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1.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 135(3): 144-148, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393459

RESUMO

The article is dedicated to the works of E.V. Adamyuk (1839-1906) - founder of the Kazan School of Ophthalmology, a professor of the Imperial Kazan University; he published in the specialized journal 'The Russian Annals of Ophthalmology' ('Vestnik oftal'mologii') in the late XIX - early XX centuries. In respect of his great scientific and clinical experience, as well as his high prestige among both Russian and foreign colleagues, he was included in the editorial board of the journal from its very first issue, which was published in 1884. His wide range of knowledge in various fields of medical science allowed professor E.V. Adamyuk over 20 years (1886-1906) of consistent participation in the journal activity by publishing his clinical observations and scientific discussions about etiology, pathogenesis and treatment methods of a number of eye diseases (trachoma, glaucoma, cataracts, retinal and optic nerve pathologies, etc.), many of which are still instructive and relevant to this day. Professor E.V. Adamyuk's scientific heritage preserved in his publications in 'The Russian Annals of Ophthalmology' is without doubts an invaluable contribution to the formation and development of ophthalmological science.


Assuntos
Oftalmologia , Aniversários e Eventos Especiais , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Federação Russa , Universidades
2.
Ophthalmologe ; 116(9): 838-849, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388757

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To define unmet needs in ophthalmology which can realistically be addressed in the next years (2019-2025) and to describe potential avenues for research to address these challenges. METHODS: Outcomes of a consensus process within the European Vision Institute (EVI, Brussels) are outlined. Disease areas which are discussed comprise glaucoma, retinal dystrophies, diabetic retinopathy, dry eye disease, corneal diseases, cataract and refractive surgery. RESULTS: Unmet needs in the mentioned disease areas are discussed and realistically achievable research projects outlined. CONCLUSION: Considerable progress can be made in the field of ophthalmology and patient-relevant outcomes in the near future.


Assuntos
Catarata , Glaucoma , Oftalmologia , Consenso , Humanos , Visão Ocular
3.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 30(5): 337-346, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261187

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite the impressive results of recent artificial intelligence applications to general ophthalmology, comparatively less progress has been made toward solving problems in pediatric ophthalmology using similar techniques. This article discusses the unique needs of pediatric patients and how artificial intelligence techniques can address these challenges, surveys recent applications to pediatric ophthalmology, and discusses future directions. RECENT FINDINGS: The most significant advances involve the automated detection of retinopathy of prematurity, yielding results that rival experts. Machine learning has also been applied to the classification of pediatric cataracts, prediction of postoperative complications following cataract surgery, detection of strabismus and refractive error, prediction of future high myopia, and diagnosis of reading disability. In addition, machine learning techniques have been used for the study of visual development, vessel segmentation in pediatric fundus images, and ophthalmic image synthesis. SUMMARY: Artificial intelligence applications could significantly benefit clinical care by optimizing disease detection and grading, broadening access to care, furthering scientific discovery, and improving clinical efficiency. These methods need to match or surpass physician performance in clinical trials before deployment with patients. Owing to the widespread use of closed-access data sets and software implementations, it is difficult to directly compare the performance of these approaches, and reproducibility is poor. Open-access data sets and software could alleviate these issues and encourage further applications to pediatric ophthalmology.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial/tendências , Oftalmologia/tendências , Pediatria/tendências , Criança , Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Oftalmopatias/diagnóstico , Oftalmopatias/terapia , Humanos
4.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(3): 356-360, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344173

RESUMO

Johann Sebastian Bach suffered during the last year of his life of a progressive visual defect despite two operations done by a famous but quite controversial English ocular surgeon of that time. The exact diagnosis of his ocular problems is unclear but cataracts and complicated glaucoma seem the most plausible. A septic complication following the ocular surgery could have weakened Bach's health leading to his death only three months after the last intervention. In this paper diverse less known aspects of Bach's disease and life are reported.


Assuntos
Pessoas Famosas , Música/história , Transtornos da Visão/história , Inglaterra , Alemanha , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , Humanos , Oftalmologia/história , Médicos , Transtornos da Visão/cirurgia
6.
Managua; s.n; jun. 2019. 81 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Tese em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015445

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Determinar los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas, con respecto a la RD, de los pacientes diabéticos, que acuden a la consulta oftalmológica en el CENAO, Managua, Nicaragua, Febrero 2019. METODOLOGÍA: Estudio descriptivo transversal a través de una encuesta CAP. Esta se basaba en las siguientes agrupaciones de datos: características sociodemográficas, características clínicas, conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas. Participaron 47 pacientes diabéticos mayores de 18 años que asistieron a la consulta oftalmológica en el CENAO durante el tiempo de investigación. RESULTADOS: El 76,6% (36) de los pacientes eran mayores de 50 años, El 47% (22) no sabían el tipo de diabetes que padecían y el 70,2% (33) aún no tenían RD. El 94% (44) de los pacientes tenían buenas actitudes, el 63% (30) tenían buenas prácticas y solamente el 5% (3) tenían buenos conocimientos sobre la RD. CONCLUSIONES: La mayoría de los pacientes diabéticos no solamente tenían buenas actitudes con respecto al chequeo ocular anual y a la importancia de visitar a un oftalmólogo en caso de que sea necesario, sino que también tenían buenas prácticas con respecto a este tema. No obstante, la gran mayoría de los pacientes diabéticos tenían un nivel de conocimientos, sobre la RD, que se considera deficiente. Esto permitió la existencia de una discrepancia significativa entre el nivel de conocimientos, las actitudes y las prácticas, con respecto a la RD, de los pacientes diabéticos


Assuntos
Humanos , Oftalmologia , Complicações do Diabetes , Diabetes Mellitus , Retinopatia Diabética , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Administração em Saúde
7.
Rom J Ophthalmol ; 63(1): 10-14, 2019 Jan-Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198892

RESUMO

Rare ocular pathology has an important impact on the quality of life of patients because often the damage is bilateral and, although asymmetric, causes a significant decrease in visual acuity. Because it may be asymptomatic until a relatively late stage, diagnosis is frequently delayed. A general understanding of the disease pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment may assist primary care physicians in referring high-risk patients for comprehensive ophthalmological examination and for a more active involvement in their care. Moreover, a significant percentage of these orphan diseases do not have treatment approved by the FDA. The examination and monitoring of patients with rare ophthalmological disorders represents a key component of an ongoing project at the University Emergency Hospital, Bucharest, Romania - Ophthalmology Clinic. Rare disease registries are leading tools for the development of clinical research for rare diseases, improvement of patient access to new diagnostic methods, follow-up and new emerging therapies. As of this moment, the European list of rare diseases includes 53 ophthalmological diseases, which are classified as rare diseases and another 103 systemic diseases with ophthalmological involvement, out of a total of 7000 rare diseases.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias/terapia , Oftalmologia/instrumentação , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Oftalmológico/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Europa (Continente) , Oftalmopatias/diagnóstico , Humanos
8.
Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) ; 8(3): 264-272, 2019 May-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31149787

RESUMO

The lifestyle of modern society has changed significantly with the emergence of artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning (ML), and deep learning (DL) technologies in recent years. Artificial intelligence is a multidimensional technology with various components such as advanced algorithms, ML and DL. Together, AI, ML, and DL are expected to provide automated devices to ophthalmologists for early diagnosis and timely treatment of ocular disorders in the near future. In fact, AI, ML, and DL have been used in ophthalmic setting to validate the diagnosis of diseases, read images, perform corneal topographic mapping and intraocular lens calculations. Diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and glaucoma are the 3 most common causes of irreversible blindness on a global scale. Ophthalmic imaging provides a way to diagnose and objectively detect the progression of a number of pathologies including DR, AMD, glaucoma, and other ophthalmic disorders. There are 2 methods of imaging used as diagnostic methods in ophthalmic practice: fundus digital photography and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Of note, OCT has become the most widely used imaging modality in ophthalmology settings in the developed world. Changes in population demographics and lifestyle, extension of average lifespan, and the changing pattern of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, DR, AMD, and glaucoma create a rising demand for such images. Furthermore, the limitation of availability of retina specialists and trained human graders is a major problem in many countries. Consequently, given the current population growth trends, it is inevitable that analyzing such images is time-consuming, costly, and prone to human error. Therefore, the detection and treatment of DR, AMD, glaucoma, and other ophthalmic disorders through unmanned automated applications system in the near future will be inevitable. We provide an overview of the potential impact of the current AI, ML, and DL methods and their applications on the early detection and treatment of DR, AMD, glaucoma, and other ophthalmic diseases.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Inteligência Artificial , Aprendizado Profundo , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Oftalmológico , Oftalmopatias/diagnóstico , Aprendizado de Máquina , Oftalmologia/educação , Humanos
9.
Turk J Ophthalmol ; 49(3): 154-163, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31245978

RESUMO

With increased life expectancy at birth and especially the rising incidence of age-related macular degeneration, low vision (re)habilitation is becoming more important today. Important factors to consider when presenting rehabilitation and treatment options to patients presenting to low vision centers include the diagnosis of the underlying disease, the patient's age, their existing visual functions (especially distance and near visual acuity), whether visual loss is central or peripheral, whether their disease is progressive or not, the patient's education level, and their expectations from us. Low vision patients must be guided to the right centers at the appropriate age, with appropriate indications, and with realistic expectations, and the rehabilitation process must be carried out as a multidisciplinary collaboration.


Assuntos
Oftalmologia/métodos , Baixa Visão/reabilitação , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Humanos , Baixa Visão/fisiopatologia
10.
Ophthalmologe ; 116(7): 689-706, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254058

RESUMO

Disorders of the visual pathway can be due to pathological processes that cannot be directly assessed or visualized by ophthalmological examinations. Cross-sectional diagnostic imaging modalities, such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are frequently used to further assess the visual pathway. This article provides an overview of the principles of CT and MRI for the anatomical and technical assessment of ophthalmological disease processes. Additionally, a brief overview regarding the endovascular diagnostics with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and treatment of vascular disease processes, which can also impair the visual pathway at various points is provided.


Assuntos
Oftalmologia , Angiografia Digital , Estudos Transversais , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Radiografia
15.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 67(7): 988-994, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238393

RESUMO

Ophthalmology is a field that is now seeing the integration of robotics in its surgical procedures and interventions. Assistance facilitated by robots offers substantial improvements in terms of movement control, tremor cancellation, enhanced visualization, and distance sensing. Robotic technology has only recently been integrated into ophthalmology; hence, the progression is only in its initial stages. Robotic technologies such as da Vinci Surgical System are integrated into the field of ophthalmology and are assisting surgeons in complex eye surgeries. Ophthalmic surgeries require high accuracy and precision to execute tissue manipulation, and some complex ocular surgery may take few hours to complete the procedures that may predispose high-volume ophthalmic surgeons to work-related musculoskeletal disorders. A complete paradigm shift has been achieved in this particular field through the integration of advanced robotic technology, resulting in easier and more efficient procedures. Where robotic technology assists the surgeons and improves the overall quality of care, it also projects several challenges including limited availability, training, and the high cost of the robotic system. Although considerable studies and trials have been conducted for various robotic systems, only a few of them have made it to the commercial stage and ophthalmology, on its own, has a long way to go in robotics technology.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos/métodos , Oftalmologia/métodos , Robótica/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos
17.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 55(6): 469-474, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189277

RESUMO

With the rapid development of global perinatal medicine and neonatal medicine, the survival rate of high-risk neonates (premature, and those who suffer neurologic lesion during or shortly after birth, et al.) improved significantly, however the incidence of cerebral visual impairment (CVI) also rose, which has become the most common cause of visual impairment in children in developed countries. Studies found that visual abnormalities of patients with CVI can be various. Since children's cognition and motor development are inseparable from visual functions, children with CVI are usually characterized by abnormalities in sensory perception, cognition and even movement, other than visual impairment itself. Due to the characteristics of CVI, such as early onset, complex etiology, difficulty in diagnosis and treatment, and involvement with ophthalmology, pediatrics, rehabilitation medicine, genetic epidemiology and other multi-disciplinary content, current domestic research on CVI is limited. From the perspective of ophthalmologist, this paper reviews the progress of ophthalmology diagnosis and treatment in children with CVI in recent years, aiming to have better early recognition and individualized intervention, so as to help pediatrician and rehabilitation physicians to improve survival skills for CVI children and their quality of life. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2019, 55:469-474).


Assuntos
Oftalmologia , Transtornos da Visão , Baixa Visão , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Oftalmologia/tendências , Qualidade de Vida , Transtornos da Visão/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Visão/terapia
18.
Digit J Ophthalmol ; 25(1): 5-11, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080370

RESUMO

Purpose: Burnout affects half of doctors in the United States. Programs to decrease burnout and foster resilience are needed to prevent loss of doctors in the workforce and maintain quality care. To ameliorate burnout at our eye center, we developed a resilience program and used a survey to identify additional groups with higher burnout for future interventions. Methods: The eye center-wide resilience program consisted of the baseline burnout survey, short email wellness tips, a grand rounds presentation, short wellness presentations at faculty meetings, and a small group discussion series with clinical faculty. The anonymous burnout survey was performed prospectively online at the beginning of this program. The survey participants consisted of respondents at the Duke Eye Center, including all doctors, scientists, clinical and research staff, trainees, and administrative and educational staff, in June and July of 2017. The short, anonymous electronic survey consisted of 10 demographic questions, 2 validated burnout questions, and 1 validated work-life balance question. Results: A total of 593 individuals were invited to participate, of whom 252 completed the survey. Overall, 37% of the respondents reported being emotionally exhausted, and 17% had experienced depersonalization. With regard to work-life balance, 43% of the respondents were satisfied and 34% were dissatisfied. Burnout was higher in respondents who participated in clinical care (P = 0.001), particularly among ophthalmic technicians (P = 0.044). Feedback from the doctors participating in the "Doctors Lounge" suggested perceived benefits, including enhanced collegiality, life skills, and improved self-management. Conclusions: Our baseline burnout survey showed higher burnout in our clinical workers, particularly in our ophthalmic technicians. Planning for next year will include the providers identified in the survey.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/diagnóstico , Oftalmologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Estados Unidos
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