Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.998
Filtrar
1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1160, 2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127545

RESUMO

Could nose-to-brain pathways mediate the effects of peptides such as oxytocin (OT) on brain physiology when delivered intranasally? We address this question by contrasting two methods of intranasal administration (a standard nasal spray, and a nebulizer expected to improve OT deposition in nasal areas putatively involved in direct nose-to-brain transport) to intravenous administration in terms of effects on regional cerebral blood flow during two hours post-dosing. We demonstrate that OT-induced decreases in amygdala perfusion, a key hub of the OT central circuitry, are explained entirely by OT increases in systemic circulation following both intranasal and intravenous OT administration. Yet we also provide robust evidence confirming the validity of the intranasal route to target specific brain regions. Our work has important translational implications and demonstrates the need to carefully consider the method of administration in our efforts to engage specific central oxytocinergic targets for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Circulação Cerebrovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Administração Intranasal , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Tonsila do Cerebelo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Método Duplo-Cego , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Ocitocina/sangue , Ocitocina/farmacocinética , Placebos , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228700, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The alcohol withdrawal syndrome increases autonomic activation and stress in patients during detoxification, leading to alterations in motor activity and sleep irregularities. Intranasal oxytocin has been proposed as a possible treatment of acute alcohol withdrawal. The aim of the present study was to explore whether actigraphy could be used as a tool to register symptoms during alcohol detoxification, whether oxytocin affected actigraphy variables related to motor activity and sleep compared to placebo during detoxification, and whether actigraphy-recorded motor function during detoxification was different from that in healthy controls. METHODS: This study was a part of a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial in which 40 patients with alcohol use disorder admitted for acute detoxification were included. Of these, 20 received insufflations with intranasal oxytocin and 20 received placebo. Outcomes were actigraphy-recorded motor activity during 5-hour sequences following the insufflations and a full 24-hour period, as well as actigraphy-recorded sleep. Results were related to clinical variables of alcohol intake and withdrawal, including self-reported sleep. Finally, the actigraphy results were compared to those in a group of 34 healthy individuals. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the oxytocin group and the placebo group for any of actigraphy variables registered. Neither were there any correlations between actigraphy-recorded motor function and clinical symptoms of alcohol withdrawal, but there was a significant association between self-reported and actigraphy-recorded sleep. Compared to healthy controls, motor activity during alcohol withdrawal was lower in the evenings and showed increased variability. CONCLUSION: Intranasal oxytocin did not affect actigraphy-recorded motor activity nor sleep in patients with acute alcohol withdrawal. There were no findings indicating that actigraphy can be used to evaluate the degree of withdrawal symptoms during detoxification. However, patients undergoing acute alcohol withdrawal had a motor activity pattern different from than in healthy controls.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/tratamento farmacológico , Atividade Motora , Ocitócicos/administração & dosagem , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Sono/fisiologia , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/patologia , Actigrafia , Administração Intranasal , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Ocitócicos/farmacologia , Ocitocina/farmacologia , Efeito Placebo , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
3.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 105(1): 14-17, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072967

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether oxytocin administered before clamping the umbilical cord modifies the volume of placental transfusion. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. METHODS: Mothers of term infants born vigorous by vaginal delivery with informed consent provided in early labour were randomly assigned to oxytocin (10 IU) given intravenously within 15 s of birth (group 1) or after clamping the umbilical cord 3 min after delivery (group 2). Soon after birth, all infants were weighed using a 1 g precision scale and subsequently placed on the mother's abdomen or chest. At 3 min, in both groups, the cord was clamped and cut, and the weight was again obtained. The primary outcome (volume of placental transfusion) was estimated by the difference in weights. RESULTS: 144 patients were included. There were no differences in the primary outcome: infants in group 1 (n=70) gained a mean weight of 85.9 g (SD 48.3), and in group 2 (n=74) 86.7 g (SD 49.6) (p=0.92). No differences were found in secondary outcomes, including newborns' haematocrit and bilirubin concentrations and severe maternal postpartum haemorrhage. On the advice of the Data and Safety Monitoring Committee, the trial was stopped due to futility at 25% of the planned sample size. CONCLUSIONS: When umbilical cord clamping is delayed for 3 min, term newborn infants born vigorous receive a clinically significant placental transfusion which is not modified by the administration of intravenous oxytocin immediately after birth. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02618499.


Assuntos
Constrição , Ocitócicos/administração & dosagem , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Circulação Placentária , Período Pós-Parto , Cordão Umbilical , Adulto , Bilirrubina/sangue , Peso ao Nascer , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Hematócrito , Maternidades , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Injeções Intravenosas , Masculino , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Fatores de Tempo , Ganho de Peso
4.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; 34(1): e22415, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682045

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the therapeutic potential of oxytocin and liraglutide (LIR), a GLP-1 analogue, in a rat model of vincristine-induced neuropathy. Rats were injected with vincristine (VCR) at a dose of 4 mg/kg twice a week for 5 weeks. The VCR-administered rats were divided into three groups and received saline, oxytocin, or liraglutide simultaneously with VCR. After the treatment period, electrophysiological, biochemical, histological, and immunohistochemical investigations were performed. Electromyography (EMG) recordings demonstrated significant alterations in the VCR + saline group (p < .001). Also, motor performance was decreased in the VCR + saline group (p < .05). Histologically, the axonal diameter was decreased in all groups. VCR + saline group showed significantly increased lipid peroxidation and decreased nerve growth factor (NGF) expression. However, the administration of oxytocin and liraglutide significantly prevented the EMG alterations, lipid peroxidation, and reduction in neuronal NGF expression. On the basis of these findings, oxytocin and liraglutide may be considered as potential agents for the prevention of VCR-induced neuropathy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/toxicidade , Liraglutida/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/tratamento farmacológico , Ocitocina/uso terapêutico , Vincristina/toxicidade , Animais , Liraglutida/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/induzido quimicamente , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
5.
Anaesthesia ; 75(3): 331-337, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867715

RESUMO

Postpartum haemorrhage is a leading cause of maternal death during childbirth. There is an increasing incidence of atonic postpartum haemorrhage in developed countries, and maternal obesity has been proposed as a contributing factor. The dose-response relationship of carbetocin in obese women has not yet been determined. We conducted a double-blind, dose-finding study of carbetocin using a biased coin up-and-down design in women with a body mass index ≥ 40 kg.m-2 undergoing elective caesarean section. The determinant for a successful response was satisfactory uterine tone, with no intra-operative need for additional uterotonic drugs. Secondary outcomes included the use of additional uterotonic drugs postoperatively, estimated blood loss and adverse effects of carbetocin administration. Thirty women were recruited to the study. The median (IQR [range]) body mass index was 44.93 (41.5-55.2 [40-66.5]) kg.m-2 . The ED90 of carbetocin was estimated as 62.9 (95%CI 57.0-68.7) µg using the truncated Dixon and Mood method, and 68 (95%CI 52-77) µg using the isotonic regression method. The estimated blood loss was 880 (621-1178 [75-2442]) ml. The overall rates of hypotension and hypertension after delivery were 40% and 6.7%, respectively, while nausea occurred in 26.7% of women. The ED90 for carbetocin in obese women at elective caesarean section is lower than the dose of 100 µg currently recommended by the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada, but is approximately four times higher than the previously demonstrated ED90 of 14.8 µg in women with body mass index < 40 kg.m-2 .


Assuntos
Cesárea/métodos , Obesidade/complicações , Ocitócicos/administração & dosagem , Ocitocina/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Índice de Massa Corporal , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/etiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 33(2): 289-296, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29909704

RESUMO

Background and objectives: Childbirth consists of a three-stage period beginning with uterine contractions and ending in the expulsion of the placenta. The present study was conducted to compare the effects of Ringer's solution, dextrose solution 5%, and oral intake on the duration of total labor and labor stages (primary outcome) and the frequency of oxytocin administration and prolonged labor (secondary outcome) in nulliparous women with spontaneous vaginal delivery.Materials and methods: The present randomized clinical trial was conducted on 201 nulliparous women in labor assigned with a randomized block design to three groups, each receiving either Ringer's solution plus oral fluids, dextrose solution 5% solution plus oral fluids or oral fluids alone. The solutions were intravenously administered at a rate of 125 ml/h in the groups receiving the solutions and the subjects in the oral fluids group could consume liquids of their choice (water, orange juice, and apple juice). The duration of total labor and labor stages (the active stage, the second, and third stages of labor) were recorded by the researcher in minutes. Furthermore, the frequency of oxytocin administration and prolonged labor were recorded by the researcher by using a checklist. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney's U-test, chi- square test and Fisher exact test.Results: The mean (±SD) duration of total labor was 301.2 (±50.0) minutes in the Ringer group, 171.9 (±36.4) in the dextrose 5% group, and 524.8 (±103.4) in the oral fluids group, suggesting a statistically significant intergroup difference (p < .001). The mean (±SD) duration of the active stage of labor was 276.7 (±91.3) minutes in the Ringer group, 150.6 (±78.5) in the dextrose 5% group, and 302.4 (±136.8) in the oral fluids group, suggesting a statistically significant intergroup difference (p < .001). A significant difference was also observed between the three groups in terms of the duration of the third stage of labor (p < .001); however, no significant differences were observed in terms of the duration of the second stage of labor (p = .058). Furthermore, a significant difference was observed between the three groups in terms of the need for oxytocin administration (p ≤ .001) and the frequency of prolonged labor (p = .001).Conclusion: The results suggest that the consumption of dextrose solution by nulliparous women reduces the duration of labor, the need for oxytocin administration and the frequency of prolonged labor compared to when Ringer's solution and oral fluids are used.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Líquidos , Glucose/administração & dosagem , Trabalho de Parto/efeitos dos fármacos , Solução de Ringer/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Ocitócicos/administração & dosagem , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 33(2): 267-271, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30033782

RESUMO

Objective: This is a prospective observational study whose goal was to compare the effectiveness of carbetocin and oxytocin for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) when they are administered in twin pregnancies undergoing a cesarean section.Design: We enrolled 166 twin pregnancies at term undergoing elective or emergency cesarean section. We compared the effect of a single 100 µg dose of carbetocin with the use of oxytocin as a protocol (20 IU in Ringer lactate 500 ml in 10-15 min). The main variables studied were intraoperative bleeding, surgical time, hemoglobin fall, hematocrit drop, additional uterotonic use (Methylergometrine and/or misoprostol), need for blood transfusion, and/or IV iron therapy.Results: In the oxytocin group there was a greater fall in the hemoglobin level (1.7 versus 1.2, p = .02). Along the same line, the control group presented a significantly greater need for blood transfusion (9.3 versus 1.3%, =0.03), as well as treatment for anemia as a composite variable (intravenous (IV) iron therapy and/or blood transfusion) 16.3 versus 3.85% for each group [OR 0.2 (0.05-0.72)]. In addition, the use of carbetocin was associated with a reduction in the need to administer additional treatments (uterotonic and/or treatment for anemia) during the postpartum period compared with the use of oxytocin O.R 0.32 (0.12-0.88).Conclusions: In our population of twin pregnancies delivered by cesarean section, carbetocin appears more effective than oxytocin in preventing PPH.


Assuntos
Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Ocitócicos/administração & dosagem , Ocitocina/análogos & derivados , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Gravidez , Gravidez de Gêmeos , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
BMC Psychol ; 7(1): 81, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research has mostly focused on the hormonal, behavioral and neural correlates of maternal caregiving. We present a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subject design to examine the effects of intranasal administration of oxytocin and vasopressin on parenting behavior and the neural and behavioral responses to infant cry sounds and infant threat. In addition, we will test whether effects of oxytocin and vasopressin administration are moderated by fathers' early childhood experiences. METHODS: Fifty-five first-time fathers of a child between two and seven months old will participate in three experimental sessions with intervening periods of one to two weeks. Participants self-administer oxytocin, vasopressin or a placebo. Infant-father interactions and protective parenting responses are observed during play. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is used to examine the neural processing of infant cry sounds and infant threat. A handgrip dynamometer is used to measure use of handgrip force when listening to infant cry sounds. Participants report on their childhood experiences of parental love-withdrawal and abuse and neglect. DISCUSSION: The results of this study will provide important insights into the hormonal, behavioral and neural correlates of fathers' parenting behavior during the early phase of fatherhood. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Dutch Trial Register: NTR (ID: NL8124); Date registered: October 30, 2019.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pai , Neurofisinas/administração & dosagem , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Paterno/efeitos dos fármacos , Precursores de Proteínas/administração & dosagem , Vasopressinas/administração & dosagem , Administração Intranasal , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento do Lactente , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa
9.
Sex Reprod Healthc ; 21: 21-25, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395229

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Retained placenta can be defined as lack of expulsion of the placenta within 30 min of delivery of the infant. It is a significant cause of maternal mortality and morbidity throughout the developing world. AIM OF THE WORK: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of intra-umbilical vein injection of carbetocin versus oxytocin in the management of retained placenta. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 200 women were included in this study. They were divided into two groups; each 100 women. The first group received intra-umbilical vein injection of 1 mL carbetocin (containing 100 µg carbetocin) diluted in 20 mL normal saline 0.9% and the second group received intra-umbilical vein injection of 20 IU oxytocin diluted in 20 mL normal saline 0.9%. RESULTS: Total blood loss (ml) and duration of the third stage of labor (minutes) were significantly lower in carbetocin group when compared to oxytocin group. Postoperative Hb concentration (g/dl) was significantly higher in carbetocin group. Also there was a highly significant difference between both groups as regard change in Hb concentration (g/dl) with less change in the carbetocin group. The need for additional uterotonic drugs following placental delivery and the occurrence of postpartum hemorrhage and the need for blood transfusion were significantly lower in the carbetocin group. CONCLUSION: Intra-umbilical carbetocin is more effective than intra-umbilical oytocin as a method for management of retained placenta. Intra-umbilical carbetocin seems to have more acceptable hemodynamic safety profile when compared to intra-umbilical oxytocin in the management of retained placenta.


Assuntos
Ocitócicos/uso terapêutico , Ocitocina/análogos & derivados , Ocitocina/uso terapêutico , Placenta Retida/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Transfusão de Sangue , Volume Sanguíneo , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Injeções Intravenosas , Ocitócicos/administração & dosagem , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Ocitocina/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Veias Umbilicais , Adulto Jovem
10.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 240: 357-363, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398573

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To get a preliminary understanding of the amniotomy-to-delivery interval, patients' experiences and risks by awaiting spontaneous contractions after amniotomy and to explore the need and feasibility for a larger randomised controlled trial. METHODS: We performed a randomised controlled pilot trial in a peripheral teaching hospital in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Women with term, singleton pregnancy in vertex position undergoing labour induction for one of the five following indications: prolonged pregnancy, mild hypertensive disorders, diabetes, expected macrosomia, maternal request, were randomised to amniotomy with 12-hours delayed oxytocin (DO), or amniotomy with immediate oxytocin (IO). RESULTS: A total of 64 women was included in the analysis. The median amniotomy-to-delivery interval for the DO-group was 15 h (IQR 8-21), and 6 h (IQR 5-11) for the IO-group (HR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.24-0.70), with equal patient reported childbirth perception in the overall group (P=0.43). Parous women reported a significantly less positive perception of labour (P=0.02) and used pain relief more often (RR, 2.93; 95% CI, 1.05-8.19) in the DO-group. The proportion of women delivered within 24 h was not significantly different between groups (RR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.05-1.83). Other delivery and neonatal outcomes did not differ significantly between groups, possibly due to being underpowered. CONCLUSION: Preliminary results show that amniotomy-to-delivery interval was prolonged with 9 h in the DO-group, with equal patient reported childbirth perception in the overall group. Parous women have a less positive perception of their delivery and used pain relief more often when oxytocin was delayed. Delaying oxytocin infusion after amniotomy should be further investigated in an adequately powered randomised trial.


Assuntos
Amniotomia , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/métodos , Ocitócicos/administração & dosagem , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 13: 2381-2391, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409972

RESUMO

Purpose: To present a new ocular nebulization therapy for the treatment of dry eye disease (DED) and investigate the efficacy of vitamin B12 (VB12) and oxytocin (OXT) nebulization with clinical parameters and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Patients and methods: Thirty-eight patients with DED were enrolled, with 19 receiving VB12 nebulization and 19 receiving OXT nebulization twice weekly for 3 months. Clinical signs and symptoms including Ocular Surface Disease Index, self-assessment of light sensitivity and dryness, tear meniscus height, tear break-up time (BUT), and corneal staining, along with IVCM data of basal epithelial cell density, sub-basal dendritic cell (DC) density, nerve density, and nerve tortuosity were acquired at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months after starting treatment. Results: Patients treated with VB12 improved significantly in all signs and symptoms except for nerve tortuosity during the three-month treatment, while OXT demonstrated similar effects apart from BUT and nerve tortuosity. VB12 group revealed a higher BUT at 1 month and 3 months with a higher basal epithelial cell density at 3 months compared with OXT group, and a lower DC density was observed in OXT group at 1 month. Change of basal epithelial cell density was more significant at 3 months in VB12 group, with OXT group showing a significantly higher DC reduction at 1 month. Conclusion: The nebulization therapy delivering VB12 and OXT appears to be effective in improving the symptoms and signs of dry eye, with a relatively stronger effect of BUT elevation and epithelial repair in VB12 and anti-inflammation in OXT nebulization.


Assuntos
Córnea/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndromes do Olho Seco/tratamento farmacológico , Ocitocina/uso terapêutico , Vitamina B 12/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Córnea/patologia , Síndromes do Olho Seco/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microscopia Confocal , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Vitamina B 12/administração & dosagem
12.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(10): 9370-9381, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378489

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate 2 different treatment procedures at the first milking after calving to increase colostrum quantity and to improve colostrum quality in dairy cows. We hypothesized that either exogenous treatment with oxytocin or the presence of the calf at first milking would lead to higher colostrum quantity and higher IgG concentration. The study was conducted from October to December 2017 on a commercial dairy farm in Germany. A total of 567 cows at the time of calving were enrolled, but for the final analyses only 521 animals were considered. The cows were randomly assigned on a daily basis into 1 of 3 groups: (1) control group (n = 177), (2) application of 20 IU of oxytocin i.m. (OXY; n = 163), and (3) presence of the calf (CA; n = 181) before and during milking. Cows in the control and oxytocin group had no contact with their calves after calving and were milked in a separate milking parlor. Cows in the oxytocin group were injected with 20 IU of oxytocin i.m. 3 min before manual stimulation. For cows in the third group, the calf was placed into a calf cart and located in front of the cow 3 min before manipulation of the cow. Colostrum quantity was determined by a digital hanging scale. The colostrum quality was assessed with digital Brix refractometry and ELISA. To evaluate the effect of 2 different treatment procedures, a generalized linear mixed model was constructed using SPSS (SPSS Inc., IBM, Ehningen, Germany). The mean (±SE) colostrum quantity was 4.17 ± 0.30 kg. The treatment procedures and the harvesting time after calving had no effect on colostrum quantity. Parity, calf birth weight, and calving time affected colostrum quantity. Cows in second parity had the lowest quantity of colostrum (3.74 ± 0.37 kg) compared with cows in parity 1 (4.75 ± 0.34 kg) and cows in parity 3 or greater (4.75 ± 0.38 kg). Cows calving during the night (2200 until 0600 h; 4.93 ± 0.37 kg) had the highest quantity of colostrum compared with cows calving in the morning (0600 until 1400 h; 4.17 ± 0.38 kg) or afternoon (1400 until 2200 h; 4.14 ± 0.34 kg). Regarding colostrum quality, 48% of the colostrum samples contained ≥50 mg of IgG/mL. The mean IgG concentration was 54.6 ± 2.80 mg of IgG/mL. Colostrum quality was affected by the treatment procedures, colostrum quantity, parity, calving time, harvesting time after calving, and the calving day during the week. Both treatment procedures (i.e., OXY with mean IgG concentration results of 57.0 mg of IgG/mL and CA with 56.0 mg of IgG/mL) resulted in higher IgG concentrations in colostrum compared with the control group (50.7 mg of IgG/mL). With increasing colostrum quantity, the colostrum quality decreased in primiparous and multiparous cows. A longer time lag between calving and milking negatively affected the colostrum quality. Concentration of IgG was higher for cows in parity 3 or greater (64.6 ± 2.59 mg of IgG/mL) compared with cows in parity 1 (48.5 ± 2.86 mg of IgG/mL) and cows in parity 2 (50.7 ± 2.89 mg of IgG/mL). Cows calving during the night had greater IgG concentrations (60.4 ± 2.92 mg of IgG/mL) compared with cows calving in the morning (51.9 ± 2.98 mg of IgG/mL) or afternoon (51.3 ± 2.71 mg of IgG/mL). Harvesting colostrum on quieter days, such as Sundays, resulted in higher IgG concentrations (61.4 ± 3.70 mg of IgG/mL). The assessment by Brix refractometry resulted in a mean result of 26.0 ± 0.20% Brix. Treatment procedures and the harvesting time after calving had no effect on colostrum quality. A negative association was observed between colostrum quantity and quality in primiparous and multiparous cows determined by Brix refractometry. Brix readings were greater for cows in parity 3 or higher (27.7 ± 0.26% Brix) compared with cows in parity 1 (25.3 ± 0.30% Brix) and cows in parity 2 (25.0 ± 0.32% Brix). In conclusion, the treatment procedure for the first milking is irrelevant to improve the quantity of colostrum. Both treatment procedures, however, increased IgG concentrations as determined by ELISA.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Colostro , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Leite , Ocitocina/farmacologia , Animais , Bovinos/psicologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Alemanha , Lactação/psicologia , Modelos Lineares , Mães/psicologia , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Paridade , Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória , Refratometria/veterinária
13.
Horm Behav ; 114: 104561, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351105

RESUMO

Previous research has revealed a positive effect of oxytocin administration on several social behaviors especially in individuals with social-affective deficits. However, it is still unknown whether intranasal oxytocin administration (OT-IN) can be beneficial to residential youth who exhibit severe social-affective impairments. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects, sequential study to examine the effect of OT-IN on empathy and emotion recognition in 100 male adolescents living in residential youth care facilities. We also explored the moderating role of callous-unemotional traits, trauma, and dissociation in the oxytocin effect. Participants self-administered one dose of 24 IU of oxytocin or placebo and performed experimental tasks on empathy and emotion recognition before and after the administration. The same procedure was performed one week later with the other substance. We found that empathy was increased after oxytocin administration compared to placebo and this effect was specific to individuals with high callous-unemotional traits. There was no effect of OT-IN on the overall emotion recognition, but there was a positive effect on accuracy of fear recognition. Trauma and dissociation did not moderate the oxytocin effect on empathy or emotion recognition. Our findings provided evidence of a beneficial effect of OT-IN on empathy and fear recognition in residential youth. We propose that a combination of OT-IN and psychological interventions merits further exploration, as it might be a novel promising direction for more tailored approaches and better treatment outcomes.


Assuntos
Empatia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ocitocina/farmacologia , /efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Intranasal , Adolescente , Método Duplo-Cego , Emoções/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Facial , Medo/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Características de Residência , Comportamento Social , Habilidades Sociais , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
14.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 257, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is some evidence that suggests misoprostol may supplement the action of oxytocin in preventing post-partum haemorrhage (PPH). The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of the administration of 600 µg misoprostol in addition to oxytocin versus oxytocin alone, on the risk of PPH among pregnant women after delivery. The secondary objectives were to determine the effects of the above combination on maternal death and blood transfusion among pregnant women after delivery; and to determine the incidence of PPH, its case fatality, and the maternal mortality ratio in our hospital. METHODS: Design and setting: Retrospective chart review of 1736 women delivering at the Regional Hospital Bamenda Cameroon, between 2015 and 2016. This was a pre versus post study following a policy change in the prevention of PPH. Exposure groups: One group received oxytocin-misoprostol (January-April 2016: period after policy change), and the second group received oxytocin-only (January-April 2015: period before policy change) after delivery. OUTCOMES: The primary outcome was PPH, and the secondary outcomes were maternal death and blood transfusion. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: A 1:1 matching with replacement was done with the propensity score (PS). The groups were compared using PS matching with conditional logistic regression on the matched pairs as the main analysis. A sensitivity analysis was done using other PS adjustment methods and multiple regression. RESULTS: Of the 1736 women included in this study, 1238 were matched and compared. Women who received oxytocin-misoprostol were less likely to have PPH as compared to those receiving oxytocin-only (odds ratio [OR] 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08, 0.59, p = 0.003). This reduced odds of PPH was upheld in the different sensitivity analyses. There were no significant differences in the odds of maternal death and the use of blood transfusions between the two groups: OR 3.91, 95% CI [0.44, 35.08], p = 0.22, and OR 0.89, 95% CI [0.14-5.63], p = 0.91, respectively. Sensitivity analyses showed similar results. The incidence of PPH was 2.9% (before adding misoprostol the incidence was 4.4% and after adding misoprostol it was 1.5%), the case fatality rate of PPH was 1.96%, and the overall maternal mortality ratio in the hospital was 293 maternal deaths/100000 life births. CONCLUSION: Our evidence suggests that using 600 µg misoprostol as an add-on to oxytocin in the prevention of post-partum haemorrhage significantly reduces the odds of PPH without affecting other maternal outcomes.


Assuntos
Misoprostol , Ocitocina , Hemorragia Pós-Parto , Adulto , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Camarões/epidemiologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Mortalidade Materna , Misoprostol/administração & dosagem , Misoprostol/efeitos adversos , Ocitócicos/administração & dosagem , Ocitócicos/efeitos adversos , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Ocitocina/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(1): 1517-1524, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148979

RESUMO

Background: Adjunctive uterotonic in patients at risk of primary post-partum haemorrhage may reduce its incidence. Objective: To compare the effectiveness and safety of adjunctive rectal misoprostol with adjunctive intravenous oxytocin for the prevention of primary post-partum haemorrhage in at risk patients. Materials and methods: A total of 122 patients with risk factors for uterine atony were allocated to receive either 600µg of rectal misoprostol (n= 61) or 20IU of oxytocin infusion (n=61) after routine management of third stage of labour. Post-partum blood loss was measured using differential delivery towel and pad weighing. Results: There was similarity in the estimated post-partum blood loss, with no significant difference in the mean post-partum hematocrit levels between the adjunctive rectal misoprostol group and oxytocin infusion group (P=0.712). There was no difference in the need for additional intervention of uterotonics between the two groups. There were however, higher incidences of shivering and pyrexia among those that received misoprostol compared with the oxytocin group. Conclusion: Rectal misoprostol is as effective and safe as oxytocin when used as an adjunctive uterotonic in preventing primary post-partum haemorrhage in patients with risk factors for uterine atony after active management of third stage of labour.


Assuntos
Misoprostol/administração & dosagem , Ocitócicos/administração & dosagem , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Retal , Adulto , Parto Obstétrico , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Terceira Fase do Trabalho de Parto , Misoprostol/uso terapêutico , Ocitócicos/uso terapêutico , Ocitocina/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 83(10): 1858-1866, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198094

RESUMO

Oxytocin, has various physiological functions that have been well studied and many that remain unknown. Here, we aimed to determine new physiological functions of oxytocin using Caenorhabditis elegans. Oxytocin treatment promoted the restoration of movement after heat stress and enhanced the viability under heat stress. However, oxytocin had no effect on the life span and only little effect on the oxidative stress tolerance. In contrast, oxytocin treatment didn't promote the restoration of movement or enhance the viability of deficient mutants of ntr-1/2, which is the gene encoding the oxytocin receptor. In addition, for mutants of daf-16, daf-2, tax-4, and some insulin-like peptides, the heat stress tolerance effect by oxytocin was canceled. Furthermore, oxytocin increased the expression levels of the DAF-16 target genes. Our results suggest that oxytocin treatment promoted the heat stress tolerance of C. elegans via the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Insulina/metabolismo , Ocitocina/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/metabolismo
17.
Neurosci Lett ; 708: 134328, 2019 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200092

RESUMO

The oxytocinergic system influences attentional bias towards emotional cues and feedback-based learning. Considering a tag single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) found through analysis of an intronic haplotype in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene, we investigated the effect of oxytocin on risky decision-making via the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Young healthy males received intranasal oxytocin or placebo, and the IGT was performed where raw scores, net scores and total time were recorded, and ratio of advantageous to disadvantageous choices was calculated. Using PCR-pyrosequencing, a 761 bp target sequence in the OXTR gene was amplified and sequenced after the extraction of whole blood DNA. Employing Haploview, haplotypes and linkage disequilibrium (LD) pattern among all 14 SNPs in the intronic region were determined based on D' and LOD values, and rs2254295 with the highest LD was indicated as the tag SNP. GTT was shown to have the highest frequency among the found haplotypes. Oxytocin group and participants with the TT genotype demonstrated a significantly increased raw score, net score and advantageous choices, whereas the total time was not influenced remarkably. This means that oxytocin significantly reduced the risk taking in decision-making, and participants with the TT genotype had less premature or risky decisions than those with the CT and CC genotypes. rs2254295 may modulate the function or expression of the OXTR gene, implying that T allele may increase the expression of the OXTR gene compared to C allele. We suggest that oxytocin may remarkably moderate the risk attitude and its consequences during uncertain decision-making.


Assuntos
Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Tomada de Decisões/efeitos dos fármacos , Jogo de Azar/genética , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Ocitocina/farmacologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores de Ocitocina/genética , Administração Intranasal , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
18.
Gynecol Obstet Fertil Senol ; 47(7-8): 555-561, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153953

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe induction of labor practices in France and to identify factors associated with the use of different methods. METHODS: The data came from the French prospective population-based cohort MEDIP (MEthodes de Déclenchement et Issues Périnatales), including consecutively during one month in 2015 all women with induction of labor and a live fetus in 7 perinatal networks. The characteristics of women, maternity units, gestational age, Bishop's score, decision mode, indication and methods of labor induction were described. Factors associated with the use of different methods were sought in univariate analyzes. RESULTS: The rate of induction of labor during the study was 21% and 3042 women were included (95.9% participation rate). The two main indications were prolonged pregnancy (28.7%) and premature rupture of the membranes (25.4%). More than one-third of women received intravenous oxytocin in first method, 57.3% prostaglandins, 4.5% balloon catheter and 1.4% another method. Among the prostaglandins, the vaginal device of dinoprostone was the most used (71.6%) then the gel (20.7%) and the vaginal misoprostol (6.7%). Women with a balloon were more often of higher body mass index and multiparous with scarred uterus. The balloon and misoprostol were mainly used in university public hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: The evolution of induction of labor methods, due to new data from the literature and the development of new drugs or devices, invites to regularly repeat population-based studies on induction of labor.


Assuntos
Trabalho de Parto Induzido/métodos , Padrões de Prática Médica , Estudos de Coortes , Dinoprostona/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/terapia , França , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Misoprostol/administração & dosagem , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Gravidez , Gravidez Prolongada/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217764, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150502

RESUMO

Despite common use of antidepressants to treat postpartum depression, little is known about the impact of antidepressant use on postpartum brain activity. Additionally, although oxytocin has been investigated as a potential treatment for postpartum depression, the interaction between antidepressants and exogenous oxytocin on brain activity is unknown. We explored postpartum depressed women's neural activation in areas identified as important to emotion and reward processing and potentially, antidepressant response: the amygdala, nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area. We conducted a secondary analysis of a functional imaging study of response to sexual, crying infant and smiling infant images in 23 postpartum depressed women with infants under six months (11 women taking antidepressants, 12 unmedicated). Participants were randomized to receive a single dose of oxytocin or placebo nasal spray. There was significantly higher amygdala activation to sexual stimuli than either neutral or infant-related stimuli among women taking antidepressants or receiving oxytocin nasal spray. Among unmedicated women receiving placebo, amygdala activation was similar across stimuli types. There were no significant effects of antidepressants nor oxytocin nasal spray on reward area processing (i.e., in the nucleus accumbens or ventral tegmental area). Among postpartum women who remain depressed, there may be significant interactions between the effects of antidepressant use and exogenous oxytocin on neural activity associated with processing emotional information. Observed effect sizes were moderate to large, strongly suggesting the need for further replication with a larger sample.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/administração & dosagem , Depressão Pós-Parto/tratamento farmacológico , Emoções/efeitos dos fármacos , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Administração Intranasal , Adulto , Tonsila do Cerebelo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/fisiopatologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Plasticidade Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Núcleo Accumbens/efeitos dos fármacos , Período Pós-Parto/efeitos dos fármacos , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Gravidez , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia
20.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 54(9): 1230-1235, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243815

RESUMO

This study compared the effects of intravaginal and intravenous routes of oxytocin (OT) administration in 46 oestrous-induced Santa Inês ewes (6-day treatment with progestin-releasing intravaginal sponges and a single injection of 200 IU of eCG at the time of sponge removal) that underwent transcervical embryo recovery 6-7 days after oestrous onset and mating. All ewes received 37.5 µg of d-cloprostenol via latero-vulvar route, and 1 mg of oestradiol benzoate i.m. 16 hr before and 50 IU of OT 20 min before non-surgical embryo recovery (NSER), with OT being administered intravenously (n = 21) or intravaginally (n = 21). An overall oestrous response was 95.6% (44/46), and adequate cervical retraction could be accomplished in 78.6% (33/42) of ewes. The percentage of successful NSER procedures was 57% (24/42) or 72.7% (24/33) of animals with sufficient cervical retraction. The duration of NSER procedure averaged 28 min (range: 17-40 min) and ~96% of flushing fluid could be recovered (range: 85%-100%). Out of 18 ewes that could not undergo NSER, 12 (66.6%) presented various anatomical barriers, whilst the other 33.4% did not present these barriers and still could not be traversed. Excluding the ewes with those anatomical features, the overall success rate of NSER was 80% (24/30). The route of OT administration had no effect on NSER efficiency or the ease with which transcervical embryo flushing was performed. Both routes of OT administration can be used for cervical dilation protocol. Discarding ewes with anatomical features precluding cervical penetration is highly recommended to increase the efficacy of NSER in sheep.


Assuntos
Administração Intravaginal , Administração Intravenosa/veterinária , Primeira Fase do Trabalho de Parto/efeitos dos fármacos , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Animais , Colo do Útero/anatomia & histologia , Transferência Embrionária/métodos , Transferência Embrionária/veterinária , Sincronização do Estro/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Ocitocina/farmacologia , Gravidez , Carneiro Doméstico
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA