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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18630, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914045

RESUMO

Work stress and burnout have become important issues. Changes in work patterns frequently, long working hours, and too much pressure among workers in high-tech companies may result in the chronic fatigue symptoms and increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases, even leading to sudden death. Changes of heart rate variability (HRV) can be treated as a warning from the autonomic nervous systems and as a long-term monitoring method for chronic disease, for example, cardiovascular diseases and sudden death. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between occupational burnout and HRV.Proportional stratified convenient sampling was performed and in total, 120 individuals participated in this study. Questionnaires and the "occupational burnout inventory" were used to collect biographical and burnout information. A novel wrist physiological monitor was used to measure autonomic nervous system-related data, including HRV, low-frequency (LF) %, high-frequency (HF) %, and LF/HF ratio. Descriptive statistics and logistic regressions were computed using SPSS 17.0 (Chinese version, IBM Corp., New York, NY).The results show that participants who were 20 to 25 years old, work overtime because of onerous personal tasks, had a medical history, and recently felt unwell have higher "personal burnout." "Participants with a graduate degree, with onerous tasks, who were indirect staff, and with a regular-hour job tended to overcommit to their work." Significant associations were found among medical history, recently feeling unwell, and "work-related burnout." There was a positive association between HRV and job seniority. LF%, HF%, and LF/HF ratio were significantly correlated with job category. "Work overcommitment" was related to LF/HF ratio among men. Some items in "personal burnout" and "work overcommitment" were also associated with HRV among women.The findings suggest that the measurement of HRV can be applied in occupational settings to assess burnout. It not only allows administrators to quickly select the colleagues who need health care, but also provides timely and appropriate care, thereby promoting the health of the worker.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Estresse Ocupacional/fisiopatologia , Ocupações , Projetos Piloto , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Carga de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(3): 57-62, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971929

RESUMO

In 2017, nearly 38,000 persons of working age (16-64 years) in the United States died by suicide, which represents a 40% rate increase (12.9 per 100,000 population in 2000 to 18.0 in 2017) in less than 2 decades.* To inform suicide prevention, CDC analyzed suicide data by industry and occupation among working-age decedents presumed to be employed at the time of death from the 32 states participating in the 2016 National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS).†,§ Compared with rates in the total study population, suicide rates were significantly higher in five major industry groups: 1) Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction (males); 2) Construction (males); 3) Other Services (e.g., automotive repair) (males); 4) Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, and Hunting (males); and 5) Transportation and Warehousing (males and females). Rates were also significantly higher in six major occupational groups: 1) Construction and Extraction (males and females); 2) Installation, Maintenance, and Repair (males); 3) Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media (males); 4) Transportation and Material Moving (males and females); 5) Protective Service (females); and 6) Healthcare Support (females). Rates for detailed occupational groups (e.g., Electricians or Carpenters within the Construction and Extraction major group) are presented and provide insight into the differences in suicide rates within major occupational groups. CDC's Preventing Suicide: A Technical Package of Policy, Programs, and Practices (1) contains strategies to prevent suicide and is a resource for communities, including workplace settings.


Assuntos
Indústrias/estatística & dados numéricos , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 106(1): 134-145, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568813

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the employment status in working-age survivors of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and explore clinical, treatment, and sociodemographic factors that may facilitate or impede successful return to work (RTW). METHODS AND MATERIALS: This Canadian study was part of a larger cross-sectional study assessing late toxicities in 107 disease-free survivors of NPC who received curative-intent intensity modulated radiation therapy ≥4 years earlier. For this substudy, eligible participants were employed at diagnosis and were of working age (<65 years) at study enrollment. Patient-reported work status (modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Work Status Questionnaire), quality of life (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Head and Neck questionnaire), symptom burden (MD Anderson Symptom Inventory for head and neck cancer), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), neurobehavioral functioning (Frontal Systems Behavior Scale), and neurocognitive function (Montreal Cognitive Assessment) were assessed. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to explore the impact of variables on RTW status. RESULTS: Among 73 eligible patients, the median age was 53 years (range, 32-64) and median time from intensity modulated radiation therapy completion was 7.3 years (range, 4.2-11.1). At enrollment, 45 (62%) were working, of whom 14 (31%) had reduced work hours from diagnosis by a median of 12 h/wk (range, 4-30). Overall, mean work hours decreased from 41.6 to 37.8 h/wk (P = .005). Currently employed (vs unemployed) patients were younger (P = .017) and reported better performance status (P = .013). They had higher quality of life (P = .044), lower symptom burden (P = .03), less significant change from their baseline neurobehavioral function (P = .008), and disability (P = .0025) or private health benefits (P = .035). Anxiety, depression, occupation type, income, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment score were not significantly associated with RTW in the univariable analysis. Age, change in baseline neurobehavioral function, and having private health benefits were all independent predictors of RTW. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of long-term survivors of NPC do RTW, although almost one-third report working fewer hours. Prospective research is needed to better understand and facilitate successful RTW in survivors of NPC.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/radioterapia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/radioterapia , Retorno ao Trabalho , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Canadá , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/psicologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/psicologia , Ocupações , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Qualidade de Vida , Retorno ao Trabalho/psicologia , Retorno ao Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado
5.
Med Probl Perform Art ; 34(4): 198-204, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800671

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Rates of pain are high among musicians, and string musicians may be particularly at risk. The aim of the study was to investigate the lived experience of orchestral string musicians with playing-related pain. METHODS: The study used a Heideggerian phenomenological approach. Five professional and university-level string musicians were interviewed about their experience of playing-related pain, and transcriptions of their interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Participants engaged in a variety of types of musical performance, however they described orchestral playing as contributing the most to their pain. Pain led to increased focus on the body and less engagement in the music. They experienced a sense of loss in multiple domains of their lives, yet also described personal growth as a result of their pain. Participants were more likely to disclose their pain in student orchestras than in professional ones. CONCLUSION: Pain impacts multiple domains of musician's lives, and therefore must be addressed holistically by healthcare providers. While musicians are finding that it is becoming more acceptable to discuss their pain, pain is still not adequately addressed. Understanding the experience of musicians with playing-related pain could help healthcare professionals to better serve this unique population.


Assuntos
Dor Musculoesquelética , Música , Doenças Profissionais , Humanos , Ocupações
6.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(12): 1296-1298, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795589

RESUMO

The data were drawn from injury hospitalization surveillance system in Shandong province. From 2012 to 2018, 164 cases of acute occupational poisoning were reported from five surveillance counties (cities, districts), accounting for 6.11% (164/2 683) of total accidental poisoning cases. The annual average reported incidence of acute occupational poisoning hospitalization was 1.15/100 000. The number of male cases was 3.3 times that of females (126 vs 38). The poisoning cases mainly occurred between January to May in a year and 5-7 AM within a day. Those cases were mainly caused by irritating gases (92 cases, 56.10%) and asphyxiating gases (53 cases, 32.32%), of which chlorine (71 cases) and carbon monoxide (50 cases) were the main reasons. The average hospitalization medical cost of acute occupational poisoning cases was 7 278.81 RMB per case.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho , Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Hospitalização/economia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 15: 551-558, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853180

RESUMO

Introduction: As hypertension is a chronic cardiovascular disease that contributes to a high proportion of morbidity and mortality worldwide, favorable knowledge is crucial to control it. Objective: The objective of this study was thus to assess knowledge and associated factors of blood pressure control among hypertensive patients at the chronic illness follow-up Clinic of the University of Gondar comprehensive-specialized hospital, Gondar, Ethiopia. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April 2018. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select participants. Bi-variable and multivariable logistic regressions were done to assess the relationship between dependent and independent variables. The adjusted odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval was used to determine the presence and strength of association between covariates and the outcome variable. Results: A total of 404 participants took part in the study with a response rate of 97.3%. The overall good knowledge about blood pressure control was 51.7% (95% CI=46.3-56.8). Females were 3.79 (AOR= 3.79, 95% CI: (1.55, 9.28)) more knowledgeable about blood pressure control than males. In the multivariable analysis, the odds of being knowledgeable were 2.80 (AOR= 2.80, 95% CI (1.44, 5.46)), 8.05 (AOR=8.05, 95% CI (2.93, 22.10)), and 7.53 (AOR=7.53, 95% CI (2.52, 22.49)) for can read and write, secondary, preparatory and above education, respectively, compared to cannot read and write. Occupation was significantly associated with the knowledge of plod pressure control. For example, merchants 7.66 (AOR=7.66, 95% CI (3.01, 19.47)), government employee 6.33 (AOR=6.33, 95% CI (1.90, 22.07)), and self-employed 4.58 (AOR=4.58, 95% CI (1.80, 11.70)) times more likely to be knowledgeable than farmers, respectively. Participants with family history of hypertension were 2.36 (AOR=2.36, 95% CI (1.42, 3.92)) times more knowledgeable than their counterparts. Conclusion: In this study, knowledge of blood pressure control was lower compared to the finding of a study done at Bishoftu hospital, Ethiopia. But it is higher than studies in other African countries. Both pharmacological and non-pharmacological awareness is vital for blood pressure control.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Hospitais Universitários , Hipertensão/terapia , Ambulatório Hospitalar , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocupações , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
8.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884758

RESUMO

On the basis of updated data from 82 subjects of the Russian Federation multivariate analysis of occupational diseases of agricultural workers was implemented. It is established that in unhealthy work conditions are characteristic for 30% of workers in the agricultural sector. In the enterprises of agriculture, the percentage of workplaces not meeting sanitary hygienic standards made up to 35%. The high etiologic pathogenic relationship between nosological form of disease and working conditions in the profession is established. Most often, the occupational pathology was developed in agricultural workers in case of conditions of physical overload (37.2%), effecting of physical factors (26.8%) and contact with infected animals (14.6%). In nosological structure of accumulated occupational diseases the first place took radiculopathy of cervical and lumbar sacral levels (23%), the second - vibration disease (15.3%), followed by brucellosis (14.6%), the fourth - neuro-sensory deafness (11.5%). The regions of the Russian Federation are characterized by pronounced heterogeneity both related to general level of registered occupational diseases and its nosological spectrum. In the whole, in Russia during 2011-2015 persistent trend of decreasing of occupational diseases morbidity of agricultural workers was marked.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Saúde do Trabalhador , Animais , Humanos , Morbidade/tendências , Ocupações , Federação Russa
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1418, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early exit from paid employment is a notable public health and societal challenge. Previous research has largely focused on the relationships among variables instead of the relationships among individuals with different work participation history. Person-oriented methods enable to identify latent groups of individuals who are likely to follow similar development in their work participation over time. We thus aimed to identify work participation trajectories during early and midlife careers and their social determinants using large nationally representative data comprising over 1 million initially employed individuals and a 10-year follow-up for their work participation. A further aim was to determine the cumulative incidence of sickness absence due to key diagnostic groups, mental disorders and musculoskeletal diseases within the trajectories. METHODS: Young (25-38 years at baseline, n = 495,663) and midlife (39-52 years at baseline, n = 603,085) Finnish people, all working in 2004, were followed up through 2013, with registers of the Social Insurance Institution, and the Statistics Finland. The registers provided data for work participation and its determinants, as well as for computing the cumulative incidence of sickness absence. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify trajectories. RESULTS: Three distinctive trajectories were identified: temporary exit, permanent exit, and continuously employed people. As compared to the other trajectories, those belonging to the permanent exit trajectory were more likely men, manual workers and had a lower income. The cumulative incidence of sickness absence due to mental disorders was highest in the permanent exit trajectory group. For musculoskeletal diseases, the cumulative incidence of sickness absence increased in the permanent exit trajectory mainly in the older age groups. CONCLUSION: Distinct group-based trajectories of early work exit can be identified in a representative cohort of initially employed people. Focusing on the determinants of premature exit and early intervention to tackle increasing sickness absence may promote work participation particularly in the most vulnerable groups.


Assuntos
Absenteísmo , Emprego , Renda , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Ocupações , Licença Médica , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Licença Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Desemprego
10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1424, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking, alcohol and obesity are important risk factors for a number of non-communicable diseases. The prevalence of these risk factors differ by socioeconomic group in most populations, but this socially stratified distribution may depend on the social and cultural context. Little information on this topic is currently available in the Caribbean. The aim of this study was to describe the distribution of tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and obesity by several socioeconomic determinants in the French West Indies (FWI). METHODS: We used data from a cross-sectional health survey conducted in Guadeloupe and Martinique in 2014 in a representative sample of the population aged 15-75 years (n = 4054). All analyses were stratified by gender, and encompassed sample weights, calculated to account for the sampling design and correct for non-response. For each risk factor, we calculated weighted prevalence by income, educational level, occupational class and having hot water at home. Poisson regression models were used to estimate age-adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Current smoking and harmful chronic alcohol use were more common in men than in women (PR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.55-2.09; PR = 4.53, 95% CI = 3.38-6.09 respectively). On the other hand, the prevalence of obesity was higher in women than in men (PR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.57-0.79). Higher education, higher occupational class and higher income were associated with lower prevalence of harmful alcohol drinking in men (PR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.25-0.72; PR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.53-1.01; PR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.51-1.03 respectively), but not in women. For tobacco smoking, no variation by socioeconomic status was observed in men whereas the prevalence of current smoking was higher among women with higher occupational class (PR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.13-1.91) and higher income (PR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.11-2.03). In women, a lower prevalence of obesity was associated with a higher income (PR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.33-0.56), a higher occupational class (PR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.50-0.80), a higher educational level (PR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.26-0.50) and having hot water at home (PR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.54-0.80). CONCLUSION: Women of high socio-economic status were significantly more likely to be smokers, whereas alcohol drinking in men and obesity in women were inversely associated with socioeconomic status.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Renda , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Ocupações , Classe Social , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Região do Caribe , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Guadalupe/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Martinica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Abastecimento de Água , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1515, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Educational inequalities in health have been widely reported. A low educational level is associated with more adverse working conditions. Working conditions, in turn, are associated with health and there is evidence that this association remains after work exit. Because many countries are raising the statutory retirement age, lower educated workers have to spend more years working under adverse conditions. Therefore, educational health inequalities may increase in the future. This study examined (1) whether there were educational differences over time in health after work exit and (2) whether work characteristics mediate these educational inequalities in health. METHODS: Data from five prospective cohort studies were used: The Netherlands (Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam), Denmark (Danish Longitudinal Study of Aging), England (English Longitudinal Study of Ageing), Germany (German Aging Study), and Finland (Finnish Longitudinal Study on Municipal Employees). In each dataset we used Generalized Estimating Equations to examine the relationship between education and self-rated health after work exit with a maximum follow-up of 15 years and possible mediation of work characteristics, including physical demands, psychosocial demands, autonomy, and variation in activities. RESULTS: The low educated reported significantly poorer health after work exit than the higher educated. Lower educated workers had a higher risk of high physical demands and a lower risk of high psychosocial demands, high variation in tasks, and high autonomy at work, compared to higher educated workers. These work characteristics were found to be mediators of the relationship between education and health after work exit, consistent across countries. CONCLUSION: Educational inequalities in health are still present after work exit. If workers are to spend an extended part of their lives at work due to an increase in the statutory retirement age, these health inequalities may increase. Improving working conditions will likely reduce these inequalities in health.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Aposentadoria , Trabalho , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dinamarca , Emprego , Inglaterra , Feminino , Finlândia , Alemanha , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Ocupações , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi ; 37(10): 785-788, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726513

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the prevalence of gynecologic diseases among married female workers. Methods: The data of married female workers who underwent occupational health examination in a physical examination center from January to December 2017 were collected. The relationship between the detection of common gynecological diseases, age and occupational types examined by gynecological routine, TCT, breast B-mode ultrasound, uterus and appendix B-mode ultrasound were analyzed. Results: Among the 1142 female workers, the total detection rate of reproductive tract infections was 67.25% (768/1142), the total detection rate of breast-related diseases was 75.22% (859/1142) ; the total detection rate of gynecological tumors and benign lesions was 14.71% (168/1142). The detection rate of breast hyperplasia was the highest 67.08% (766/1142), followed by vaginitis 51.66% (590/1142). Among the abnormalities detected in breast-related diseases, gynecological tumors and benign lesions, the highest detection rate was found in public institutions (85.66% and 27.13%), and the lowest was found in factory workers (70.24% and 7.89%). With the increase of age, the detection rate of breastrelated diseases (breast hyperplasia, breast cyst), gynecological tumors, benign lesions (uterine myoma), and Nessler's cyst abnormalities in married female workers increased (χ(2)(trend)=7.647、21.653、107.411、53.802, P<0.05), while the detection rate of columnar epithelium of cervix decreased (χ(2)(trend)=7.404, P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the total detection rate of reproductive tract infectious diseases (vaginitis, cervical polyps, cervical hypertrophy) among married famale workers of different ages (P<0.05) . Conclusion: The common gynecological diseases of married female workers are affected by many factors such as age and occupation. Health examination and health education should be carried out regularly to reduce the incidence of gynecological diseases among female workers according to different ages and occupations.


Assuntos
Doenças Mamárias/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/epidemiologia , Infecções do Sistema Genital/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Ocupações , Prevalência , Ultrassonografia Mamária
13.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1469, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While some experts have emphasised the potential for e-cigarettes to facilitate cessation among smokers with low socioeconomic status (SES), there is limited evidence of their likely equity impact. We assessed the potential for electronic cigarettes and other non-combustible nicotine-containing products (NCNPs) to reduce inequalities in smoking by systematically reviewing evidence on their use by SES in countries at stage IV of the cigarette epidemic. METHODS: Ten electronic databases were searched in February 2017 using terms relating to e-cigarettes, smokeless tobacco and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT); and SES. We included studies published since 1980 that were available in English and examined product use by SES indicators such as income and education. Data synthesis was based on those studies judged to be of medium- to high-quality using guidelines adapted from the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme. RESULTS: We identified 54 studies describing NCNP use by SES across 12 countries, of which 27 were judged of sufficient quality to include in data synthesis. We found mixed patterns of e-cigarette current use by SES, with evidence of higher use among low-income adults but unclear or mixed findings by education and occupation. In contrast, smokeless tobacco current use was consistently higher among low SES adults. There was very limited evidence on the SES distribution of NRT in adults and of all NCNPs in young people. CONCLUSIONS: The only NCNP for which there are clear patterns of use by SES is smokeless tobacco, where prevalence is higher among low SES groups. While this suggests a potentially positive impact on inequalities in smoking (if NCNP use displaces smoked tobacco use), this has not been seen in practice. These findings do not support the suggestion that e-cigarettes have the potential to reduce social inequalities in smoking, since i) current evidence does not show a clear trend of higher e-cigarette use in population groups with higher tobacco consumption, and ii) the experience of smokeless tobacco suggests that - even where NCNP use is higher among low SES groups - this does not necessarily replace smoked tobacco use in these groups.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Vaping/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Tabaco sem Fumaça/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(4): 436-438, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612684

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of reported malaria cases in Leshan City, so as to provide insights into malaria control. METHODS: The data pertaining to malaria cases and epidemiological individual information in Leshan City from 2012 to 2018 were captured from the National Notifiable Communicable Disease Reporting System and the Information System for Parasitic Diseases Control and Prevention, and a descriptive epidemiological analysis was performed. RESULTS: A total of 34 malaria cases were reported in Leshan City from 2012 to 2018, and all cases were confirmed as imported malaria cases by Sichuan provincial malaria diagnosis reference laboratory. Of all 34 cases, there were 14 vivax malaria cases, 18 falciparum malaria cases, a malariae malaria case and an ovale malaria case. The sites where malaria parasite infections occurred mainly included African areas (accounting for 58.82%) and Southeastern Asian areas (accounting for 29.41%), and the malaria cases were mainly reported in January, February, June and July, which accounted for 65.63% of all cases. The cases included 33 men and a woman, and had ages of 21 to 59 years. The cases'occupations mainly involved overseas peasants, technical workers and businessmen. The duration from onset of malaria to diagnosis ranged from 0 to 31 days, and the percentage of definitive diagnosis was 85.29% at initial diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: There are no local malaria cases in Leshan City; however, imported malaria cases are reported. The monitoring, management and health education of overseas returners should be further strengthened and malaria training should be improved to enhance the diagnostic and treatment capability in professionals, so as to consolidate malaria control achievements.


Assuntos
Malária , Adulto , África , Ásia Sudeste , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocupações , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
15.
Sante Publique ; Vol. 31(3): 443-450, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The identification of psychosocial constraints in the sector of mass retail is necessary to set up and guide preventive strategies. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the prevalence of psychosocial constraints among employees working in a large supermarket chains. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional survey conducted in employees of grocery stores. The study was based on a questionnaire exploring their socio-professional characteristics and on the Karasek questionnaire. RESULTS: 245 workers participated in the study. The average age was 32.4±6.4 years. Sex-ratio was 0.84. Occupational seniority was 6.3 years (min=1 year; max=18 years). The category of employees was the most represented (56%); the cashiers and the executives represented respectively 24.5 and 19.5%. A job strain situation was observed in 28.2 % of cases. It varied significantly with occupational seniority (p=0.03). The employees and the cashiers represented the most exposed posts. A high job demands was observed in 48,2% of the cases. The employees working in a supermarket are more exposed than those working in a minimarket (p<0,001). A low job control was found in 61.2 % of cases. It was more important among the employees having a permanent employment contract (p=0.01). A low job suport was found in 65,3% of cases. A situation of isostrain was observed in 20%. CONCLUSION: According our results, workers in grocery stores are exposed to psychosocial risk factor. The implementation of strategies to reduce stress factors at work is required.


Assuntos
Comércio , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Tunísia/epidemiologia
16.
Sleep Med Clin ; 14(4): 453-462, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640873

RESUMO

Sleep disorders in commercial drivers are common and treatable. Left unidentified, they lead to a host of adverse consequences, including daytime sleepiness, adverse health effects, economic costs, and public safety risks owing to sleepiness-related crashes. The best studied of these is obstructive sleep apnea, which is common and identifiable among commercial drivers. This article provides an overview of screening, and specific approaches to screen for and manage obstructive sleep apnea in commercial drivers with the goal of reducing the risk of vehicular crashes.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Ocupações , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/diagnóstico , Sonolência , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
17.
Med Lav ; 110(5): 372-388, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659994

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We have developed a new tool, named Holistic Approach Risk Assessment (HOARA), to support occupational safety and health professionals (OSH) in risk assessment and management when evaluating the biomechanical load of healthcare workers. OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of the HOARA is to support OSH in risk assessment and management of biomechanical hazards in healthcare facilities. This tool ensures a superior level of analysis by targeting independently various body compartments during all activities completed throughout the work shift. These include: head, neck, back and upper and lower limbs. METHODS: For each body segment, ergonomic determinants were defined on the basis of previous literature, according to which task and job analyses were performed. Upon direct observation, ergonomic factors were given a score based on their temporal extent. Subsequently, action-body segment raw indices and weighted indices were calculated. RESULTS: Results of the application of the method are shown. Of note, a relational database was set up to improve its usability. CONCLUSIONS: From an occupational health perspective, the HOARA, integrated with other methods, is expected to allow a more effective management of human resources, especially when assigning workers to specific jobs or tasks. Overall, the HOARA will be instrumental in assessing the impact of fitness for work judgments on work organization and its resources, in compliance with the guidelines from the Società Italiana di Medicina del Lavoro (SIML).


Assuntos
Ergonomia , Pessoal de Saúde , Saúde do Trabalhador , Humanos , Ocupações , Medição de Risco
18.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 46(10): 1473-1477, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631123

RESUMO

The 5-year relative survival rate of cancer patients in Japan has reached 62.1% owing to advances in cancer treatments. Half of the people are diagnosed with cancer at some point in their lifetime, and one-third of cancer patients belong to the working-age generation between the ages of 20 and 65. In Japan, various governmental policies have been developed in a short period of time with the aim of balancing cancer treatment and employment. The Basic Plan to Promote Cancer Control Programs in Japan, enacted in 2017, specifies the need to prevent cancer patients from leaving employment and to support re-employment, as well as the need for further collaboration among medical institutions, occupations, and local communities. However, Japanese people's perceptions regarding employment of cancer patients is still negative. Employment support for cancer patients is regarded as an important topic in cancer survivorship, and various findings have been accumulated in Japan and other countries. The impact of onset of cancer on the employment of patients is influenced not only by medical factors but also by other factors such as individual factors, health status, psychosocial factors, willingness to work, and workplacerelated factors. Hence, the situations of individuals differ greatly. It is necessary to examine the current state of research and support based on these factors. Points to keep in mind when providing support to balance both cancer and employment include: 1 ) there are many persons related to working cancer patients who are involved and 2 ) it is difficult for physicians to understand the full picture of a patient's job based on the labor contract. Appropriate information sharing; environmental improvement; and mutual cooperation in medical treatment sites, workplaces, and local communities are essential.


Assuntos
Emprego , Neoplasias , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Japão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocupações , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594118

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the incidence and rank of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pneumoconiosis to the workers in different occupational positions in Jinchang Cohort. Methods: In January 2014, a cohort of follow-up population in jinchang city was taken as the research object, 17843 individuals among follow-up populations in Jinchang Cohort Study, removed the individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pneumoconiosis before 2013, and counted the new incidence individuals diagnosed by the A-Class hospital in Grade III in Jinchang City, Gansu Province, as the investigation objects to investigate the incidence rate & rank of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pneumoconiosis. The statistical significance was tested by chi-square test. Results: The 2-year incidence rate of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Pneumoconiosis in the population of Jinchang Cohort Study were 11.60‰, 13.51‰ for male and 8.46‰ for female. the ranks of 2-year incidence rates of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, pneumoconiosis and other phenotypes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were 7.06‰ã€3.42‰ã€0.84‰ã€0.34‰, respectively. Incidence rate of chronic bronchitis among administrators and executive staffs were 10.45‰; incidence rate of chronic bronchitis among service staffs were 10.45‰; incidence rate of pneumoconiosis among mining staffs were 3.44‰. Conclusion: The first incidence rank of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pneumoconiosis in Jinchang cohort is chronic bronchitis, and the risk factors are smoking and occupational exposure.


Assuntos
Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumoconiose/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Bronquite/epidemiologia , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Enfisema Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos
20.
Int J Occup Environ Med ; 10(4): 203-215, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586385

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite its excellent psychometric properties, St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) has not been previously used in measuring respiratory quality of life (RQoL) among traffic police and firefighters who are at risk of poor respiratory health by virtue of their occupations. OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare the RQoL of the occupationally exposed (firefighters and traffic police) and the occupationally unexposed populations in Penang, Malaysia. METHODS: We recruited male traffic police and firefighters from 5 districts of Penang by convenient sampling during June to September 2018. Participants completed the SGRQ. Scores (symptoms, activity, impacts, total) were derived using a scoring calculator. Higher scores indicate poorer RQoL. Univariate and multivariate linear regression models were fitted to explore the relationship of the independent predictive factors with participants' RQoL. RESULTS: We recruited 706 participants---211 firefighters, 198 traffic police, and 297 from general population. Smokers had significantly higher scores than non-smokers in all SGRQ domains. Regardless of smoking status, the "occupationally exposed group" had higher symptoms score than the "occupationally unexposed group," who had higher activity and impact scores. Smoking status, comorbidity status and monthly income were significant independent predictors of SGRQ total score. CONCLUSION: In comparison with the general population, firefighters and traffic police reported poorer RQoL; smoking further deteriorated their respiratory health. There is a need to strengthen preventive health measures against occupational disease and smoking cessation among firefighters and traffic police.


Assuntos
Bombeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Polícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Transtornos Respiratórios/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Respiratórios/etiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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