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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 72(4): 100-106, 2023 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36701254

RESUMO

Introduction of monovalent COVID-19 mRNA vaccines in late 2020 helped to mitigate disproportionate COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality in U.S. nursing homes (1); however, reduced effectiveness of monovalent vaccines during the period of Omicron variant predominance led to recommendations for booster doses with bivalent COVID-19 mRNA vaccines that include an Omicron BA.4/BA.5 spike protein component to broaden immune response and improve vaccine effectiveness against circulating Omicron variants (2). Recent studies suggest that bivalent booster doses provide substantial additional protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19-associated disease among immunocompetent adults who previously received only monovalent vaccines (3).* The immunologic response after receipt of bivalent boosters among nursing home residents, who often mount poor immunologic responses to vaccines, remains unknown. Serial testing of anti-spike protein antibody binding and neutralizing antibody titers in serum collected from 233 long-stay nursing home residents from the time of their primary vaccination series and including any subsequent booster doses, including the bivalent vaccine, was performed. The bivalent COVID-19 mRNA vaccine substantially increased anti-spike and neutralizing antibody titers against Omicron sublineages, including BA.1 and BA.4/BA.5, irrespective of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection or previous receipt of 1 or 2 booster doses. These data, in combination with evidence of low uptake of bivalent booster vaccination among residents and staff members in nursing homes (4), support the recommendation that nursing home residents and staff members receive a bivalent COVID-19 booster dose to reduce associated morbidity and mortality (2).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Vacinas Combinadas , Rhode Island , Formação de Anticorpos , Ohio , Anticorpos Antivirais , Casas de Saúde , Anticorpos Neutralizantes
2.
J Theor Biol ; 561: 111404, 2023 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36627078

RESUMO

As the Coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) started to spread rapidly in the state of Ohio, the Ecology, Epidemiology and Population Health (EEPH) program within the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI) at The Ohio State University (OSU) took the initiative to offer epidemic modeling and decision analytics support to the Ohio Department of Health (ODH). This paper describes the methodology used by the OSU/IDI response modeling team to predict statewide cases of new infections as well as potential hospital burden in the state. The methodology has two components: (1) A Dynamical Survival Analysis (DSA)-based statistical method to perform parameter inference, statewide prediction and uncertainty quantification. (2) A geographic component that down-projects statewide predicted counts to potential hospital burden across the state. We demonstrate the overall methodology with publicly available data. A Python implementation of the methodology is also made publicly available. This manuscript was submitted as part of a theme issue on "Modelling COVID-19 and Preparedness for Future Pandemics".


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Ohio/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Hospitais
4.
Health Soc Work ; 48(1): 33-42, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36535038

RESUMO

Although social workers have an elevated risk of infection with COVID-19, no previous studies have investigated the virus's impact on practitioners. Using survey data (N = 441), this study identified associations between stress, depression, and COVID-related factors and explored the role of social connectedness as a moderator for mental health among Ohio social workers. The results of the study showed that among social workers with a positive COVID-19 diagnosis, 70 percent experienced moderate/high levels of stress, and 37 percent met the criteria for clinical depressive symptoms. Results from the multiple regression analyses showed that perceived stress was positively associated with a positive COVID-19 diagnosis for social workers, and depression was positively associated with working with a client with a positive COVID-19 diagnosis. An interaction effect was also identified between social connectedness and social workers' mental health. These findings suggest that the provision of individual or organizational interventions that emphasize social connectedness can help to protect social workers' mental health.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Assistentes Sociais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemias , Ohio/epidemiologia , Teste para COVID-19 , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Ansiedade
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36554817

RESUMO

At the start of the Coronavirus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the risk of cases in childcare programs was unknown. Thus, a rapid-response research approach was launched in Ohio childcare settings. Passive surveillance data from a state-operated incident reporting system were evaluated to estimate the number of COVID-19 cases from 15 August 2020 to 1 January 2021. Additionally, active surveillance with self-administered reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests were conducted among staff at 46 childcare programs. Finally, six zoom-based focus groups with program administrators were used to gain feedback. Staff and children in childcare settings contributed 0.38% and 0.15% of the COVID-19 cases in Ohio during this timeframe, respectively. RT-PCR testing identified 3 unrecognized cases (0.88% of tests), and all occurred when the statewide positivity rate was >5%. Focus groups revealed that access to affordable cleaning supplies, masks, and reliable staffing were critical. Perhaps most importantly, we conclude that expanding the incident reporting system to include a childcare census would allow for the tracking of future health problems with highly valuable incidence rate estimations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Criança , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Cuidado da Criança , Ohio/epidemiologia , Teste para COVID-19 , Pandemias
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36554594

RESUMO

Conflict-displaced refugees have increased significantly globally. The Democratic Republic of Congo is the leading country with refugees in the United States, where many resettle in Ohio. Women refugees are highly vulnerable, yet little literature has focused on them. Furthermore, maintaining cultural traditions can provide comfort during the tumultuous resettlement process. Therefore, this study used mixed methods to understand the perceptions of Congolese refugee women on maintaining cultural traditions during resettlement in Ohio. Translator-assisted, orally administered demographic survey and face-to-face interviews were conducted among resettled Congolese refugee women (n = 20) 18 and older, who arrived in the United States from 2011 to 2018, and were currently receiving Ohio resettlement agency assistance. Researchers applied descriptive coding and thematic analysis to identify themes and subthemes. Three themes were identified among the resettled Congolese refugee women regarding maintaining cultural traditions in the United States. The three themes comprised (1) clothing and dressing, (2) food, and (3) parenting style. Our work examined resettled refugee Congolese women's perceptions of maintaining their culture after resettling in Ohio. These study findings could assist community engagers with insights and practical recommendations on supportive services for resettled Congolese women and a deeper understanding of complex acculturative situations facing them during resettlement.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Humanos , Feminino , Estados Unidos , Ohio , Aculturação , Congo
8.
J Nutr Educ Behav ; 54(12): 1076-1085, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36496229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To support the early identification of childhood obesity, Head Start (HS) implemented a body mass index screening program. This program provides opportunities for HS to communicate with families about children's weight status. Limited research is available describing the methods used to communicate this information. OBJECTIVE: Explore common experiences of HS health/nutrition managers (HNM) when communicating information to families about children's weight status. STUDY DESIGN, SETTINGS, AND PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-eight in-depth telephone interviews with HNM across North Carolina (n = 15) and Ohio (n = 13). STUDY DESIGN/ANALYSIS: Phenomenology guided the study design and analysis. The themes focused on HNM's lived experiences with their body mass index screening program. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. RESULTS: Four emergent themes identified: (1) strategies for communicating weight status to families; (2) family response to communication strategies; (3) educational, staff support, and counseling opportunities for families; and (4) challenges engaging families in childhood obesity prevention efforts. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Head Start programs acknowledged the importance of communicating children's weight status; however, there are inconsistencies in methods used and information communicated across programs. Head Start programs have community partners who support obesity prevention efforts; however, these partnerships may be underused. More research is needed to explore effective and sensitive communication methods for HS families regarding children's weight status.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Criança , Humanos , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Índice de Massa Corporal , Intervenção Educacional Precoce , Comunicação , Ohio
9.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0279160, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36534686

RESUMO

In March 2020, Ohio, along with many other states, enacted a stay-at-home order (i.e., "shutdown") to limit the spread of COVID-19. As a result of lower traffic, crashes should also have declined. We investigated whether crash rates declined in Ohio during the stay-at-home order and explore possible predictors for the decrease, such as reduced travel in compliance with the order, along with speeding, alcohol, and drug use. In addition, we examined whether support for President Trump would relate to greater travel and greater crashes (particularly during the stay-at-home order, when greater travel indicated lower compliance). The overall rate of crashes fell as people stayed home, mainly due to a decline in minor crashes. In contrast, the rate of serious crashes did not fall. Instead, percentage of alcohol-related crashes increased during the stay-at-home order, and the reduction in travel was associated with greater speeding-related crashes. Because alcohol and speeding tend to increase crash severity, these two factors may explain why severe crash rates were not reduced by lower traffic. Instead, it appears that those drivers remaining on the roads during the shutdown may have been more prone to risky behaviors, evidenced by a greater percentage of alcohol-related crashes across the state during the shutdown and greater speed-related crashes in counties with less traffic. In addition, county-level support for President Trump indirectly predicted greater rates of crashes (of all types) via increased travel (i.e., lower compliance with the shutdown), even while controlling for county-level income, rurality, and Appalachian region. Importantly, this mediated effect was stronger during the weeks of the shutdown, when greater travel indicated lower compliance. Thus, lower compliance with the stay-at-home order and increased risky driving behaviors by remaining drivers may explain why lower traffic did not lead to lower serious crashes.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , COVID-19 , Humanos , Acidentes de Trânsito , Ohio , Assunção de Riscos , Etanol
10.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(12): 1459-1465, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36403402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Controlling monkeypox effectively requires clinicians have knowledge of monkeypox, attitudes supporting of controlling it, and intentions to adopt practices to address it. Little is known, however, about levels of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) in clinician populations in Ohio, United States. METHODS: A cross-sectional, internet-based questionnaire assessed knowledge related to monkeypox, attitudes toward ability to control monkeypox and the threat of monkeypox, and prior relevant practices of having received a smallpox vaccine or having knowledge of monkeypox before 2022, intentions to adopt preventive practices, and demographics. Frequency reporting was used to assess overall knowledge and attitudes. Binary logistic regression was used to predict which KAPs were associated with behavioral intentions. RESULTS: A total of 197 clinicians participated. No demographic factor was associated with KAPs. Clinicians had relatively poor levels of knowledge. Participants expressed mixed attitudes about eventual control of monkeypox and about threat posed by monkeypox. About one in four participants reported previous knowledge of monkeypox, and about 40 % had received a smallpox vaccine Clinicians reported insufficient levels of intention to adopt preventive practices. Binary regression analysis suggests only perceptions of the threat of monkeypox to public health were associated with intentions to vaccinate self or others. CONCLUSIONS: Educational interventions with clinicians should address inadequate knowledge to support correct diagnosis and treatment. Efforts to enhance the perception of threat of monkeypox to public health may support adherence to preventive recommendations.


Assuntos
Varíola dos Macacos , Vacina Antivariólica , Humanos , Ohio , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Antígenos Virais
12.
Front Health Serv Manage ; 39(2): 37-42, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36413475

RESUMO

Many police departments have ride-along programs in which community residents accompany police officers in the field. Community organizers in one Cleveland, Ohio, neighborhood took that concept and flipped it to create a "reverse ride-along" program. During a reverse ride-along, police officers take part in community tours and dialogues to learn more about the area they serve and explore issues involving trust and trauma. In 2019, the reverse ride-along program added medical care providers from St. Vincent Charity Medical Center. The program was designed to connect residents and medical professionals for conversations in which learned knowledge and lived knowledge are valued equally. Participants identify barriers that deter positive health outcomes and prohibit effective engagement with the medical system. They do that by defining the social constructs unique to the community, then developing opportunities to address the barriers.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Polícia , Humanos , Ohio
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360728

RESUMO

Columbus, Ohio is one of the more prosperous, well-educated, and progressive cities in the United States. However, it ranks as the second worst life expectancy at birth, has a census tract wealth gap (27-year disparity), and one of the higher infant mortality rates in the country. These data suggest that there are likely several high-risk, vulnerable neighborhoods in Columbus with residents experiencing disparate and adverse outcomes. Illustrative of this fact are studies that have examined the social processes and mechanisms through which neighborhood contexts are at the forefront, including exposures to chemical stressors such as particulate matter (PM2.5) as well as non-chemical stressors including violence, social determinants of health, zoning, and land use policies. It is documented that disparate and adverse outcomes are magnified in the vulnerable neighborhoods on the Near East Side as compared to Columbus city proper, Franklin County and/or the state of Ohio. As such, we developed a nuanced community engagement framework to identify potential environmental hazards associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes in those census tracts. The refined framework uses a blended version of traditional community-based participatory research (CBPR) models and is referred to as E6, Enhancing Environmental Endeavors via e-Equity, Education, and Empowerment.


Assuntos
Setor Censitário , Justiça Ambiental , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Ohio , Material Particulado/análise , Características de Residência
14.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366490

RESUMO

Monkeypox virus, the causative agent of the 2022 monkeypox outbreak, is a double-stranded DNA virus in the Orthopoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae family. Genes in terminal regions of Orthopoxvirus genomes mostly code for host-pathogen interaction proteins and are prone to selective pressure and modification events. Using viral whole genome sequencing, we identified twenty-five total clinical samples with ORF-disrupting mutations, including twenty samples encoding nonsense mutations in MPXVgp001/191 (OPG001), MPXVgp004/188 (OPG015), MPXVgp010 (OPG023), MPXVgp030 (OPG042), MPXVgp159 (OPG0178), or MPXVgp161 (OPG181). Additional mutations include a frameshift leading to an alternative C-terminus in MPXVgp010 (OPG023) and an insertion in an adenine homopolymer at the beginning of the annotated ORF for MPXVgp153 (OPG151), encoding a subunit of the RNA polymerase, suggesting the virus may instead use the start codon that encodes Met9 as annotated. Finally, we detected three samples with large (>900 bp) deletions. These included a 913 bp deletion that truncates the C-terminus of MPXVgp010 (OPG023); a 4205 bp deletion that eliminates MPXVgp012 (OPG025), MPXVgp013 (OPG027), and MPXVgp014 (OPG029) and truncates MPXVgp011 (OPG024; D8L) and MPXVgp015 (OPG030); and a 6881 bp deletion that truncates MPXVgp182 (OPG210) and eliminates putative ORFs MPXVgp184, MPXVgp185 (OPG005), and MPXVgp186, as well as MPXVgp187 (OPG016), and MPXVgp188 (OPG015) from the 3' ITR only. MPXVgp182 encodes the monkeypox-specific, highly immunogenic surface glycoprotein B21R which has been proposed as a serological target. Overall, we find greater than one-tenth of our sequenced MPXV isolates have at least one gene inactivating mutation and these genes together comprised greater than one-tenth of annotated MPXV genes. Our findings highlight non-essential genes in monkeypox virus that may be evolving as a result of selective pressure in humans, as well as the limitations of targeting them for therapeutics and diagnostic testing.


Assuntos
Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos , Varíola dos Macacos , Humanos , Varíola dos Macacos/diagnóstico , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos/genética , Mutação , Ohio , Washington , Fases de Leitura Aberta
15.
Sex Transm Dis ; 49(12): 844-850, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36367583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose was to assess COVID-19 beliefs and attitudes and examine COVID-19-related changes in sexual behavior of men who have sex with men during 3 time periods: April-July 2020 (T1), August-December 2020 (T2), January-May 2021 (T3). METHODS: Data were analyzed from 157 men who have sex with men in Ohio recruited to participate in a longitudinal multisite network study of syphilis epidemiology in 3 US cities: Columbus, Ohio; Baltimore, Maryland; and Chicago, Illinois. In April 2020, a COVID-19 module was appended to existing baseline and follow-up surveys to assess beliefs, attitudes, and changes in sexual behavior. Sample characteristics were summarized. Correlations between demographic variables (age, racial identity) and COVID-19 outcomes were examined. RESULTS: In response to COVID-19 social distancing restrictions and self-reported anxiety, some men limited sexual activity at T1, but the majority (n = 105 [67%]) continued to engage in sex. The number of men engaging in sex increased over time (T2: n = 124 [79%]; T3: n = 121 [77%]). At T1, men not in a relationship more frequently reported having less sex compared with prepandemic (n = 39 [57%]). By T3, men in a relationship more frequently reported less sex (n = 32 [54%]). Increased anxiety about sex and condom use was positively correlated with identifying as a man of color (P < 0.001). Most of the sample reported either starting or increasing online sexual activity during each time period. CONCLUSIONS: Future efforts to target sexual health during a pandemic or other health emergencies should prioritize men of color and address the unique perspective of both single and partnered men.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Comportamento Sexual , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Ohio/epidemiologia , Pandemias
16.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 31(12): 106853, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Racial disparities exist in stroke and stroke outcomes. In an ecologic study, using the Home Owners' Loan Corporation (HOLC) "redlining" scores, as indicator of historic racialized lending practices, we hypothesized that census tracts with high historic redlining are associated with higher stroke prevalence. METHODS: Weighted historic redlining scores (HRS) were calculated using the proportion of 1930s HOLC residential security grades contained within 2010 census tract boundaries of Columbus, Ohio. Stroke prevalence (adults >=18) was obtained at the census tract-level from the CDC's 500 Cities Project. Sociodemographic census tract level data (American Community Survey 2014-2018) were considered mediators in the causal association between historic redlining and stroke prevalence and were not controlled for in regression analysis. HRS and stroke prevalence associations were evaluated with and without adjustment for proportion of census tract 65 years and older. RESULTS: Census tracts in the highest quartile of HRS (greater redlining) had 1.73% higher stroke prevalence compared to those in the lowest quartile (95% CI:0.41,3.05) adjusting for proportion 65 years and older. No other interquartile differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Historic redlining practices are a form of structural racism that established geographic systems of disadvantage and consequently, poor health outcomes. Our findings demonstrate disparate stroke prevalence by degree of historic redlining in census tracts across Columbus, Ohio.


Assuntos
Características de Residência , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adulto , Humanos , Prevalência , Ohio/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
17.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(Suppl 6): S320-S325, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36194800

RESUMO

CONTEXT: For more than a decade, the state of Ohio has been an epicenter of the opioid crisis. Multiple interventions have been deployed to address this crisis and reduce opioid overdoses and overdose deaths in the state. The Hamilton County Addiction Response Coalition (HC ARC) and its strategic, countywide prearrest diversion (LEAD) and deflection (QRT) programs have been at the forefront of this effort in Cincinnati, Ohio. Operating since April 2018, these programs have continued to grow and improve and have been successful in connecting hundreds of citizens to needed treatment and other social services. PROGRAM: HC ARC combats overdoses and overdose deaths by utilizing cross-sector planning and collaboration to operate 2 countywide programs: Quick Response Team (QRT) and Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion (LEAD). IMPLEMENTATION: The QRT and LEAD programs leverage partnerships with law enforcement, public health, addiction and mental health services, reentry services, and trained peer supporters. The QRT emphasizes triage, assessment, and connection to appropriate services for people with recent nonfatal drug overdoses and provides outreach and education in hot spot communities. LEAD provides diversion from the criminal justice system into long-term case management for nonviolent individuals with low-level offenses who also struggle with substance use disorder, mental health, homelessness, and/or poverty. EVALUATION: QRT and LEAD team members routinely track and record client contacts and outcomes using a centralized electronic case management platform. Data are extracted and analyzed by the evaluation team to examine indices of program success and provide ongoing feedback to the QRT and LEAD teams. DISCUSSION: HC ARC has implemented, tested, expanded, and now standardized its prearrest diversion programming. It has built a sustainable model to improve health and health equity for marginalized individuals whose needs intersect across health care, public health, community-based social services, and the criminal-legal system. Collectively, this work offers a guide for implementation and best practices for the following: detailed planning, policy, and procedure development; identification of key leaders and community partners; and methods to evaluate program operations to make data-driven decisions and real-time program adjustments.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Overdose de Drogas/terapia , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei , Ohio/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia
18.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(Suppl 6): S330-S338, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36194802

RESUMO

There were nearly 50 000 opioid-related deaths in 2019 in the United States.* The dramatic frequency of opioid overdoses and fatalities has led to strained community resources, especially among hospitals and first responders (law enforcement, fire, and emergency medical services). In response to rising overdose rates, many first responders have implemented programs that align public health and public safety responses to overdoses. Often called "Quick Response Teams" (QRTs), these programs leverage a collaborative team to respond to those at risk of overdose, or who have survived an overdose. The initial QRT was implemented in Colerain Township, Ohio, in 2015.† Today, QRTs are a widely accepted "model" overdose response program.‡ Despite the popularity of QRTs, research on the model is limited. In this article, the authors use existing qualitative and quantitative data from QRTs across the state of Ohio to examine QRTs. Using the lens of the Police, Treatment and Community Collaborative's 5 deflection pathways, the authors answer four key questions: (1) What is the scale of QRTs in Ohio, and how are QRTs in our sample structured? (2) Whom are the QRTs serving? (3) How many pathways of deflection are reflected in Ohio's QRTs? (4) What can these data teach us about the context of the QRT work and (more generally) collaborative overdose response? After examining the QRTs and their data, the authors provide suggestions to help researchers, practitioners, and funders better understand QRTs and similar public health/public safety partnerships.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Naloxona , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Overdose de Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Overdose de Drogas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Naloxona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Ohio , Estados Unidos
19.
Prog Community Health Partnersh ; 16(3): 361-383, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36120879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health outcomes, risk factors, and policies are complexly related to the reproductive health system. Systems-level frameworks for understanding and acting within communities through community-engaged research are needed to mitigate adverse reproductive health outcomes more effectively within the community. OBJECTIVES: To describe and share lessons learned from an ongoing application of a participatory modeling approach (community-based system dynamics) that aims to eliminate racial inequities in Black-White reproductive health outcomes. METHODS: The community-based system dynamics approach involves conducting complementary activities, workshops, modeling, and dissemination. We organized workshops, co-developed a causal loop diagram of the reproductive health system with participants from the community, and created materials to disseminate workshop findings and preliminary models. LESSONS LEARNED: Many opportunities exist for cross-fertilization of best practices between community-based system dynamics and community-based participatory research. Shared learning environments offer benefits for modelers and domain experts alike. Additionally, identifying local champions from the community helps manage group dynamics. CONCLUSIONS: Community-based system dynamics is well-suited for understanding complexity in the reproductive health system. It allows participants from diverse perspectives to identify strategies to eliminate racial inequities in reproductive health outcomes.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Saúde Reprodutiva , Humanos , Ohio
20.
Zootaxa ; 5165(3): 365-386, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36101322

RESUMO

Variation in morphology of Faxonius jeffersoni has been documented since the 1960s. However, a taxonomic review of the species had not been conducted. In order to clarify if F. jeffersoni exhibited a variety of character traits, or was comprised of multiple taxa, genetic and morphological analyses were conducted. As a result, we revealed that F. jeffersoni sensu lato was comprised of two non-sister taxa. A new species of crayfish, Faxonius elix n. sp., is described herein. Further analysis shows evidence of glacial influence on the distribution of crayfish species of the genus Faxonius throughout Kentucky, Illinois, and Indiana along the glacial maximum.


Assuntos
Astacoidea , Rios , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Astacoidea/anatomia & histologia , Ohio
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