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1.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 31(6): 538-548, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009087

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides a historic perspective of the impact that major pandemics have had on human and their relationship with ophthalmology. The novel coronavirus epidemic is also analyzed, highlighting the relevance of the eye as a possible source of transmission, infection, and prognosis for the disease. RESULTS: Smallpox is suspected to be present for more than 12 000 years. However, trachoma seems to be the first recorded ophthalmological infectious disease. The deadliest pandemics include the bubonic plague, smallpox, and Spanish flu. The CoVID-19 epidemic is still developing and measures need to be implemented to prevent further escalation of the crisis. SUMMARY: Understanding the current facts in light of earlier historical evidence may help us prepare better to minimize the spread of infections in the future.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Humanos , Influenza Pandêmica, 1918-1919 , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral
2.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 68(11): 2391-2395, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120625

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the impact of 2019 COVID-19 pandemic, national lockdown, and unlocking on ophthalmic care provided by the government-funded apex health institute of India. Methods: Retrospective review of electronic medical records of all patients presenting to the ophthalmology department from March 23, 2020, to July 15, 2020, was compared with that from March 23, 2019, to July 15, 2019. The data between March 23, 2020, to May 31, 2020 (lockdown) and June 06, 2020, to July 15, 2020 (unlock) was compared separately. Parameters evaluated were age, gender, presenting complaints, final diagnosis, treatment advised, and surgical interventions. Results: During the lockdown, routine outpatient flow reduced by 97.14% (P < 0.001), the median age of presentation decreased to 29 years (55 years last year) and males increased by 4.7% (from 61.51% to 66.21%) in 2020. Emergency services decreased by 35.25%, percentage of children decreased by 4.28% (from 34.28% to 30%) and males increased by 13.53% (from 59.97% to 73.5%). Mechanical trauma, microbial keratitis, and conjunctivitis were the most common reasons for presentation. The former lessened by 41.75% while the latter two amplified by 1.25 times and 2 times, respectively. While sanitizer-associated chemical injury increased in proportion, endophthalmitis, and postoperative complications declined. The number of donor corneas collected and emergency therapeutic keratoplasties performed decreased by 99.61% and 92.39%, respectively (P < 0.001). During the unlocking phase, routine patient consultations were 71 ± 19/day, significantly lower than 978 ± 109/day of last year (P < 0.001). No voluntary eye donation was reported during this period. Conclusion: COVID-19 pandemic and national lockdown severely hampered the delivery of ophthalmic care by the apex-ophthalmic institute. Unlike anticipated, lifting of pandemic-associated lockdown served only minimally in improving patient inflow in its initial phases.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bancos de Olhos/estatística & dados numéricos , Oftalmopatias/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oftalmologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doadores de Tecidos/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 68(11): 2396-2398, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120626

RESUMO

Purpose: With the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), India went for lockdown-I on March 23, 2020. In this article, we report on the demographic profile and ocular disorders from our 20 rural eye centres during lockdown-I and its comparison with the pre-lockdown period. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted for all patients who visited or had teleconsultations at the 20 rural centres in our network between March 23 and April 19, 2020. Demographic and clinical details were collected from electronic medical records (EMR). Subspecialty was decided based on the diagnosis. Patients who needed advanced care were referred to the higher tertiary centres. We report the profile of patients seen and managed at the rural centres and the reasons for referrals. We also compare the data with the pre-lockdown period. Results: During the lockdown-I period, a total of 263 patients were treated including 48 teleconsultations (18.25%). The mean age was 48.16 years (SD: 19.53 years). There were 118 females (44.87%). As compared to pre-lockdown, during the lockdown, the patient visits were highest in the cornea and anterior segment specialty with 114 patients (43.35%), including conjunctivitis (n = 25; 22.32%). Of the 263 patients, 24 patients (9.12%) were referred to tertiary centres. This includes 6/27 (22.22%) patients of microbial keratitis. As compared to this, during pre-lockdown, 28,545 patients were seen. The mean age was 49.03 years (SD: 19.24 years). There were 14,927 (52.29%) females. The referral was 1525 (5.34%), including 34/249 (13.65%) of those with keratitis. Conclusion: Lockdown-I had significantly impacted patient care in rural areas. As compared to the pre-lockdown period, during the lockdown, there was an issue with access to services by females. Despite a higher number of specialty patients (including emergencies) visiting during the lockdown, 91% of the patients who visited rural centres could be managed locally, avoiding long-distance travel.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(10)2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019514

RESUMO

Background and objectives: the emergency department (ED) is frequently identified by patients as a possible solution for all healthcare problems, leading to a high rate of misuse of the ED, possibly causing overcrowding. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic started in China; it then spread throughout Italy, with the first cases confirmed in Lombardy, Italy, in February 2020. This has totally changed the type of patients referred to EDs. The aim of this study was to analyze the reduction of ED admissions at a Second level urban teaching (Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli IRCCS) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: in this retrospective observational cross-sectional study, we reviewed and compared clinical records of all the patients consecutively admitted to our ED over a 40-day period (21 February -31 March) in the last three years (2018-2019-2020). Mean age, sex, triage urgency level, day/night admission, main presentation symptom, and final diagnosis, according to different medical specialties, hospitalization, and discharge rate, were analyzed. Results: we analyzed 16,281 patient clinical records. The overall reduction in ED admissions in 2020 was 37.6% compared to 2019. In 2020, we observed an increase in triage urgency levels for ED admissions (the main presentation symptom was a fever). We noticed a significant drop in admissions for cardio-thoracic, gastroenterological, urological, otolaryngologic/ophthalmologic, and traumatological diseases. Acute neurological conditions registered only a slight, but significant, reduction. Oncology admissions were stable. Admissions for infectious diseases were 30% in 2020, compared to 5% and 6% in 2018 and 2019, respectively. In 2020, the hospitalization rate increased to 42.9% compared to 27.7%, and 26.4% in previous years. Conclusions: the drastic reduction of ED admissions during the pandemic may be associated with fear of the virus, suggesting that patients with serious illnesses did not go to the emergency room. Moreover, there was possible misuse of the ED in the previous year. In particular, worrisome data emerged regarding a drop in cardiology and neurology admissions. Those patients postponed medical attention, possibly with fatal consequences, just for fear of exposure to COVID-19, leading to unnecessary morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/tendências , Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Otorrinolaringopatias/epidemiologia , Admissão do Paciente/tendências , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças Torácicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Urológicas/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239769, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976549

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report the significance of extraglandular ocular involvement and long-term systemic morbidity and mortality in primary Sjögren's Syndrome (SS). METHODS: This retrospective, longitudinal cohort study included consecutive patients with primary SS evaluated at a tertiary referral center. An electronic chart review was performed and all available data were extracted from clinic visits between October 1999 and March 2019. The primary outcome measures included occurrence of extraglandular ocular manifestations of SS, serological markers, prevalence of malignancy, and incidence of death. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-six SS patients with minimum 3 years of follow-up (median 9.6, range 3.0-15.9 years, total of 1,235 patient-years) were included. Of those, 10 patients with inflammatory keratolysis or scleritis had 2.3 times greater likelihood of death compared to the rest of the cohort (OR = 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5 to 4.0, p = 0.01) due to SS related complications. The lifetime prevalence of any malignancy in the entire cohort was 15.5%. The most common hematologic malignancy was non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (4.8%) and the most common solid malignancy was breast cancer (6.0%). Men SS patients were more likely to have a history of or concurrent malignancy compared to women (30.0% versus 13.7%, p = 0.16) and double the mortality (OR = 2.1, 95% CI 0.09 to 1.4, p = 0.04), independent of malignancy. CONCLUSIONS: SS patients with serious ocular manifestations, particularly men, may be at greater risk for mortality due to SS complications. The eye seems to be the barometer of systemic disease activity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Sjogren/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome de Sjogren/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Sjogren/mortalidade
7.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 185, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic eye diseases constitute a large and heterogeneous group of childhood ocular morbidity. Individual diseases may cause multiple structural anomalies and developmental features. Nepal Pediatric Ocular Disease Study (NPODS) was a population-based epidemiological study conducted across three ecological regions of Nepal to determine the prevalence and etiology of childhood ocular morbidity and blindness. In Phase II of this study, genetic analysis was performed for children who were found to have congenital ocular anomalies. METHOD: It was a cross sectional descriptive study. A total of 10,270 children across three different ecological regions in Nepal (Low lands, hills, and mountains) underwent ocular examinations in NPODS. Out of 374 (3.6%) of children with ocular abnormalities, 30 were thought to be congenital in nature. Targeted genetic analysis, including genotyping for genes specific to presenting phenotype, was performed for 25 children using serum samples. RESULTS: Out of 25 children, 18 had meaningful genetic results. Analysis revealed one missense alteration G12411T of Zinc Finger Homeobox 4 (ZFHX4) gene in one participant among 10 with congenital ptosis and another missense variation T > C P. Y374 C of Signaling Receptor and Transporter Retinol 6 (STRA6) gene in one participant among 3 with microphthalmos. CONCLUSION: The study is first of its kind from Nepal and mutant genes were unique to Nepalese Population. Further analysis of genetic factors is crucial to better understand genetic association with ocular diseases and conditions. This helps further in genetic counseling and probably gene therapy to prevent blindness from these conditions.


Assuntos
Cegueira/genética , Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Oftalmopatias/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Adolescente , Altitude , Cegueira/diagnóstico , Cegueira/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Anormalidades Congênitas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Oftalmopatias/diagnóstico , Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Nepal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
9.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 26(11): 1560.e5-1560.e8, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835793

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate ocular symptoms in European non-hospitalized patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and to investigate associations with the demographic data as well as nasal and general physical symptoms. METHODS: In this prospective, observational study, 108 non-hospitalized patients with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection not requiring intensive care were asked about disease-associated ocular symptoms, demographic data, as well as general physical and nasal symptoms using a standardized questionnaire. Total ocular symptom score (TOSS) was evaluated during and, retrospectively, before development of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Associations between TOSS and demographic data as well as general and nasal symptoms were evaluated. RESULTS: Seventy-five of the 108 COVID-19 patients (69.4%) had at least one ocular symptom during COVID-19. The most common symptoms included burning sensations in 39 (36.1%), epiphora in 37 (34.3%) and redness in 28 (25.9%), compatible with conjunctivitis. These symptoms occurred 1.96 ± 3.17 days after the beginning of COVID-19 and were mild. TOSS was significantly higher during COVID-19 (1.27 ± 1.85) than before the infection (0.33 ± 1.04; p < 0.001). There were no significant associations between TOSS and gender (ß coefficient -0.108; p 0.302), age (-0.024; p 0.816), rhinorrhoea (-0.127; p 0.353), nasal itching (-0.026; p 0.803), sneezing (0.099; p 0.470), nasal congestion (-0.012; p 0.930), cough (-0.079; p 0.450), headache (0.102; p 0.325), sore throat (0.208; p 0.052), or fever (0.094; p 0.361). CONCLUSIONS: Ocular involvement in European non-hospitalized individuals with COVID-19 seems to be highly underestimated. Overall, these ocular symptoms, including burning sensations, epiphora and redness, seem to be mild and to not need treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Oftalmopatias/etiologia , Oftalmopatias/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) ; 9(4): 281-284, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739937

RESUMO

The World Health Organization declared the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 a "Pandemic" on March 11, 2020. As of June 1, 2020, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 has infected >6.2 million people and caused >372,000 deaths, including many health care personnel. It is highly infectious and ophthalmologists are at a higher risk of the infection due to a number of reasons including the proximity between doctors and patients during ocular examinations, microaerosols generated by the noncontact tonometer, tears as a potential source of infection, and some COVID-19 cases present with conjunctivitis. This article describes the ocular manifestations of COVID-19 and the APAO guidelines in mitigating the risks of contracting and/or spreading COVID-19 in ophthalmic practices.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sociedades Médicas , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
11.
Eye (Lond) ; 34(11): 2089-2097, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a significant impact on practical activities and didactic teaching of residents and fellows. This survey aimed to propose long-term changes for ophthalmology training based on the changes experienced by trainees and their perception of new training opportunities. METHODS: An online survey was distributed to ophthalmology trainees in multiple countries. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. RESULTS: A total of 504 analyzable responses were collected from 32 different countries. The current impact of COVID-19 pandemic was described as "severe" by most trainees (55.2%); however, the future perspective was more optimistic as demonstrated by the greater number of responses reporting a presumed "moderate" (37.3%), "mild" (14.1%) or "slight" (4.2%) long-term impact. The vast majority of trainees reported a decrease ≥50% of clinical activity (76.4%) and >75% of surgical activity (74.6%). Although an initial gap in didactic teaching has been experienced by many (55.4%), regular web-based teaching was reportedly attended by 67.7% of the respondents. A strong agreement was found regarding the worthwhile role of web-based case-presentations in clinical training (91.7%), web-based discussion of edited surgical videos (85.7%) and simulation-based practice (86.9%) in surgical training. CONCLUSIONS: This survey, focusing on trainees' perspective, strongly reinforces the need to promptly include new technology-based training tools, such as web-based teaching, virtual surgical simulators, and telementoring, in long-term reorganisation of ophthalmology training to ensure its continuity and effectiveness, which would remain available even in the face of another unpredictable crisis within the health system.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Currículo , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Oftalmologia/educação , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Humanos , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 138(8): 907-910, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32644122

RESUMO

Importance: The influence on the psychology and ocular surface of ophthalmologists and ophthalmic nurses in Wuhan, China, during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is not yet fully understood. Objective: To characterize mental state and ocular surface state of ophthalmologists and ophthalmic nurses in Wuhan, China, and similar areas during the COVID-19 outbreak. Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study assessed ophthalmologists and ophthalmic nurses in Wuhan, China, and Jiangxi, China, a province approximately 300 km south of Wuhan. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Van Dream Anxiety Scale, and the Ocular Surface Disease Index were used to conduct questionnaire surveys via a messaging and social media app. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mean scores from the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (0-10 points), the Van Dream Anxiety Scale (0-100 points), and the Ocular Surface Disease Index (0-100 points). Results: Of 126 individuals, there were 42 ophthalmologists (33.3%) and 21 ophthalmic nurses (16.7%) from Wuhan and 42 ophthalmologists (33.3%) and 21 nurses (16.7%) from Jiangxi. The mean (SD) age of ophthalmologists was 36.1 (7.6) years in Wuhan and 41.2 (8.8) years in Jiangxi. For ophthalmic nurses, the mean (SD) age was 35.2 (7.4) years in Wuhan and 33.4 (7.9) years in Jiangxi. The response rate for ophthalmologists was 90.3% (84 of 93) and for nurses was 91.3% (42 of 46). The participation rate of ophthalmologists and nurses in Wuhan was 0.06% (42 of 70 000) and 0.07% (21 of 30 000), respectively; the participation rate in Jiangxi was 0.06% (42 of 70 000; 21 of 35 000) for both groups. In Wuhan, the mean (SD) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (anxiety and depression were counted as separate scores), Van Dream Anxiety Scale, and the Ocular Surface Disease Index scores were 6.90 (2.30), 7.38 (2.19), 24.52 (5.86), and 43.90 (3.74), respectively, in ophthalmologists and 8.67 (3.04), 9.38 (2.64), 21.48 (6.15), and 40.05 (6.67), respectively, in ophthalmic nurses. In Jiangxi, these scores were 5.67 (2.89), 4.90 (3.15), 12.76 (7.27), and 38.79 (7.78), respectively, in ophthalmologists and 4.67 (3.20), 4.33 (3.23), 10.10 (7.62), and 41.52 (5.92), respectively, in ophthalmic nurses. The difference (95% CI) between the 2 regions for these scores in ophthalmologists was 2.48 (95% CI, 1.30-3.65), 11.76 (95% CI, 8.90-14.63), 5.12 (95% CI, 2.45-7.79), and 5.12 (95% CI, 2.47-7.77), respectively, and in ophthalmic nurses was 4.16 (95% CI, 2.05-5.95), 5.05 (95% CI, 3.21-6.89), 11.38 (95% CI, 7.06-15.70), and -1.48 (95% CI, -5.41 to 2.25), respectively. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that ophthalmologists and ophthalmic nurses in Wuhan experienced more anxiety and depression and reported greater ocular surface abnormalities than counterparts outside of Wuhan, but the wide CIs preclude concluding confidently that there were differences.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Oftalmologistas/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Oftalmopatias/enfermagem , Oftalmopatias/psicologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Prognóstico , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(4): 534-540, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578792

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To bring summarized information about what has been published so far regarding Covid-19, facilitating the access to information and a better understanding of this pandemic, and to contribute to the medical community in the decision-making against this virus. METHODS: This review article brings collected information from different articles published since the beginning of the pandemic of the 2019 novel coronavirus. KEY RESULTS: This paper aggregates and consolidates some epidemiological parameters and clinical knowledge about the novel coronavirus and brings what is new in the search for pandemic control. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: Governments and health authorities are under increased pressure to control the COVID-19 spreading. In this scenario, the scientific community is working hard to produce relevant papers which will help in the next steps against coronavirus. Our review summarized the latest news about SARS-CoV2, evidencing what we know about COVID-19 until now.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Oftalmopatias/complicações , Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
15.
West Afr J Med ; 37(3): 221-224, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ophthalmology consultations are more thorough on outpatient basis, but inpatient evaluation cannot be over looked especially in terms of care of patients admitted in other specialties. OBJECTIVES: This is to assess the profile of inpatient consultation and eye problems evaluated and managed by the ophthalmology department of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. METHODS: All consecutive inpatients who had ophthalmic consultations requested for by various departments in the hospital between July 2018 and June 2019. RESULTS: A total of 227 inpatient consultations with 217 diagnoses were seen. Most of the patients were between the ages of 20-39 years. The highest number of consults (50.7%) were received from the medical wards. The most common reasons for ophthalmic inpatient consultations were reduction in vision (26.7%), eye pain (19.9%) and ocular screening which was ocular examination for patients with raised intracranial pressure, hypertension, diabetes and glaucoma (15.4%). Based on subspecialties, anterior segment and cornea unit received the highest number of consults (41.9%) while retina/ uveitis received the highest (58.7%) number of screening consultation. CONCLUSION: Inpatient consultations is very useful to the patient and managing physician. Although a better knowledge in the identification of common ophthalmic conditions can help to reduce the number of inpatient consults from other medical specialties.


Assuntos
Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Oftalmologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Oftalmopatias/diagnóstico , Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Nigéria , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 136(3): 106-115, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504485

RESUMO

The ageing of population is accompanied by an increase in the frequency of chronic diseases, including ophthalmic. The progression of ophthalmologic disturbances has population specificity and its analysis in Russian population is relevant. PURPOSE: To study the prevalence and age- and gender-related gradient of ophthalmic diseases (cataract, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic and hypertensive retinopathy) in the Russian population older than 50 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A random population cohort (9360, aged 45-69 years) was examined in Novosibirsk in 2003/05 and re-examined in 2015/17 (the HAPIEE project). Ophthalmological parameters were studied in a random subsample (324 m/f, aged 55-84, 2015/17). Clinical and instrumental methods were applied to assess eye diseases: cataract, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR), hypertensive retinopathy (HR) and other ophthalmic diseases. RESULTS: In the studied sample of men and women aged 55-84 years, the prevalence of cataract was 72.8%, AMD - 25.7%, glaucoma - 6.2%, DR - 2.1%, HR - 79.6%. The prevalence of other ophthalmic diseases (myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, pterygium, pinguecula, dystrophy of cornea and retina, tumors and inflammatory diseases) was 13.5%. The frequency of cataract (p<0.001) and AMD (p=0.003) significantly increased with age. The frequency of glaucoma did not change substantially in the studied age range with insignificant increase in those older than 80 years (14.3%). The frequency of DR and HR were not consistently related to age. CONCLUSIONS: In the studied population sample of men and women aged 55-84 years (Novosibirsk), the prevalence of cataract and HR is high; the prevalence of AMD is similar to populations with moderate frequency of diseases; the frequency of glaucoma is close to populations with high prevalence of this disease. The frequency of cataract and AMD increased with age. There was no consistent age gradient of the frequency of glaucoma, DR and HR in the age range of 55-84 years.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Federação Russa
18.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 68(7): 1393-1399, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32587174

RESUMO

Purpose: The aim of this study is to describe the demographics and clinical profile of patients with ocular disorders presenting during the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) lockdown in India. Methods: This cross-sectional hospital-based study included patients presenting between March 23, 2020 and April 19, 2020. All patients who presented to the emergency department were included as cases. The data were collected using an electronic medical record system. Results: Overall, 1,192 patients (mean 42.57 per day) presented to the ocular emergency department and were included for analysis. The median age of the patients was 35 (Interquartile range, IQR: 20-52) years and they were mostly adults (77.85%). The majority of patients were male (62.16%) and presented from the local metropolitan region (56.21%). On triaging based on the ocular disorders at presentation, the majority of the patients were emergency related (65.02%), followed by urgent (8.14%) and routine (26.85%) in nature. The most common emergencies were microbial keratitis (23.74%), followed by corneal trauma (16.39%). There was an increasing trend seen in emergency patients (46.11%; week 1 to 71.78%; week 4) and a decreasing trend seen in routine patients (45%; week1 to 21.20%; week 4). A subset of patients (23.49%) underwent surgery where indicated and the most commonly performed procedures were vitreo-retinal procedures (32.86%) followed by trauma related (31.43%). Conclusion: The enforcement of the nationwide lockdown due to COVID-19 resulted in a fewer patients presenting to the hospital. The majority of them presented from the local metropolitan region and the common emergencies were microbial keratitis and corneal trauma. About one fourth required a surgical intervention which was most commonly a vitreo-retinal procedure.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Estudos Transversais , Oftalmopatias/complicações , Oftalmopatias/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos
20.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 893, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a part of the Yunnan Minority Eye Studies, the purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, barriers and visual acuity outcomes of cataract surgery in a multiethnic adult population in rural areas of southwestern China. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted with participants of Bai, Yi, and Han ethnicity aged ≥50 years in Yunnan. A detailed eye examination was performed. Information on the date, setting, type, and complications of cataract surgery were recorded in the examination of cataract-operated eyes. RESULTS: Of 6546 subjects (2133 Bai ethnicity, 2208 Yi ethnicity and 2205 Han ethnicity), the prevalence of cataract surgery was 6.0%, with 4.6% in Bai, 7.0% in Yi, and 6.4% in Han ethnicity. Cataract Surgical coverage (CSC) among those with presenting visual acuity (PVA) < 20/200 in both eyes because of cataract was 53.3%, with 52.8% in Bai, 64.4% in Yi, and 45.3% in Han ethnicity. CSC was associated with Yi ethnicity, younger age, and higher education level, while unoperated cataract was associated with Han ethnicity, older age, and illiterate. The main barrier to cataract surgery was lack of awareness and knowledge, cost, and fear. Among the 525 cataract-operated eyes, PVA and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 20/63 or better was 44.5 and 67.2%, respectively, with 48.1 and 65.9% in Bai, 47.8 and 75.4% in Yi, 39.1 and 59.9% in Han ethnicity. Han ethnicity, aphakia, earlier year of surgery, lower-level surgical hospital and illiterate were associated with postoperative visual impairment defined by PVA, while Han ethnicity, aphakia, and illiterate were associated with that defined by BCVA. The principal causes of postoperative visual impairment were retinal disorders (26.8%), posterior capsule opacification (25.1%), refractive error(22.7%), and glaucoma (9.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Han ethnicity had a lower CSC and relatively poor visual outcomes compared with ethnic minorities. Further effective effort to remove barriers and provide sight restoration is warranted.


Assuntos
Extração de Catarata , Catarata/terapia , Grupos Étnicos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Grupos Minoritários , População Rural , Acuidade Visual , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Catarata/epidemiologia , Catarata/etnologia , Extração de Catarata/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Período Pós-Operatório , Prevalência , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato , Resultado do Tratamento , Transtornos da Visão/etiologia
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