 scenario conditions. At the daily time-scale, 4 regimes are identified: a trade-wind, a north-easterly, and two easterly regimes. Their characteristics are driven by large-scale circulation and climate modes of variability. In future projection, all regimes are characterized by a ~15% wind speed increase, while directions and occurrence frequencies undergo marginal changes. At the monthly time-scale that corresponds to pearl oyster pelagic larval duration, nine wind regimes are determined including three regimes with wind reversals. These regimes can be used to model typical lagoon conditions during larval dispersal.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Vento , Agricultura , Animais , Clima , Oceano Pacífico
20.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111591, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898738

RESUMO

We investigated the distribution of microplastics in the water column along a large remote estuarine system located between the Northern and Southern Patagonian Ice Fields in Chilean Patagonia, and connected with the Pacific Ocean through the Gulf of Penas. Microplastic particles were found in all samples, with abundances ranging from 0.1 to 7 particles/m3. Polymers identified were principally acrylics, PET, and cellophane. The average abundance of microplastics in surface waters was similar along the whole estuary (0.4 ± 0.3 particles/m3) with acrylics and epoxy resins being more abundant near Caleta Tortel, the only small village in the area. The observed higher abundance of microplastics in the deeper waters towards the Gulf of Penas points to intrusions of subsurface waters transporting plastic particles from the ocean into the channel system. This underlines the potential of ocean currents in transporting plastic pollution into pristine fjords and channels in Chilean Patagonia.


Assuntos
Estuários , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Chile , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Microplásticos , Oceano Pacífico , Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
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