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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-232680

RESUMO

The COVID-19 outbreak has raised concerns about infection control all over the world. Among health workers, dentists are particularly exposed to the COVID-19 infection risk. The aim of this paper is to present a workflow to manage dental procedures already in use at the Dental Unit of the University Hospital of Messina. The proposed workflow accounts for the many aspects of dental practitioners' risk in the COVID-19 era, and focuses on the assessment of patient risk level, a two-phase dental procedure management (remote and face-to-face), and the use of specific preventive measures. No cases of COVID-19 infection were detected among patients and staff of the dental unit in a two-month period of time while using this protocol. This workflow seems a promising and effective solution to manage dental procedures during the COVID-19 outbreak, and could be implemented in both public and private practices until the emergency is contained.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Odontologia/métodos , Odontólogos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Administração da Prática Odontológica , Fluxo de Trabalho , Betacoronavirus , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Itália/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Papel Profissional
2.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 245(11): 940-944, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436748

RESUMO

IMPACT STATEMENT: Dentists have always been taught how to protect themselves and their patients from potential blood-borne pathogens, but the Coronavirus pandemic has brought a new unprecedented challenge to the world of dentistry; we therefore reviewed the literature to provide suggestions on how to accordingly change dental practice prevention.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Odontologia/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Gestão de Riscos/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Assistentes de Odontologia , Serviços de Saúde Bucal , Higienistas Dentários , Odontólogos , Humanos , Triagem/métodos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32403248

RESUMO

The COVID-19 outbreak has raised concerns about infection control all over the world. Among health workers, dentists are particularly exposed to the COVID-19 infection risk. The aim of this paper is to present a workflow to manage dental procedures already in use at the Dental Unit of the University Hospital of Messina. The proposed workflow accounts for the many aspects of dental practitioners' risk in the COVID-19 era, and focuses on the assessment of patient risk level, a two-phase dental procedure management (remote and face-to-face), and the use of specific preventive measures. No cases of COVID-19 infection were detected among patients and staff of the dental unit in a two-month period of time while using this protocol. This workflow seems a promising and effective solution to manage dental procedures during the COVID-19 outbreak, and could be implemented in both public and private practices until the emergency is contained.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Odontologia/métodos , Odontólogos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Administração da Prática Odontológica , Fluxo de Trabalho , Betacoronavirus , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Itália/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Papel Profissional
4.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e918529, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to evaluate the precision of correlation between intraoral scanners and computer aided design (CAD) software programs used during scanning and designing phases of digital dentistry. In the present study, CAD software programs that accept data in Standard Tessellation Language (STL) and proprietary format have been evaluated and data loss has been examined in the scanned data. MATERIAL AND METHODS A single unit crown preparation was conducted for maxillary right first molar on a fully dentulous model. The prepared tooth was scanned with a high precision industrial scanner (ATOS Core 80) and the reference digital model was obtained. The dental model was further scanned 10 times using 3 different intraoral scanners (CEREC Omnicam AC, TRIOS 3 Color Pod, and Aadva IOS 100). The data obtained from the reference scanner and intraoral scanners were transferred to different CAD programs (CEREC inLab, TRIOS Design Studio, Exocad) and digital crowns were designed for each scanned data-CAD combination. After that, the data losses that occurred between these transfers were evaluated by superimposition technique in a special software (VR Mesh v7.5) (alpha=0.05). RESULTS Among the all combinations of scanner and software, Omnicam AC-InLab was determined to be the most precise combination through the full digital workflow since the Omnicam AC-Exocad combination showed the highest deviations. CONCLUSIONS Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it was determined that the combinations of scanners and associated CAD programs yielded more accurate results, and data loss was revealed when the scanned data converted from the proprietary format to the STL format.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Prótese Dentária/métodos , Odontologia/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Cerâmica , Desenho Assistido por Computador/tendências , Coroas , Modelos Dentários , Humanos , Software
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(23)2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783484

RESUMO

At present, researchers in the field of biomaterials are focusing on the oral hard and soft tissue engineering with bioactive ingredients by activating body immune cells or different proteins of the body. By doing this natural ground substance, tissue component and long-lasting tissues grow. One of the current biomaterials is known as bioactive glass (BAG). The bioactive properties make BAG applicable to several clinical applications involving the regeneration of hard tissues in medicine and dentistry. In dentistry, its uses include dental restorative materials, mineralizing agents, as a coating material for dental implants, pulp capping, root canal treatment, and air-abrasion, and in medicine it has its applications from orthopedics to soft-tissue restoration. This review aims to provide an overview of promising and current uses of bioactive glasses in dentistry.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Dentários/química , Vidro/química , Animais , Odontologia/métodos , Humanos , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos
8.
Mar Drugs ; 17(7)2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319609

RESUMO

This study aims to highlight the latest marine-derived technologies in the biomedical field. The dental field, in particular, uses many marine-derived biomaterials, including chitosan. Chitosan that is used in different fields of medicine, is analyzed in this review with the aim of highlighting its uses and advantages in the dental field. A literature search was conducted in scientific search engines, using keywords in order to achieve the highest possible number of results. A review of randomized controlled trials (RCT) was conducted to evaluate and process all the relevant results for chitosan and oral health. After a screening and a careful analysis of the literature, there were only 12 results highlighted. Chitosan performs different functions and it is used in different fields of dentistry in a safe and effective way. Among the uses of chitosan, we report on the remineralizing property of chitosan which hardens tissues of the tooth, and therefore its role as a desensibilizer used in toothpastes. According to our systematic review, the use of chitosan has shown better surgical healing of post-extraction oral wounds. Furthermore, some studies show a reduction in bacterial biofilm when used in dental cements. In addition, it has antibacterial, antifungal, hemostatic and other systemic properties which aid its use for drug delivering.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Quitosana/farmacologia , Odontologia/métodos , Remineralização Dentária/métodos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cimentos Dentários/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Saúde Bucal , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Extração Dentária/efeitos adversos , Cremes Dentais/farmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Histol Histopathol ; 34(11): 1195-1203, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169298

RESUMO

Regenerative dentistry is attracting growing interest in the scientific community, mainly because of its translational and promising therapeutic approach. The latest research carried out by the scientific community are aimed at triggering the local cellular response, in order to induce a physiological self-repairing of damaged oral tissues. Such physiological processes mainly involve the activation of local stem cell populations: mesenchymal stem cells, in fact, retain the ability to proliferate and to differentiate towards functional mature elements, thus leading towards healing of damaged tissues. Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a key-regulator of the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway; it phosphorylates ß-catenin, that then is degraded in the cytosol. The activation of such signalling, mediated by Wnt ligand/receptor association, inhibits GSK-3, leading to translocation of ß-catenin to the nucleus and to gene transcription. Selective inhibitors of GSK-3 have been linked to the activity of Wnt signalling and to the regeneration of injured tissues, including complex dental and oral structures. Small Molecule GSK-3 Antagonists are the most interesting class of molecules acting with a "Bystander effect": reducing local inflammation and local bone resorption and triggering the activity and differentiation of resident "sleeping" MSCs. The aim of this narrative topical review is to describe the current knowledge on the role of small molecule GSK-3 antagonists in regenerative dentistry, with strategic insights towards the translational applications in nanomaterials in dentistry and in dental repairing.


Assuntos
Odontologia , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase , Inflamação/metabolismo , Regeneração/fisiologia , Via de Sinalização Wnt/imunologia , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Reabsorção Óssea , Diferenciação Celular , Odontologia/métodos , Odontologia/tendências , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/imunologia , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/metabolismo , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/citologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , beta Catenina/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(8)2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995738

RESUMO

Human oral-derived stem cells can be easily obtained from several oral tissues, such as dental pulp, periodontal ligament, from gingiva, or periapical cysts. Due to their differentiation potential, oral-derived mesenchymal stem cells are promising for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The regenerative ability showed by some oral tissues strongly depends on their sleeping adult stem cell populations that are able to repair small defects and to manage local inflammation. To date, researchers are working on effective and efficient methods to ensure safe and predictable protocols to translate stem cell research into human models. In the last decades, the challenge has been to finally use oral-derived stem cells together with biomaterials or scaffold-free techniques, to obtain strategic tools for regenerative and translational dentistry. This paper aims to give a clear point of view on state of the art developments, with some exciting insights into future strategies.


Assuntos
Medicina Regenerativa/métodos , Células-Tronco/citologia , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Animais , Polpa Dentária/citologia , Odontologia/métodos , Humanos , Transplante de Células-Tronco/métodos , Tecidos Suporte/química , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/métodos
11.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 100: 655-664, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30948102

RESUMO

Tissue engineered scaffolds are generally used as extra matrices for cellular attachment, migration and proliferation. Irrespective of the desired function, scaffolds should be porous, biocompatible architectures permitting vascularity and act as a hydrophilic mechanical support for the attached cells. Gelatin scaffolds provide exceptional attachment, migration, and proliferation in different tissue regeneration applications. Herein, we introduce a simple but novel method to fabricate new electrospun composite materials for a wide range tissue regeneration, especially bone regeneration. The composites are made of cost-effective gelatin mixed with different concentrations of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in a benign solvent. Smooth nanofibers were successfully obtained at low concentrations of CaCO3, while beaded broken fibers were obtained at high concentrations. To enhance the mechanical properties of the resulted nanofibers, glutaraldehyde (GTA) vapors were used as crosslinking agents. Different crosslinking time intervals were investigated to improve the stability, with the 20-h-crosslinked mats showed enhanced water resistance, better stability, and increased cell viability. The crosslinked mats showed distinguished mass increase during both swelling and biodegradability tests, especially with the decrease of CaCO3 concentration. The presence of calcium within the mats provides nucleation sites for the growth of Ca-P structures, leading to mineralization of the mats. In a nutshell, calcified gelatin mats are good candidates for a wide range of tissue regeneration applications.


Assuntos
Carbonato de Cálcio/química , Odontologia/métodos , Gelatina/química , Minerais/química , Linhagem Celular , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/química , Humanos , Umidade , Nanofibras/química , Nanofibras/ultraestrutura , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
12.
Clin Anat ; 32(5): 672-677, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30848855

RESUMO

Most of the studies of the mandible's anatomical variations have presented the authors' speculations, and only a limited number has provided evidence that demonstrated the actual complications injury to the variant structures caused. To our knowledge, no study has evaluated the risks associated with these variant anatomical structures' injury. We reviewed articles that described clinical cases of the injury to, and anatomical studies of, three anatomical variants of the mandible-the accessory mental, lingual, and retromolar foramina-with which dentists are relatively familiar and that are mentioned often in the context of implant and third molar surgeries, to describe risk assessment methods with which to evaluate potential complications preoperatively. Only a limited number of the clinical reports of injury to the mandible's accessory foramina were available. The potential severe complication of injury of the accessory mental foramen (AMF) is sensory disturbance of the lower lip. Risk of neurosensory disturbance of lower lip can be assessed by AMF/MF ratio and positional relations to the MF. Potential severe complication of injury of the lingual foramen is bleeding and hemorrhage in the oral cavity's floor. Risk of bleeding can be assessed by diameter and positional relation between the mental spine/mylohyoid line. A risk assessment of the retromolar foramen could not be made because of inadequate data. We hope the risk assessments suggested will encourage dentists to predict intraoperative/postoperative complications caused by damaging the mandible's accessory foramina. Clin. Anat. 32:672-677, 2019. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Lábio/inervação , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Variação Anatômica/fisiologia , Cadáver , Odontologia/métodos , Hemorragia/etiologia , Lábio/lesões , Traumatismos Mandibulares/complicações , Forame Mentual/anatomia & histologia , Forame Mentual/lesões , Medição de Risco
13.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 54(3): 235-242, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882135

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the feasibility and acceptability of screening for alcohol misuse and delivering brief advice to eligible patients attending NHS dental practices in London. METHODS: A two-arm cluster randomized controlled feasibility trial was conducted. Twelve dental practices were recruited and randomized to intervention and control arms. Participants attending for a dental check were recruited into the study and were eligible if they consumed alcohol above recommended levels assessed by the AUDIT-C screening tool. All eligible participants were asked to complete a baseline socio-demographic questionnaire. Six months after the completion of baseline measures, participants were contacted via telephone by a researcher masked to their allocation status. The full AUDIT tool was then administered. Alcohol consumption in the last 90 days was also assessed using the Form 90. A process evaluation assessed the acceptability of the intervention. RESULTS: Over a 7-month period, 229 participants were recruited (95.4% recruitment rate) and at the 6 months follow-up, 176 participants were assessed (76.9% retention rate). At the follow-up, participants in the intervention arm were significantly more likely to report a longer abstinence period (3.2 vs. 2.3 weeks respectively, P = 0.04) and non-significant differences in AUDIT (44.9% vs. 59.8% AUDIT positive respectively, P = 0.053) and AUDIT C difference between baseline and follow-up (-0.67 units vs. -0.29 units respectively, P = 0.058). Results from the process evaluation indicated that the intervention and study procedures were acceptable to dentists and patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study has demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of dentists screening for alcohol misuse and providing brief advice.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Odontologia/métodos , Adulto , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Aconselhamento , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Londres , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde
14.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 166(4): 517-521, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30783846

RESUMO

This paper presents the results of studying the effectiveness of the developed method for diagnosing the functional state of the dental system. The results indicate that the accuracy of the method is about 80%. The results of previous studies are reviewed and the prospects for diagnosis of the functional state of the dental system as a research and practical trend in dentistry are outlined. The physiological regularities of the dental system functioning and relationship between its functional status and the autonomic nervous and postural systems prompt a new trend of research, functional diagnosis in dentistry and interpretation of the findings of functional studies. The prospects of functional diagnosis in dentistry are discussed.


Assuntos
Odontologia/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Humanos
15.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211639, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30707724

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Traditionally, the acquisition of manual skills in most dental schools worldwide is based on exercises on plastic teeth placed in a "phantom head simulator". No manual trainings are done at home. Studies revealed that preliminary training of one motoric task leads to significant improvement in performance of the required motoric task that has similar components. Performing tasks indirectly via a dental mirror are complicated for the young dental students. We hypothesized that instructed training of basic skills required in dentistry at home on a tool simulating the phantom laboratory will improve the capabilities of the students and will be reflected by their clinical grades. METHODS: We developed a portable tool PhantHome which is composed of jaws, gingival tissue, rubber cover and a compatible stand. Specific teeth produced by a 3D printer with drills in different directions were placed in both jaws. Students were requested to insert pins by using tweezers and dental mirror according to instructions initiating with easy tasks and continue to ones that are more complicated. 106 first clinical year dental students participated in the study; 65 trained only in the traditional phantom lab (control). 41 trained at home by the PhantHome tool two weeks before and 2 months during the initial stage of phantom lab. The students grades routinely provided in the phantom laboratory at different stages were compared. RESULTS: Students who trained with the portable tool performed better than the control group in the first direct and second indirect preparations (p<0.05). These exams were taken when the PhantHome was available to the students. Then, the tool was returned and the phantom course continued regularly. We believe that this is why no differences between the grades of the groups were observed further on. CONCLUSIONS: Training by the PhantHome improves motor skills and consequently the clinical performances.


Assuntos
Educação em Odontologia/métodos , Adulto , Competência Clínica , Instrumentos Odontológicos , Odontologia/métodos , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Manipulações Musculoesqueléticas/métodos , Estudantes de Odontologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Clin Ter ; 170(1): e48-e54, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789197

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to analyse the clinical potential of radiosurgery applied to modern dentistry through a revision of the indexed literature. Radiosurgery represents a recent form of electrosurgery working at a frequency of 3.0-4.0 MHz. The depth of penetration of the waves is inversely proportional to the frequency. Radiowaves working at high frequency express a lower penetration with a consequent lower tissue alteration. The authors analyzed the literature in order to give to the scientific community an overview of the possible applications of radiosurgery in the clinical dental practice and their effectiveness. Radiosurgery can be used in prosthodontics, in periodontal and implant surgery, in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia, in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndromes (OSAS) and in endodontics. Our analysis shows that although there are few articles in indixed literature on the applications of radiosurgery in dentistry, thanks to the benefits that derive from it, radiosurgery will spread more in the daily clinical practice of the dentists.


Assuntos
Odontologia/métodos , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Humanos , Periodontia/métodos , Prostodontia/métodos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Neuralgia do Trigêmeo/cirurgia
18.
Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd ; 126(1): 17-21, 2019 01.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30636261

RESUMO

Wish fulfilling medicine (human enhancement (therapy)) concerns medical treatment without a direct medical need. In traditional medicine, a classical triad applies: 1. after investigation symptoms of illness lead to 2. a diagnosis, followed by 3. a proposal for treatment by the health care provider. In wish fulfilling medicine, the emphasis lies on patient's wishes. Wish fulfilling medicine concerns medical treatment, often at the request of the patient, and should be distinguished from shared decision-making,a form of communication seeking to meet the preferences of the patient and to actively involve the patient in his treatment. In the Netherlands, in accordance with the Healthcare Quality, Complaints and Disputes Act, health care providers have to offer good care at a good level, which is safe, effective, efficient and client-orientated, offered in a timely fashion and geared to the real needs of the client. Good care has to meet professional standards. In this way, fulfilling patients' wishes for treatment without a medical need can be restricted by law.


Assuntos
Odontologia/métodos , Odontologia/normas , Legislação Odontológica , Autonomia Pessoal , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Países Baixos , Satisfação do Paciente
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(2)2019 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30669338

RESUMO

Dental surgeries can result in traumatic wounds that provoke major discomfort and have a high risk of infection. In recent years, density research has taken a keen interest in finding answers to this problem by looking at the latest results made in regenerative medicine and adapting them to the specificities of oral tissue. One of the undertaken directions is the study of angiogenesis as an integrative part of oral tissue regeneration. The stimulation of this process is intended to enhance the local availability of stem cells, oxygen levels, nutrient supply, and evacuation of toxic waste. For a successful stimulation of local angiogenesis, two major cellular components must be considered: the stem cells and the vascular endothelial cells. The exosomes are extracellular vesicles, which mediate the communication between two cell types. In regenerative dentistry, the analysis of exosome miRNA content taps into the extended communication between these cell types with the purpose of improving the regenerative potential of oral tissue. This review analyzes the stem cells available for the dentistry, the molecular cargo of their exosomes, and the possible implications these may have for a future therapeutic induction of angiogenesis in the oral wounds.


Assuntos
Odontologia , Exossomos/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Regeneração , Medicina Regenerativa , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Odontologia/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Medicina Regenerativa/métodos , Células-Tronco/metabolismo
20.
J Prosthodont Res ; 63(2): 131-139, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30459093

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Bio-inspiration is an approach in engineering aimed at optimizing artificial systems by borrowing biological concepts from nature. This review sets out to summarize the fundamental aspects employed by nature to avoid premature dental failures. On the basis of these findings, it then defines and evaluates rules for 'post-modern' manufacturing processes to imitate or regenerate complex biological systems. STUDY SELECTION: A thorough literature search was conducted using PubMed, the Cochrane Library database and Google Scholar. Peer-reviewed articles and other scientific literature provided up-to-date information addressing two topics: (a) how natural dental tissues combine to create a structure as tough, strong and highly resistant to fatigue failure as tooth, and (b) how 'bio-inspiration' can be applied to the manufacture of dental restorations, taking into consideration the limitations of techniques currently used in dentistry. RESULTS: Bio-inspired concepts have already been successfully applied in a range of engineering fields to enhance the toughness and strength of artificial materials. The area of technology with greatest potential to unlock the development of these new approaches is additive manufacturing. Consequently, these technologies and concepts could be applied to dentistry to improve the mechanical properties of dental restorations. Three-dimensional (3D) printing technologies also offer a new and promising prospect of regenerating dental tissues. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the limitations to both conventional and subtractive computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) methods, further research should focus on new, additive 3D-printing techniques. This may open new research paths in dentistry that will enhance the clinical performance of artificial dental materials.


Assuntos
Materiais Dentários , Restauração Dentária Permanente/métodos , Impressão Tridimensional , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas , Materiais Dentários/química , Falha de Restauração Dentária , Odontologia/métodos , Odontologia/tendências , Humanos
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