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1.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500642

RESUMO

Currently, the negative effects of unified and intensive agriculture are of growing concern. To mitigate them, the possibilities of using local but nowadays underused crop for food production should be more thoroughly investigated and promoted. The soybean is the major crop cultivated for vegetable oil production in Zambia, while the oil production from local oil-bearing plants is neglected. The chemical composition of oils and cakes of a three traditional oil plant used by descendants of the Lozi people for cooking were investigated. Parinari curatellifolia and Schinziophyton rautanenii oils were chiefly composed of α-eleostearic (28.58-55.96%), linoleic (9.78-40.18%), and oleic acid (15.26-24.07%), whereas Ochna serrulata contained mainly palmitic (35.62-37.31%), oleic (37.31-46.80%), and linoleic acid (10.61-18.66%); the oil yield was high (39-71%). S. rautanenii and O. serrulata oils were rich in γ-tocopherol (3236.18 µg/g, 361.11 µg/g, respectively). The O. serrulata oil also had a very distinctive aroma predominantly composed of p-cymene (52.26%), m-xylene (9.63%), γ-terpinene (9.07%), o-xylene (7.97), and limonene (7.23%). The cakes remaining after oil extraction are a good source of essential minerals, being rich in N, P, S, K, Ca, and Mg. These plants have the potential to be introduced for use in the food, technical, or pharmaceutical industries.


Assuntos
Ochnaceae/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Árvores/química , Culinária/métodos , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácido Linoleico/química , Ácido Oleico/química , Sementes/química , Tocoferóis/química , Zâmbia , gama-Tocoferol/química
2.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e20200443, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495202

RESUMO

Phytochemical studies of Cespedesia spathulata (Ochnaceae) leaves using 1H, 13C NMR, and GC-MS have led to the isolation of some metabolites identified for the first time in these species such as cathechin, epicatechin, vitexin, orientin, 6''-O-acetyl-vitexin, sitosterol, stigmasterol, phytol, 4,5-dihydrovomifoliol and a mixture of aliphatic methyl esters, together with ochnaflavone, which was previously isolated from this plant. The modulating activity of some fractions and compounds from Cespedesia spathulata towards tyrosinase enzyme was assayed by spectroscopic and theoretical means/experiments. The dichloromethane fraction (133 µg mL-1) and ochnaflavone (333 µM) inhibited tyrosinase activity by 20 % and 2.0 %, respectively, whereas the ethyl acetate fraction (666 µg mL-1) and ±catechins (catechin and epicatechin - 800 µM) activated it by 104 % and 384 %, respectively. Quantum chemical calculations suggested that catechin and epicatechin are better activators than L-DOPA by interacting with Cu (II) ions. Molecular docking results suggested that hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions are the main binding forces between each tyrosinase activator and the amino acid residues inside the active protein binding pocket.


Assuntos
Ochnaceae , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
3.
Am J Bot ; 108(7): 1201-1216, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34180046

RESUMO

PREMISE: Both universal and family-specific targeted sequencing probe kits are becoming widely used for reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships in angiosperms. Within the pantropical Ochnaceae, we show that with careful data filtering, universal kits are equally as capable in resolving intergeneric relationships as custom probe kits. Furthermore, we show the strength in combining data from both kits to mitigate bias and provide a more robust result to resolve evolutionary relationships. METHODS: We sampled 23 Ochnaceae genera and used targeted sequencing with two probe kits, the universal Angiosperms353 kit and a family-specific kit. We used maximum likelihood inference with a concatenated matrix of loci and multispecies-coalescence approaches to infer relationships in the family. We explored phylogenetic informativeness and the impact of missing data on resolution and tree support. RESULTS: For the Angiosperms353 data set, the concatenation approach provided results more congruent with those of the Ochnaceae-specific data set. Filtering missing data was most impactful on the Angiosperms353 data set, with a relaxed threshold being the optimum scenario. The Ochnaceae-specific data set resolved consistent topologies using both inference methods, and no major improvements were obtained after data filtering. Merging of data obtained with the two kits resulted in a well-supported phylogenetic tree. CONCLUSIONS: The Angiosperms353 data set improved upon data filtering, and missing data played an important role in phylogenetic reconstruction. The Angiosperms353 data set resolved the phylogenetic backbone of Ochnaceae as equally well as the family specific data set. All analyses indicated that both Sauvagesia L. and Campylospermum Tiegh. as currently circumscribed are polyphyletic and require revised delimitation.


Assuntos
Magnoliopsida , Ochnaceae , Evolução Biológica , Magnoliopsida/genética , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
4.
Fitoterapia ; 151: 104857, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582268

RESUMO

The new isoflavonoid kirkinone A (1) and biflavonoid kirkinone B (2) along with six known compounds (3-8) were isolated from the methanolic extract of the root bark of Ochna kirkii. The compounds were identified by NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. Out of the eight isolated natural products, calodenin B (4) and lophirone A (6) showed significant antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis with MIC values of 2.2 and 28 µM, and cytotoxicity against the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line with EC50 values of 219.3 and 19.2 µM, respectively. The methanolic crude extract of the root bark exhibited cytotoxicity at EC50 8.4 µg/mL. The isolated secondary metabolites and the crude extract were generally inactive against the Gram-negative Escherichia coli (MIC ≥400 µg/mL). Isolation of biflavonoids and related secondary metabolites from O. kirkii demonstrates their chemotaxonomic significance to the genus Ochna and to other members of the family Ochnaceae.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Biflavonoides/farmacologia , Ochnaceae/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Bacillus subtilis/efeitos dos fármacos , Biflavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Casca de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Tanzânia
5.
Parasitol Int ; 79: 102180, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860937

RESUMO

Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease which affects 8 million people in Latin America. The parasite possesses high capacity to evade host immune system and the available drugs to treat Chagas disease present low efficacy combined to serious side effects to patients. Therefore, the identification of alternative therapeutics is essential. Brazilian flora exhibits an immense diversity of metabolites with great potential to be developed into new drugs. We investigated the action of 2″,3″-dihydroochnaflavone a biflavonoid extracted from Luxemburgia nobilis Eichler ex Engl. (Ochnaceae) against T. cruzi (Y strain). Our experiments showed that this compound is effective against parasite epimastigote forms, presenting IC50 value of (2.5 ± 0.1) µM after 96 h of treatment. Ultrastructure alterations were also detected in treated epimastigotes especially mitochondrial enlargement at the kinetoplast region. At the concentration of 30 µM, the compound killed (61.6 ± 3.37)% of the parasite in its amastigote form. In addition, at the same concentration, the compound killed all trypamastigotes growing within murine macrophages after 7-9 days of infection. Nonetheless, the biflavonoid concentrations were harmless to murine enriched population of lymphocytes and peritoneal macrophages. These results indicate that 2″,3″- dihydroochnaflavone presents activity against T. cruzi.


Assuntos
Biflavonoides/farmacologia , Ochnaceae/química , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Peritoneais/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Testes de Toxicidade
6.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 16(1): 43, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carapa procera, Lophira lanceolata, and Pentadesma butyracea are three underutilized but increasingly threatened indigenous oil-seed tree species (IOS) in tropical Africa. Because local knowledge is vital for sustainable management, this study investigated the socio-economic factors that explain local people's (i) preferences for these IOS, (ii) attitudes toward their conservation, and (iii) ability to identify "plus trees" based on seed traits. We predicted a positive relationship between response variables and informants' age, residence status, gender (femaleness), and existence of market opportunities for each IOS. We also predicted that a higher preference for a given IOS has a positive effect on people's attitudes for its conservation and the aptitude to identify its "plus trees." We additionally expected significant differences among ethnic groups for each response variable. METHODS: Data were collected through individual semi-structured interviews with 336 informants from 14 randomly selected villages in the species distribution area of Kénédougou province. For each species, the collected data were the number of actual uses reported (converted to use value-UV, as a measure of the species preference), practiced conservation actions (converted to conservation attitude using a four-scale scoring method), and possible criteria for selecting preferred trees for seed oil extraction. Generalized linear mixed models were used to test for the fixed effects of socio-economic factors, and account for the random variation across villages. RESULTS: The results showed species-specific patterns. Carapa procera had the highest UV and hence was the most preferred IOS, particularly by women. Informants from the Siamou ethnic group had the highest UV irrespective of IOS. The most cited conservation actions were assisted natural regeneration and banning of tree cutting, which were practiced for C. procera and L. lanceolata. No conservation measure was cited for P. butyracea. The practice of tree planting was not recorded for any of the IOS. Young and male informants participated less in conservation actions. Tree selection for oil-seed collection was mainly guided not by "oil extraction yield" but rather by the "quality of extracted oil" (namely oil color and taste for food uses, and oil bitterness for medicinal efficacy). The selection mainly concerned L. lanceolata and was mostly practiced by elderly people. CONCLUSION: This study provided useful local knowledge-based information to guide conservation actions and valorization strategies of three IOS. The study sheds further light on the socio-economic factors that are associated to local people's preferences, conservation attitudes, and individual tree selection.


Assuntos
Atitude , Clusiaceae , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Conhecimento , Meliaceae , Ochnaceae , Burkina Faso , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Óleos Vegetais , Sementes , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Árvores
7.
Phytochemistry ; 174: 112336, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192964

RESUMO

Targeting the transmissible stages of the Plasmodium parasite that develop in the human and mosquito host is a crucial strategy for malaria control and elimination. Medicinal plants offer a prolific source for the discovery of new antimalarial compounds. The recent identification of the gametocytocidal activity of lophirone E, obtained from the African plant Lophira lanceolata (Ochnaceae), inspired the evaluation of the plant also against early sporogonic stages of the parasite development. The bioassay-guided phytochemical study led to the isolation of two known lanceolins and of a new glycosylated bichalcone, named glucolophirone C. Its stereostructure, including absolute configuration of the bichalcone moiety, was elucidated by means of NMR, HRMS, ECD and computational calculations. Lanceolin B proved to be a potent inhibitor of the development of Plasmodium early sporogonic stages indicating that the plant produces two different stage-specific antimalarial agents acting on transmissible stages in the human and mosquito host.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Malária , Ochnaceae , Animais , Humanos , Casca de Planta , Extratos Vegetais , Plasmodium falciparum
8.
Bioorg Chem ; 93: 103321, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585261

RESUMO

Bioassay-guided fractionation of the organic extract obtained from stem barks of the African plant Lophira lanceolata has led to the isolation of seven biflavonoids, including the new α'-chlorolophirone E (5) and 5'-chlorolophirone D (6). Among the isolated compounds, the bichalcone lophirone E was identified as a potent gametocytocidal agent with an IC50 value in the nanomolar range and negligible cytotoxicity (selectivity index = 570). Lophirone E proved to be about 100 times more active against P. falciparum stage V gametocytes than on asexual blood stages, thus exhibiting a unique stage-specific activity profile. The isolation of structural analogues allowed to draw preliminary structure-activity relationships, identifying the critical positions on the chemical scaffold of lophirone E.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/química , Ochnaceae/química , Casca de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química , Antimaláricos/isolamento & purificação , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise Espectral/métodos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
9.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(10): 1500-1503, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29338358

RESUMO

The study aimed to evaluate in vitro antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antidiabetic properties of Ouratea hexasperma (A. St.-Hil.) Baill. The inflorescence methanol extract and the ethyl acetate fraction of leaves and stems reported the highest Relative Antioxidant Capacity Index (RACI), whereas the dichloromethane fraction of leaves was the best inhibitor of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Trans-3-O-methyl-resveratrol-2-C-ß-glucoside, lithospermoside, 2,5-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone, lup-20(30)-ene-3ß,28-diol, 7-O-methylgenistein, apigenin and luteolin and amentoflavone were isolated from O. hexasperma. Resveratrol derivative was isolated for the first time in Ochnaceae family. Luteolin, followed by apigenin, reported the highest Relative Antioxidant Capacity Index and they were also the best inhibitors of α-glucosidase enzyme.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Ochnaceae/química , Antioxidantes/química , Apigenina/isolamento & purificação , Apigenina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Luteolina/isolamento & purificação , Luteolina/farmacologia , Metanol/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores
10.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 107: 1030-1036, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30257314

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of Kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (KR), isolated from the plant Ouratea fieldingiana, on the orofacial nociception and possible mechanisms of action. Adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were tested as a behavioral model to study formalin, glutamate, capsaicin, cinnamaldehyde and acidic saline-induced orofacial nociception, using as parameter the number of times the fish crossed the lines between the quadrants of a glass Petri dish during a specific time. Morphine was used as positive control. The effect of KR was tested for modulation by opioid (naloxone), nitrergic (L-NAME), TRPV1 (ruthenium red), TRPA1 (camphor) or ASIC (amiloride) antagonists. The effect of KR on zebrafish locomotor behavior was evaluated with the open field test. KR did not alter the fish's locomotor system and significantly reduced the orofacial nociceptive behavior induced by all noxious agents compared to the control group. The antinociceptive effect of KR was similar to morphine. All antagonists inhibited the antinociceptive effect of KR. KR has pharmacological potential for the treatment of acute orofacial pain and this effect is modulated by the opioid and nitrergic systems as well as TRPV1, TRPA1 and ASIC channels. These results can lead to the development of a new natural product for the treatment of orofacial pain and confirm the popular use of O. fieldingiana leaf for pain relief.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Dor Facial/tratamento farmacológico , Quempferóis/farmacologia , Ochnaceae/química , Analgésicos/isolamento & purificação , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Quempferóis/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Morfina/farmacologia , Naloxona/farmacologia , Nociceptividade/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta , Peixe-Zebra
11.
Pharm Biol ; 56(1): 318-324, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29969355

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The roots of Lophira lanceolata Van Tiegh. Ex Keay (Ochnaceae) have numerous medicinal values in the Central African region. Even though the MeOH extract of the roots has shown antimycobacterial activities, the constituents responsible for this inhibitory activity remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: Phytochemical investigation of the MeOH root extract of L. lanceolata and determination of the antimycobacterial activities of that extract and constituents against the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Column chromatography was used to provide bioactive phytoconstituents. Those compounds were elucidated using MS and NMR spectroscopic data. Antimycobacterial screening of the extract (4.882-5000 µg/mL in DMSO during 24 h at 37 °C) and isolated compounds (0.244-250 µg/mL in DMSO during 24 h at 37 °C) was performed by microplate alamar blue assay (MABA) against two mycobacterial strains. RESULTS: The investigation of L. lanceolata MeOH roots extract provided of mixture of unseparated biflavonoids with a newly described one, dihydrolophirone A (1a) associated to lophirone A (1b). The bioactive compounds that effectively inhibited the growth of M. tuberculosis AC45 were found to be compounds 1 and 2. They exhibited MIC values of 31.25 and 15.75 µg/mL, respectively, and their MIC was found to be 62.5 µg/mL against resistant strain AC83. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: It is clearly evident from the results obtained that the mycobacterial activity of L. lanceolata could be related mainly to its steroid and flavonoid contents. Therefore, this study suggests the potential of the above-mentioned classes of compounds as promising candidate agents for developing new anti-tuberculosis drugs.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Ochnaceae , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antituberculosos/isolamento & purificação , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/fisiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/fisiologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
12.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 125: 196-203, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29625230

RESUMO

Cyclical periods of global cooling have been important drivers of biotic differentiation throughout the Quaternary. Ice age-induced sea level fluctuations can lead to changing patterns of land connections, both facilitating and disrupting gene flow. In this study, we test if species with differing life histories are differentially affected by Quaternary land connections. We used genome-wide SNPs in combination with mitochondrial gene sequences to analyse levels of divergence and gene flow between two songbird complexes across two Wallacean islands that have been repeatedly connected during glaciations. Although the two bird complexes are similar in ecological attributes, the forest and edge-inhabiting golden whistler Pachycephala pectoralis is comparatively flexible in its diet and niche requirements as compared to the henna-tailed jungle-flycatcher Cyornis colonus, which is largely restricted to the forest interior. Using population-genomic and coalescent approaches, we estimated levels of gene flow, population differentiation and divergence time between the two island populations. We observed higher levels of differentiation, an approximately two to four times deeper divergence time and near-zero levels of gene flow between the two island populations of the more forest-dependent henna-tailed jungle-flycatcher as compared to the more generalist golden whistler. Our results suggest that Quaternary land bridges act as semipermeable agents of gene flow in Wallacea, allowing only certain taxa to connect between islands while others remain isolated. Quaternary land bridges do not accommodate all terrestrial species equally, differing in suitability according to life history and species biology. More generalist species are likely to use Quaternary land connections as a conduit for gene flow between islands whereas island populations of more specialist species may continue to be reproductively isolated even during periods of Quaternary land bridges.


Assuntos
Aves/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Animais , Sequência de Bases , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genoma , Geografia , Ilhas , Ochnaceae/genética , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Análise de Componente Principal , Aves Canoras/genética , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 20(5): 848-856, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29673051

RESUMO

The ability of leaves to absorb fog water can positively contribute to the water and carbon balance of plants in montane ecosystems, especially in periods of soil water deficit. However, the ecophysiological traits and mechanisms responsible for variations in the speed and total water absorption capacity of leaves are still poorly known. This study investigated leaf anatomical attributes of seven species occurring in seasonal tropical high-altitude ecosystems (rocky outcrop and forest), which could explain differences in leaf water uptake (LWU) capacities. We tested the hypothesis that different sets of anatomical leaf attributes will be more marked in plant individuals living under these contrasting environmental conditions. Anatomical variations will affect the initial rate of water absorption and the total storage capacity, resulting in different strategies for using the water supplied by fog events. Water absorption by leaves was inferred indirectly, based on leaf anatomical structure and visual observation of the main access routes (using an apoplastic marker), the diffusion of water through the cuticle, and non-glandular or glandular trichomes in all species. The results suggest that three LWU strategies coexist in the species studied. The different anatomical patterns influenced the speed and maximum LWU capacity. The three LWU strategies can provide different adaptive advantages to adjust to temporal and spatial variations of water availability in these tropical high-altitude environments.


Assuntos
Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Água/metabolismo , Altitude , Asteraceae/anatomia & histologia , Asteraceae/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Fabaceae/anatomia & histologia , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Fluorescência , Malpighiaceae/anatomia & histologia , Malpighiaceae/metabolismo , Melastomataceae/anatomia & histologia , Melastomataceae/metabolismo , Myrtaceae/anatomia & histologia , Myrtaceae/metabolismo , Ochnaceae/anatomia & histologia , Ochnaceae/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
14.
Drug Res (Stuttg) ; 68(4): 232-237, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29190855

RESUMO

Enhanced antimalarial activity of plant extracts used for treatment of malaria in endemic areas is attributed to partial immunity gained by prior infection. This suggests synergy between immunity and extract activity in treatment. Testing this hypothesis, rodent malaria was used to determine efficacy of Lophira alata leaf extracts in treating malaria in prior infected mice. One round of P. berghei infection and Pyrimethamine drug-cure was used to establish partial immunity in mice. Previously Exposed Mice (PEM) and Previously Unexposed Mice (PUM) mice challenged with P. berghei were used to determine influence of partial antimalarial immunity on efficacy of L. alata leaf extracts, administered alone or in combination with Artesunate (ART) in malaria treatment. There was a significant reduction in parasitemia in PEM when compared to PUM animals (P<0.001) irrespective of treatment regimen. Administration of L. alata combined with ART significantly reduced parasitemia (P<0.0032) and prolonged (P=0.0109) survival than when L. alata was administered alone in infected mice. These findings suggest that the action of L. alata in treating malaria infections in a murine model is enhanced by prior exposure to the malaria parasite. Thus the requirements of using plants in treating malaria in endemic populations may differ for those used in western systems, where trials are carried out with non-immune cohorts. Combining artemisinin derivatives and medicinal plants in malaria exposed populations may provide an alternative control measure in endemic regions and may justify the continued use of these plants by indigenous populations in treating malaria.


Assuntos
Artemisininas/farmacologia , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Ochnaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Plasmodium berghei/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antimaláricos/química , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Artesunato , Camundongos , Fitoterapia/métodos , Plantas Medicinais/química
15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2017: 5140506, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29204442

RESUMO

Cooccurrence of Diabetes Mellitus and Alzheimer's disease in elder people prompts scientists to develop multitarget agents that combat causes and symptoms of both diseases simultaneously. In line with this modern paradigm and as a follow-up to our previous studies, the present study is designed to investigate the crude methanolic extracts and subsequent CHCl3, n-BuOH, and H2O fractions of Acalypha alnifolia, Pavetta indica, and Ochna obtusata for their inhibitory activities towards specific targets involved in AD and DM, namely, acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and α-glucosidase (α-Glc). The methanolic extract and its derived chloroform fractions exhibited remarkable inhibitory capacities with IC50 values being found at the µg/mL level. Further studies on most active chloroform fractions presented a prominent ability to scavenge DPPH and ABTS reactive species and highest neuroprotective effect against H2O2 induced cell injury. Phytochemical analysis showed a large amount of phenolics, flavonoids, and terpenoids in active fractions. In conclusion, A. alnifolia, P. indica, and O. obtusata could be promising sources for the treatment of AD and DM since these fractions induced significant anticholinesterase, antidiabetic, antioxidant, and neuroprotection effects attributable to phenolic, flavonoid, and terpenoid contents and encourage further studies for development of multifunctional therapeutic agent for AD and DM dual therapy.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/administração & dosagem , Plantas Medicinais/química , Acalypha/química , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Antioxidantes/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Inibidores da Colinesterase/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Diabetes Mellitus/patologia , Glucosidases/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Ochnaceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química
16.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 17(1): 404, 2017 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28806951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Onchocerciasis is one of the tropical neglected diseases (NTDs) caused by the nematode Onchocerca volvulus. Control strategies currently in use rely on mass administration of ivermectin, which has marked activity against microfilariae. Furthermore, the development of resistance to ivermectin was observed. Since vaccine and safe macrofilaricidal treatment against onchocerciasis are still lacking, there is an urgent need to discover novel drugs. This study was undertaken to investigate the anthelmintic activity of Lophira lanceolata on the cattle parasite Onchocerca ochengi and the anthelmintic drug resistant strains of the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and to determine the phytochemical profiles of the extracts and fractions of the plants. METHODS: Plant was extracted in ethanol or methanol-methylene chloride. O. ochengi, C. elegans wild-type and C. elegans drug resistant strains were cultured in RPMI-1640 and NGM-agar respectively. Drugs diluted in dimethylsulphoxide/RPMI or M9-Buffer were added in assays and monitored at 48 h and 72 h. Worm viability was determined by using the MTT/formazan colorimetric method. Polyphenol, tannin and flavonoid contents were determined by dosage of gallic acid and rutin. Acute oral toxicity was evaluated using Swiss albino mice. RESULTS: Ethanolic and methanolic-methylene chloride extracts killed O. ochengi with LC50 values of 9.76, 8.05, 6.39 µg/mL and 9.45, 7.95, 6.39 µg/mL respectively for leaves, trunk bark and root bark after 72 h. The lowest concentrations required to kill 50% of the wild-type of C. elegans were 1200 and 1890 µg/mL with ethanolic crude extract, 1000 and 2030 µg/mL with MeOH-CH2Cl2 for root bark and trunk bark of L. lanceolata, respectively after 72 h. Leave extracts of L. lanceolata are lethal to albendazole and ivermectin resistant strains of C. elegans after 72 h. Methanol/methylene chloride extracted more metabolites. Additionally, extracts could be considered relatively safe. CONCLUSION: Ethanolic and methanolic-methylene chloride crude extracts and fractions of L. lanceolata showed in vitro anthelmintic activity. The extracts and fractions contained polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids and saponins. The mechanism of action of this plant could be different from that of albendazole and ivermectin. These results confirm the use of L. lanceolata by traditional healers for the treatment of worm infections.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Caenorhabditis elegans , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Ochnaceae/química , Onchocerca , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Albendazol/farmacologia , Animais , Bovinos , Resistência a Medicamentos , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Camundongos , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Oncocercose/parasitologia , Oncocercose/veterinária , Fitoterapia , Casca de Planta , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas , Caules de Planta , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Saponinas/análise , Saponinas/farmacologia , Taninos/análise , Taninos/farmacologia
17.
Chem Biodivers ; 14(11)2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28695668

RESUMO

The study of the MeOH extract of the leaves of Campylospermum excavatum led to the isolation of a nitrile glucoside, named campyloside C (1) and an original derivative of ochnaflavone, 7-O-methylochnaflavone (2), along with three known biflavonoids, amentoflavone, sequoiaflavone, and sotetsuflavone (3 - 5). The linkage site of the sub-units of 2 was confirmed by chemical correlation, after semi-synthesis of a trimethoxylated derivative of ochnaflavone (2a). The structures of these compounds as well as their relative and absolute configurations were assigned by 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, HR-ESI-MS and Electronic Circular Dichroism (ECD) calculations. A low-pass J filter HMBC experiment was performed in order to define the configuration of the double bond of 1. All of the biflavonoids were evaluated against protozoan parasites. Amentoflavone moderately inhibited the promastigote form of Leishmania infantum.


Assuntos
Biflavonoides/química , Glucosídeos/química , Nitrilas/química , Ochnaceae/química , Animais , Antiprotozoários/química , Antiprotozoários/isolamento & purificação , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Biflavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Biflavonoides/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Dicroísmo Circular , Flavonoides/síntese química , Flavonoides/química , Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmania/fisiologia , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/parasitologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos , Conformação Molecular , Ochnaceae/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
18.
Nat Prod Res ; 31(24): 2875-2884, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28385033

RESUMO

Phytochemical investigation of the stem bark of Campylospermum zenkeri led to the isolation of five known compounds: (Z,Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (1), serotobenine (2), agathisflavone (3), lophirone A (4) and lophirone F (5), together with a new derivative of procyanidin B, a catechin dimer named zenkerinol (6). Serotobenine (2) is structurally related to decursivine which shows moderate activity against D6 and W2 strains of Plasmodium falciparum. For a better understanding of structure-activity relationships, three new semi-synthetic derivatives of serotobenine (2) have been prepared. These are: serotobenine monopropionate (2a), serotobenine monopivalate (2b) and serotobenine cyclohexyl ether (2c) respectively. Two of them (2a) and (2b), were evaluated for their antiplasmodial activity against P. falciparum 3D7 strain in a parasite lactate-dehydrogenase (pLDH) assay. Compound 2b was more active than compound 2a based on their IC50 values (36.6 and 123 µM, respectively).


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/química , Biflavonoides/química , Catequina/química , Indóis/química , Ochnaceae/química , Proantocianidinas/química , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Biflavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Alcaloides Indólicos/farmacologia , Indóis/isolamento & purificação , Indóis/farmacocinética , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
19.
Z Naturforsch C J Biosci ; 72(1-2): 71-75, 2017 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27295334

RESUMO

The leaves of Campylospermum elongatum have furnished the cyano-glycoside (lithospermoside), nine isomeric biflavonoid derivatives among which five are I3-II6 linked (robustaflavone; 4'-O-methyl robustaflavone; 4',4″'-di-O-methyl robustaflavone; 7,4',4″-tri-O-methyl robustaflavone; 4',7″-di-O-methyl robustaflavone) and four I3-II8 linked (amentoflavone; 7-O-methyl amentoflavone; 7,7″-di-O-methyl amentoflavone; 7, 4',7″-tri-O-methyl amentoflavone) and a flavone glycoside, 4″-O-methyl-7-O-ß-d-galactosylapigenin. All structures were established from a complete spectroscopic analysis (MS, IR, 1D, and 2D NMR, including HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY) as well as by comparing the obtained spectroscopic data with literature. This is the first report on the characterization of 4'-O-methyl-7-O-ß-d-galactosylapigenin from the genus campylospermum and thus has important chemotaxonomic implications.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Ochnaceae/química , Etanol , Flavonas/química , Flavonas/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/química , Hidrólise , Metanol , Estrutura Molecular , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Folhas de Planta/química , Solventes , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
20.
Nat Prod Res ; 31(18): 2149-2152, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28032512

RESUMO

Anti-proliferative activity of the ethyl acetate fractions of Ochna schweinfurthiana F. Hoffm. and Ochna kibbiensis Hutch. and Dalziel methanol leaf extracts were investigated against glioblastoma multiforme (GBM U-1242 MG) cell line. O. kibbiensis significantly (p < 0.001) and dose dependently (IC50 = 25.74 µg/mL) reduced cell count. At 125 µg/mL, O. kibbiensis extract reduced cell count by about 92% compared to the untreated control. On the other hand, at 125 µg/mL, O. schweinfurthiana extract reduced cell count only by 20%, indicating a much weaker activity (IC50 = 823.51 µg/mL). Following from the result obtained, ethyl acetate fraction of O. kibbiensis was subjected to chromatographic purification. This led to the isolation of ochnaflavone; the structure of the isolated compound was identified by analysis of its nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral data and comparison with data in the literature. Although the isolated ochnaflavone could not be tested for anti-proliferative activity due to insufficient quantity, the obtained results indicate the presence of bioactive anti-GBM principles in O. kibbiensis.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Ochnaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Acetatos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais/métodos , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química
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