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1.
Food Chem ; 302: 125337, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419770

RESUMO

The composition of volatile compounds in Korla fragrant pears was determined using headspace solid-phase microextraction followed by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis using fruits at 30, 90, and 150 days after bloom. Hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, 1-hexanol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, and hexyl acetate were identified as the major compounds. The composition of volatile compounds was associated with fatty acid concentrations and key enzyme activity in the lipoxygenase pathway. In vitro linoleic and linolenic acid feeding experiments conducted using cubes of fruit flesh demonstrated that the concentrations of volatile esters, such as hexyl acetate, in the treated fruits increased significantly after incubation for 12 h compared with those in the control fruits, which was accompanied by a reduction in aldehyde and alcohol concentrations (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). However, the treatments did not significantly influence the enzyme activity and expression of genes encoding the enzymes.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Odorantes/análise , Pyrus/química , Pyrus/fisiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Aldeídos/análise , Ésteres/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/fisiologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hexanóis/análise , Ácido Linoleico/farmacologia , Pyrus/efeitos dos fármacos , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/farmacologia
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(41): 11444-11453, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592644

RESUMO

Innovative approaches to develop flavors with high sensory appeal are critical in encouraging increased consumer preference and adoption of low sodium foods. Gas chromatography-olfactometry, coupled with stable isotope dilution assays and sensory experiments, led to the identification of the odorants responsible for an enhancement in saltiness perception of chicken broth prepared with thermally treated enzymatically hydrolyzed mushroom protein and cysteine, then reacted under kitchen-like cooking conditions. Comparative aroma extract dilution analysis revealed 36 odorants with flavor dilution factors between a range of 1 and 256. Sixteen odorants were quantitated and odor activity values (OAVs) calculated. Important odorants included 2-furfurylthiol (coffee, OAV 610), 1-(2-furyl)ethanethiol (meaty, OAV 78), 3-sulfanylpentan-2-one (catty, OAV 42), sotolon (maple, OAV 20), indole (animal, OAV 8), 2-methyl-3-(methyldithio)furan (meaty, OAV 3), and p-cresol (barnyard, OAV 1). An odor simulation model was evaluated in two consumer sensory studies. These studies confirmed that the addition of the aroma model increased the perceived saltiness of low sodium chicken broth (p < 0.05).


Assuntos
Agaricus/química , Cisteína/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Odorantes/análise , Percepção Gustatória , Agaricus/metabolismo , Cloretos/análise , Cloretos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa , Culinária , Cisteína/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Hidrólise , Olfatometria , Olfato , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
3.
Se Pu ; 37(9): 1026-1033, 2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642309

RESUMO

A chromatographic separation method for 27 fragrances in cosmetics and perfume raw materials was developed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A weak polar capillary column and electron impact ion source were used in the GC-MS analysis, with methanol as the extraction solvent. The limits of detection were 1.2, 15, and 15 mg/kg for musk xylene, hydroxycitronellal, and hydroxyisohexyl-3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde, respectively, and 3.0 mg/kg for the other 24 fragrances. The calibration line of the 27 fragrances presented a good relationship with correlation coefficients ≥ 0.996. At three spiked concentration levels, the relative standard deviations were <10% and the spiked recoveries were in the ranges of 73.3%-76.1% for musk xylene and 81.5%-118% for the other fragrances. Based on these determinations, one or more fragrance ingredients were detected in 69 perfume raw materials and cosmetics, the labels of which indicated that they contained fragrances. This method can be used to determine 27 fragrances in cosmetic and perfume raw materials.


Assuntos
Cosméticos/análise , Odorantes/análise , Perfumes/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(42): 11710-11717, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600058

RESUMO

Lactuca sativa L. var. augustana has a basmati rice-like odor with a green note in the background. This typical odor is due to the release of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP) after heating, which is confirmed by volatile analysis. Recent metabolomic and genomic studies of different rice varieties highlighted that the presence of 2-AP was linked to the accumulation of γ-aminobutyraldehyde; genome-wide association studies also indicated that acyltransferases were involved. These results prompted us to analyze nonvolatile compound precursors in L. sativa L. var. augustana (celtuce) to search for compound derivatives with a 4,5-dioxohexan alkyl amine-like structure. Hypothetical synthetic compounds were prepared from a reductive amination between 4,5-dioxohexanal and glycine, alanine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid to give 2-(2-acetylpyrrolidin-1-yl) alkanoic acid. We proved that 2-(2-acetylpyrrolidin-1-yl) propionic acid is present in L. sativa, which, when thermally treated, released 2-AP. Other 2-AP precursors occurring in this plant are discussed.


Assuntos
Alface/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Pirróis/química , Genoma de Planta , Alface/genética , Espectrometria de Massas , Odorantes/análise
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(40): 11187-11197, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552744

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the effect of glucosinolate (GSL) degradation on the volatile odor of rapeseed oil (RO) during roasting. Volatile compounds of RO and individual GSL contents in the seeds were identified and measured during roasting, separately. Total GSL content decreased by 30.47-84.44%. Nitriles were the key volatile compounds that were negatively correlated with GSLs for all samples. Results indicate that GSL degradation significantly affects the volatile odor of RO and tends to produce low-carbon nitriles. Furthermore, the thermal degradation pathways of GSLs were explored according to the structure of individual GSLs and nitriles. These results provide information for the thermal degradation pathways of GSLs and the formation mechanism of nitriles during seed roasting.


Assuntos
Glucosinolatos/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleo de Brassica napus/química , Brassica rapa/química , Culinária , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Temperatura Alta , Odorantes/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(40): 11179-11186, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487164

RESUMO

Rice flour is one of the most important raw materials in gluten-free products. However, the aroma of gluten-free rice bread is less accepted by consumers than that of commercial wheat bread. Therefore, 18 selected aroma compounds were determined in rice and wheat breads by stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA) to elucidate differences in the sensory characteristics, concentrations, and odor activity values (OAVs). The OAVs of most aroma compounds varied greatly between a rice and a wheat bread. In particular, 2-aminoacetophenone with a grape-like, medicinal aroma was characteristic for rice bread crumb and crust, while maltol was only relevant in wheat bread crust. Ehrlich pathway products varied in their concentration between the bread crumbs and were correlated with the contents of their corresponding free amino acid precursors in the flours and doughs. The analysis of rice flour revealed that only a few aroma compounds were retained in the bread. Consequently, the bread making process has a high relevance in aroma compound formation. In a comparison of breads prepared from fresh and stored rice flour, hexanal was identified as an important indicator for aging in rice bread and flour.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Odorantes/análise , Oryza/química , Triticum/química , Adulto , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Feminino , Farinha/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Olfato , Paladar , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(41): 11454-11463, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529950

RESUMO

Commercial fragrant rapeseed oil (CFRO), from roasted and hot-pressed seeds, is enjoyed in China for its unique aroma. However, the characteristic of aroma-active compounds in CFRO is still unclear. In this study, a new odor monolithic material sorptive extraction method was established to trap volatiles from rapeseed oil. Thirty CFROs were investigated using this method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 29 volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry including pyrazines, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and sulfur compounds. Further, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine (peanut-like), 3-ethyl-2,5-dimethylpyrazine (roasted nut-like), dimethyl trisulfide (cabbage-like), 4-isothiocyanato-1-butene (pungent and pickle-like), butyrolactone (caramel-like), and benzyl nitrile (pungent and sulfur-like) are affirmed as the key odorants for the overall aroma of CFRO, owing to their odor activity values ≥1. This work provides a new insight on acquiring aroma-active compounds from rapeseed oil in a more time-effective process compared to conventional methods. Futhermore, this novel approach is applicable in the field of food flavor.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Odorantes/análise , Óleo de Brassica napus/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Adsorção , Aromatizantes/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Olfatometria , Óleo de Brassica napus/economia , Sementes/química , Extração em Fase Sólida , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
8.
Environ Res ; 177: 108624, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422221

RESUMO

In the present study, physico-chemical characteristics, heavy metals content, odour emissions, microbial enumeration and enzymatic activities were analysed during industrial scale composting of sewage sludge partially pre-treated to evaluate the effect of a combined system of semi-permeable film and aeration on these parameters. The results related to physico-chemical parameters showed a decrease in total organic carbon (TOC), organic matter (OM), total carbon (TC) along the process. Volatile solids (VS) were also reduced, reaching 36% at 120 days, which is above the limit according to the current legislation. Similarly, metal content was found to be an important variable in the evolution of enzymatic activity, while lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and nickel (Ni) were the most influential. Moreover, heavy metals were found below the limit of type B compost quality or European class 2 at the end of the process, which is suitable for agriculture soil. The odorous impact generated during the hydrolytic stage was reduced to an average value of 4 ouE/s. This suggests that, covered stage with the semi-permeable film, could be a viable solution to mitigate odour emissions. The highest temperature was reached at 10 days and it was favoured by semi-permeable film. Temperature promoted the presence of thermophilic bacteria and fungi and indicated an early biodegradation process mediated by microorganisms. Statistical analyses revealed a high correlation of physico-chemical variables with microbial activity. Thus, samples from the first 14 days were highly correlated with enzymatic activities such as ß-glucosidase (Ac-ßGlu), protease (Ac-Pr), and dehydrogenase (Ac-De), which have usually been involved in the hydrolysis of organic matter.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Metais Pesados , Odorantes/análise , Esgotos/microbiologia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Solo
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10401-10411, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441654

RESUMO

This research applied inhibitors to reduce the content of cooked off-flavor components (dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, and 3-(methylthio)propanaldehyde) in heat-treated melon juice. The effects of glucose oxidase (GOD) on the formation and release of these four volatile sulfur compounds were also investigated. Results showed that GOD strongly inhibited the formation of the four compounds. In GOD-treated melon juice, S-methylmethionine was strongly protonated and not easily degraded into dimethyl sulfide. Moreover, the release of the dimethyl sulfide that did form was restrained by the hydrophobic interactions of gluconic acid and oxidation by hydrogen peroxide. In addition, gluconic acid (or glucose) and hydrogen peroxide could form a stable complex with methionine in an acidic matrix and thus prevented the methionine from producing 3-(methylthio)propanaldehyde, dimethyl disulfide, and dimethyl trisulfide by the Maillard reaction during heat processing.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae/química , Aromatizantes/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Culinária , Cucurbitaceae/enzimologia , Frutas/química , Frutas/enzimologia , Glucose Oxidase/química , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Reação de Maillard , Odorantes/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Compostos de Enxofre/química , Paladar
10.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 171, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diversity at the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is critical to health and fitness, such that MHC genotype may predict an individual's quality or compatibility as a competitor, ally, or mate. Moreover, because MHC products can influence the components of bodily secretions, an individual's body odors may signal its MHC composition and influence partner identification or mate choice. Here, we investigated MHC-based signaling and recipient sensitivity by testing for odor-gene covariance and behavioral discrimination of MHC diversity and pairwise dissimilarity in a strepsirrhine primate, the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta). METHODS: First, we coupled genotyping of the MHC class II gene, DRB, with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of genital gland secretions to investigate if functional genetic diversity is signaled by the chemical diversity of lemur scent secretions. We also assessed if the chemical similarity between individuals correlated with their MHC-DRB similarity. Next, we assessed if lemurs discriminated this chemically encoded, genetic information in opposite-sex conspecifics. RESULTS: We found that both sexes signaled overall MHC-DRB diversity and pairwise MHC-DRB similarity via genital secretions, but in a sex- and season-dependent manner. Additionally, the sexes discriminated absolute and relative MHC-DRB diversity in the genital odors of opposite-sex conspecifics, suggesting that lemur genital odors function to advertise genetic quality. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, genital odors of ring-tailed lemurs provide honest information about an individual's absolute and relative MHC quality. Complementing evidence in humans and Old World monkeys, we suggest that reliance on scent signals to communicate MHC quality may be important across the primate lineage.


Assuntos
Cadeias beta de HLA-DR/genética , Lemur/genética , Animais , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Lemur/classificação , Lemur/psicologia , Masculino , Odorantes/análise , Feromônios , Transdução de Sinais , Olfato
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(36): 10273-10284, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418566

RESUMO

Shiraz wine volatomes from two Australian geographical indications (GIs), that is, Orange and Riverina, were compared using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Shiraz wines were made in triplicate from grapes harvested at two harvest dates from six vineyards in the two GIs. A total of 133 compounds showed a significant trend between wines from the cooler Orange GI and warmer Riverina. Compounds associated with wines from the cooler climate were grape-derived volatiles, such as monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, green leaf volatiles, and some norisoprenoids. Fermentation-derived compounds, such as esters and S-containing compounds, showed no specific trend related to grape origin. In addition, wines could be also clearly separated according to the harvest date, irrespective of the climate, with C6 compounds, higher alcohol acetates, and other esters contributing utmost to the differentiation of samples, whereas terpenoids and norisoprenoids did not have an influence. This study demonstrated the plasticity of wine volatome related to grape origin and also the maturity level (harvest date), irrespective of climate.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Vitis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Vinho/análise , Austrália , Clima , Análise Discriminante , Frutas/química , Odorantes/análise , Terpenos/química
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(36): 10137-10144, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423769

RESUMO

Volatile extractive compounds from high-quality oak wood (Quercus sp.) are responsible for important pleasant olfactory notes, such as coconut, wood, vanilla, caramel, and spice. Recently, a new off-flavor reminiscent of rancid butter has been detected in oak wood. Using gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) coupled to several detection modes, such as nitrogen-phosphorus detection (GC-O-NPD) or mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS) and multidimensional GC-O coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry, six compounds containing nitrogen atoms were identified. The volatiles were suggested to belong to 2,5-disubstituted pyrazines family, which was confirmed by comparison with synthetic reference compounds. For this purpose, symmetric and dissymmetric 2,5-dialkylpyrazines were prepared from methyl esters of corresponding aliphatic amino acids (Val, Leu, and Ile) by a three-step, one-pot reaction under mild reducing conditions. Organoleptic descriptors and odor detection thresholds were also determined, whereas a bacterial origin explaining these off-flavors was hypothesized.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Pirazinas/química , Quercus/química , Madeira/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Odorantes/análise , Olfatometria
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(34): 9468-9476, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379158

RESUMO

The aroma quality of citrus fruit is determined by volatiles that are present at extremely low levels in the citrus fruit juice sacs; it can be greatly improved by increasing volatiles. In this study, we showed that the contents of cis- and trans-linalool oxides were significantly increased in the juice sacs of three pummelos artificially pollinated with the Citrus mangshanensis (MS) pollen. A novel cytochrome P450 78A7 gene (CitLO1) was significantly upregulated in the juice sacs of Huanong Red pummelo pollinated with MS pollen in comparison to that with open pollination. Compared to wild-type tobacco Bright-Yellow2 cells, transgenic cells overexpressing CitLO1 promoted a 3- to 4-fold more conversion of (-)-linalool to cis- and trans-linalool oxides. Overall, our results suggest that MS pollen has a xenia effect on pummelo fruit aroma quality, and CitLO1 is a linalool oxide synthase gene that played an important role in the xenia effect.


Assuntos
Citrus/metabolismo , Cicloexanóis/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Monoterpenos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Compostos de Tritil/metabolismo , Citrus/química , Citrus/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/genética , Humanos , Odorantes/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pólen/genética , Pólen/metabolismo , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
14.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(10): e1900424, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419369

RESUMO

For centuries, perfumes consisted in a combination of natural ingredients, mainly of plant origin. From the 19th century on, the advent of organic synthesis enabled the deployment of multiple synthetic olfactory notes, enriching significantly the perfumers' portfolio. Chemistry is ever since the foundation of modern perfumery. However, sustainable-minded consumers, massively rejecting synthetics for safety and ecological issues, engaged a global return to nature in numerous sectors, and the fragrance industry is not outdone. Sustainable extraction of natural products, making use of innovative technologies, process intensification and agro-based solvents, constitutes the answer to develop eco-conceived fragrant ingredients covering every olfactory family without endangering biodiversity any further. The objective of this review is to draw a clear picture of where those technological advances are today and to assess the ones that may be effectively transposed at the industrial scale tomorrow.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Odorantes/análise , Perfumes/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Biológicos/química , Perfumes/química
15.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 307: 108286, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400632

RESUMO

This study was designed to explore the temperature effects on bacterial communities and metabolites, as well as their relationships during the fermentation of sour meat, a traditional fermented meat product in the ethnic minority regions of China. Results showed that reduction of pH and increase of lactic acid and free amino acid contents occurred (p < 0.05) as the fermentation temperature and time increased, and the tendency was more apparent at higher temperature. During the fermentation, Lactobacillus gradually replaced other genera, and higher the temperature, more rapid was the process. Both the number and amount of volatile organic compounds increased at higher temperatures. Hexanal, benzaldehyde, nonanal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, 1-octen-3-ol and octanal were identified as the key volatile organic compounds produced by Lactobacillus in sour meat as main contributors to odor as confirmed by variable importance in the projection analysis. Redundancy analysis and Pearson correlation showed positive correlation between Lactobacillus and desired product characteristics, such as higher content of lactic acid, free amino acids, volatile organic compounds, and lower pH and water activity values, which may represent a better quality and longer shelf life after fermentation at higher temperature. Therefore fermentation at 20 °C and 25 °C are proposed as optimum temperatures for sour meat production.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Alimentos Fermentados/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Temperatura Ambiente , Aminoácidos/análise , China/etnologia , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Microbiota/genética , Odorantes/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
16.
Food Chem ; 298: 125003, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260957

RESUMO

The oral breakdown, sensory properties, and volatile release during mastication of white bread were investigated. The results of correlation analysis for white bread's physical properties and it's oral physiological parameters during chewing have elucidated that bread's physical properties determined the oral processing behavior. During chewing of white bread, 15 dominant ions with regularly changing patterns were monitored by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). These dominant ions derived from 32 volatile compounds were further confirmed by pure standards. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis was used to explore the positive correlations between the sensory analysis and the dominant aroma compounds. Results have shown that 9 aroma compounds were predicted as the potent odorants contributing to the changes in aroma profiles. Finally, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, 2-methyl-1-propanol, and heptanoic acid were confirmed as the key aroma compounds contributing to the changes in aroma profiles of white bread before and after chewing.


Assuntos
Pão , Mastigação , Odorantes/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Acetoína/análise , Adulto , Pão/análise , Butanóis/análise , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/estatística & dados numéricos , Ácidos Heptanoicos/análise , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/estatística & dados numéricos , Saliva/química , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Paladar , Triticum/química
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(33): 9325-9334, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318196

RESUMO

In vitro dynamic aroma release over oil-in-water (o/w) and water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) emulsions stabilized with Tween 20 or octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) starch as a hydrophilic emulsifier and polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) as a hydrophobic emulsifier was investigated. The equal-molecular-weight hydrophilic aroma diacetyl (2,3-butanedione) or relatively more-hydrophobic 3-pentanone was added to the emulsions prepared by high speed mixing, or membrane emulsification followed by thickened with xanthan gum removing droplet size distribution and creaming as variables affecting dynamic release. Results showed the differences of w/o/w emulsions in the dynamic release compared to o/w emulsions mainly depended on aroma hydrophobicity, emulsion type, emulsifier-aroma interactions, and creaming. Xanthan led to a reduced headspace replenishment. Interfacially adsorbed OSA starch and xanthan-OSA starch interaction influenced on diacetyl release over emulsions. OSA starch alone interacted with 3-pentanone. This study demonstrates the potential impact of emulsifying and thickening systems on aroma release systems and highlights that specific interactions may compromise product quality.


Assuntos
Emulsificantes/química , Odorantes/análise , Amido/química , Emulsões/química , Glicerol/análogos & derivados , Glicerol/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/química , Polissorbatos/química , Ácidos Ricinoleicos/química , Anidridos Succínicos/química , Água/química
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 8926-8937, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352781

RESUMO

The volatile compounds found in mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) obtained from three cultivars (TN, Tainong no. 1; KT, Keitt; and ZL, Zill; grown in China) were comprehensively analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and GC-flame photometric detection (GC-FPD) analyses. The results showed that 42, 35, and 45 compounds were identified in the TN, KT, and ZL samples, respectively. From these compounds, 19, 14, and 20 compounds were identified as important odorants with odor activity values (OAVs) greater than 1. Of these, 5, 7, and 5 sulfur compounds were respectively identified in the three samples by FPD. Importantly, methanethiol, ethanethiol, 1-propanethiol, methyl propyl disulfide, and 3-mercapto-1-hexanol were detected for the first time in mango. Five sulfur compounds were selected to study interactions using Feller's additive model, OAV, and Vector model. Among these mixtures, six mixtures exhibited a masking effect, three mixtures presented an additive effect, and one mixture showed a synergistic effect.


Assuntos
Mangifera/química , Compostos de Enxofre/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , China , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Mangifera/classificação , Odorantes/análise , Olfatometria
19.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6444-6454, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a close relationship between certain 'aging markers' in wine and the wine's age. This study aimed to characterize all extracted aging markers in Chinese rice wine and distinguish the ages of Chinese rice wine using principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA). RESULTS: A total of 49 potential aging markers (P ≤ 0.05*) were extracted from 71 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Chinese rice wine across a range of seven different ages. Of all 49 extracted aging markers, all furans, 2/3 aldehydes and ketones maintained significantly increasing levels with age (P ≤ 0.01**), especially sotolon (0.981**) and acetophenone (0.951**). On the other hand, all sulfides decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.01**). Changes in vanillin, guaiacol, 4-vinylguaiacol (4-VG) and 4-ethylguaiacol (4-EG) also suggested a potential synthesis during the aging process. The results of PCA and CA demonstrated that Chinese rice wines with different ages could be clearly distinguished from each other, which was consistent with the evolution of the 49 aging markers during the aging process. CONCLUSION: These 49 potential 'aging markers' successfully distinguished ages using PCA and CA. Our results therefore throw light on the characterization of VOCs during Chinese rice wine aging, and provide a quantitative basis for discriminating the ages of Chinese rice wine. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Vinho/análise , China , Aromatizantes/química , Humanos , Análise Multivariada , Odorantes/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Paladar , Fatores de Tempo
20.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6638-6643, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phospholipids are an important precursor for the generation of carbonyl compounds that play a significant role in the characteristic aroma of deep-fat fried foods. RESULTS: Phospholipids extracted from hen egg yolks were added into sunflower oil (2.0 g kg-1 ) and heated with or without chicken meat at 160 °C for 10 min, and then dynamic headspace extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to extract and analyse the volatiles. The results showed that the characteristic deep-fat frying odorants, such as (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and (E,Z)-2,4-decadienal, as well as 1-octen-3-one, (E)-2-nonenal, octanal, methional, dimethyl disulfide and alkylpyrazines, had increased by 3-65 times in the sunflower oil with added phospholipids, and increased up to six times in chicken meat that had been treated with phospholipids prior to heating. CONCLUSION: There is potential for the food industry to use low levels of phospholipids, particularly egg yolk phospholipids, to increase deep-fat frying odorants in a wide range of deep-fried products. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Gema de Ovo/química , Ovos/análise , Alimento Funcional/análise , Fosfolipídeos/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Animais , Galinhas , Culinária , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Temperatura Alta , Odorantes/análise
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