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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(33): 9295-9306, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365237

RESUMO

As a result of an innovative olive fruit processing method involving stone removal and dehydration, a new kind of olive oil and olive flour are generated. The main objective of this work was to accomplish the comprehensive characterization of the minor compounds of both products and to evaluate the effect of the dehydration temperature on their composition. To this end, olive oil and flour samples obtained through the novel processing method were analyzed and compared with "conventional" virgin olive oils (VOO). The applied LC-MS methodology allowed the determination of 57 metabolites belonging to different chemical classes (phenolic compounds, pentacyclic trirterpenes, and tocopherols). Both the new oils and flours presented considerable amounts of olive fruit metabolites that are usually absent from VOO. Quantitative differences were found among VOOs and the new oils, probably due to the inhibition of some enzymes caused by the temperature increase or the absence of water during the processing.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Olea/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Resíduos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Farinha/análise , Frutas/química , Azeite de Oliva/análise , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Tocoferóis/química , Tocoferóis/isolamento & purificação
2.
Food Chem ; 298: 125047, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261012

RESUMO

Extra virgin olive oil (EVO) is among the most counterfeit foodstuffs in the present market. The Italian production is with no doubt one of the most valuable and therefore mostly counterfeit, due to the difficulty in checking the geographic provenance of olives. In order to provide a way for verifying the provenance of EVO, the role of microelements and, in particular, of lanthanides in the oil production chain has been studied. The distribution of lanthanides as determined by means of ICP-MS analysis appeared to provide a good tool for tracing the EVO production chain. Lanthanides and other microelements were then used for distinguishing a particularly prised EVO production from Liguria (northwestern Italy) made from Taggiasca olive variety, verifying that this production can be easily authenticated on the base of these chemical descriptors.


Assuntos
Elementos da Série dos Lantanídeos/análise , Olea/química , Azeite de Oliva/química , Itália , Espectrometria de Massas , Olea/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 9112-9120, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314506

RESUMO

A reliable and robust tool for supporting the panel test in virgin olive oil classification is still required. We propose four chemometric approaches based on t test, principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), applied for combining sensorial data, and chemical measurements. The former was from the panel test, and the latter was from headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry quantitation of 73 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of 1223 typical commercial virgin olive oils, with most of them recognized as difficult to classify with accuracy by the panel test. The approaches were developed and validated, and the best results, with 83.5% correct classification, were using the PCA-LDA approach. Among the other methods, developed for proposing simplified procedures based on a smaller number of VOCs, the best method gave 80.1% correct classification only using 10 VOCs. All of the approaches suggested that octane, heptanal, pent-1-en-3-ol, Z-3-hexenal, nonanal, and 4-ethylphenol should be considered as a basis of volatiles for classification of olive oil samples.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Azeite de Oliva/química , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Análise Discriminante , Humanos , Olea/química , Azeite de Oliva/classificação , Análise de Componente Principal , Paladar
4.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6342-6349, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Irrigation of olives increases fruit and oil yields. Due to scarcity of freshwater, low-quality water including recycled wastewater (RWW) is utilized in orchards. Here, effects of irrigation with RWW and of fertilization on the composition and quality of olive oil were studied. RESULTS: Long-term RWW irrigation of 'Barnea' and 'Leccino' olive had no significant negative effects on either oil composition or quality parameters, including free fatty acids (FFAs), peroxide value (PV), total phenolics content (TPC), fatty acid profiles and organoleptic characteristics. The average FFA contents for both cultivars were less than 0.8% during most of the experimental period, except the seasons 2009 and 2012-2013 for Barnea where the values were raised up to 1.4%. The measured PV levels were less than 9 and 5 mmol O2 kg-1 oil for Barnea and Leccino, respectively. In the last season of the experiment for each cultivar, higher TPC were observed in oils obtained from RWW irrigation with reduced fertilization (Re-) as compared to the treatments with the recommended fertilization [freshwater irrigation (Fr) and RWW irrigation (Re+) with standard dose of fertilizers], where the TPC increment exceeded 70% in Barnea and 25% in Leccino. The treatments had only minor effects on the fatty acid profile, reflected in slightly altered levels of C18:2 and C18:3 fatty acids. CONCLUSION: The use of RWW, combined with the consideration of nutrients arriving with such water to provide appropriate fertilization, was found suitable for olive irrigation to ensure optimal yields while preserving oil quality. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Olea/química , Azeite de Oliva/química , Águas Residuárias/análise , Irrigação Agrícola/instrumentação , Ácidos Graxos/química , Frutas/química , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Olea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenóis/química , Controle de Qualidade , Reciclagem
5.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6620-6627, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most olive by-products, like olive leaves, are still undervalued despite their strong potential as a source of healthy and functional components. To exploit their potential use as active ingredients in complex food systems, it is of primary importance the knowledge of their composition and technological functionality which represented the objective of this work. RESULTS: Phenolic extracts from olive leaves, obtained by extraction with pure water (Eth0) and two different water-ethanol solutions (Eth30, Eth70), were characterized for their composition and technological properties such as water- / oil- holding ability, air/water surface activity, and emulsifying capacity at pH 4.5 and 7. Their chemical stability over time, at constant temperature, was also investigated. The technological properties were affected by extraction media and pH. Phenolic extracts displayed significant surface activity, showing dose-dependent behavior. Surface properties were affected by pH and this result was confirmed by the emulsifying capacity. The extracts showed good oil-holding capacity but limited water-binding capacity. Eth70 showed the highest chemical stability, which was confirmed by the rate parameters obtained by modeling data using a Weibull model. CONCLUSION: The results of this study highlight that olive leaves extracts can represent a useful ingredient in acidic lipid-containing foods. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Olea/química , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Ingredientes de Alimentos/análise , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
6.
Food Chem ; 300: 125243, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357015

RESUMO

Fatty acids, phenolic compounds, and tocopherols of Coratina, Bosana, Semidana, and Tonda di Cagliari virgin olive oils, were measured over a 45-day harvest period. Phenolic composition was the primary factor distinguishing Bosana, Tonda di Cagliari, and Semidana, whereas fatty acids differentiated Coratina and the other cultivars. Harvest period principally influenced oleacein, oleocanthal, oleuropein and ligstroside aglycones, and flavonoids. High phenolic content was observed for Coratina (1039-688 mg/kg) and Bosana (788-592 mg/kg). A drastic decrease in phenolic content was observed in Semidana (529-134 mg/kg) and Tonda di Cagliari (507-142 mg/kg) during the harvest period. These two cultivars also had low MUFA/PUFA (6.0-4.0 and 4.9-3.2 respectively), suggesting that these varieties should be harvested earlier in the season. These results provide information to producers for improved management of the harvesting process, which is strongly affected by varietal factors.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Azeite de Oliva/análise , Azeite de Oliva/química , Agricultura , Aldeídos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Glucosídeos/análise , Iridoides/análise , Itália , Olea/química , Fenóis/análise , Piranos/análise , Especificidade da Espécie , Tocoferóis/análise
7.
Food Chem ; 297: 124933, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253274

RESUMO

The main goals of this study were to determine the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of table olives from Olea europaea L. cv. Cornezuelo, as well as the effect caused by a simulated in vitro digestion to evaluate compounds bioavailability. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array and mass spectrometry detection (HPLC-DAD-MSn) was used to evaluate the phytochemical profile, whereas conventional spectrophotometric methods (ABTS·+ and DPPH) were used to determine the antioxidant activity. The mineral content was also quantified by inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry. Thirty compounds were identified, mainly polyphenols, quantifying the major compounds by HPLC-DAD. After the simulated digestion, the phenolic content suffered an important decrease - more than 50% - reaching losses of up to 75% for oleuropein and comselogoside isomers. This decrease also resulted in a loss of antioxidant activity, observing significant differences for all parameters. However, the analyzed extracts still retained considerable antioxidant potential.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Olea/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Suco Gástrico/química , Olea/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química
8.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 131: 110529, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150784

RESUMO

The health promoting effects of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) relate to its unique repertoire of phenolic compounds. Here, we used a chemoinformatics approach to computationally identify endogenous ligands and assign putative biomolecular targets to oleacein, one of the most abundant secoiridoids in EVOO. Using a structure-based virtual profiling software tool and reference databases containing more than 9000 binding sites protein cavities, we identified 996 putative oleacein targets involving more than 700 proteins. We subsequently identified the high-level functions of oleacein in terms of biomolecular interactions, signaling pathways, and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. Delineation of the oleacein target landscape revealed that the most significant modules affected by oleacein were associated with metabolic processes (e.g., glucose and lipid metabolism) and chromatin-modifying enzymatic activities (i.e., histone post-translational modifications). We experimentally confirmed that, in a low-micromolar physiological range (<20 µmol/l), oleacein was capable of inhibiting the catalytic activities of predicted metabolic and epigenetic targets including nicotinamide N-methyltransferase, ATP-citrate lyase, lysine-specific demethylase 6A, and N-methyltransferase 4. Our computational de-orphanization of oleacein provides new mechanisms through which EVOO biophenols might operate as chemical prototypes capable of modulating the biologic machinery of healthy aging.


Assuntos
Aldeídos/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , ATP Citrato (pro-S)-Liase/química , ATP Citrato (pro-S)-Liase/metabolismo , Aldeídos/química , Domínio Catalítico , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Epigenômica/métodos , Ontologia Genética/estatística & dados numéricos , Histona Desmetilases/química , Histona Desmetilases/metabolismo , Humanos , Informática/métodos , Metiltransferases/química , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Nicotinamida N-Metiltransferase/química , Nicotinamida N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Olea/química , Azeite de Oliva/química , Fenóis/química , Ligação Proteica , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Software
9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(12): 5594-5600, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Innovative technologies are experimentally applied to the virgin olive oil extraction process in order to make it continuous and more efficient. Most of the efforts aim at overcoming the limitations of the traditional malaxation step, which, however, is essential for the development of virgin olive oil sensory notes. RESULTS: Compared to the traditional process, innovative technologies based on the heat exchanger led generally to a decrement in volatile lipoxygenase (LOX) alcohols linked to alcohol dehydrogenase activity and, conversely, to a slightly increase in volatile LOX esters. Aldehydes from the same pathway were not significantly affected. However, an industrial combined plant constructed from a heat exchanger, low-frequency ultrasound device and microwave apparatus determined the highest 'fruity' intensity perceived by panellists, in accordance with the highest value of total volatiles, with values significantly higher than heat exchanger alone, which, instead, had the lowest levels of hexanal and LOX alcohols. The pungent taste showed the same trend observed for 'fruity' intensity, whereas bitter taste did not show significant differences among trials. CONCLUSION: The introduction of ultrasound, coupled with heat exchanger and microwave, seemed not to modify the behaviour of enzymes of the LOX pathway, and the obtained virgin olive oils showed volatiles and organoleptic characteristics not significantly different from those obtained by the traditional olive oil extraction process. These findings provided the first insights into the effect of the combination of innovative technologies in the olive oil extraction process on virgin olive oil volatiles and sensory characteristics. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Olea/química , Azeite de Oliva/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Frutas/química , Humanos , Azeite de Oliva/análise , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
10.
Food Chem ; 293: 161-168, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151597

RESUMO

Olive leaves have become a promising source of phenolic compounds and flavonoids with high added value. Phenolic compounds and flavonoids are important sources of antioxidants and bioactives, and one of the processes used to effectively produce them is extraction via solvents, using aqueous ethanol solutions. To obtain the highest extraction yield per kg of biomass, olive leaves were extracted using a conventional technique (dynamic maceration) and an emerging technology, such as pressurized liquid extraction. Studies of the factors that influence these processes were performed: temperature, leaf moisture content, solvent/solid, and aqueous ethanol concentration were optimized using the central composite and Box-Behnken experiment designs. Pressurized liquid extraction resulted in more efficient oleuropein and luteolin-7-O-glucoside extraction than dynamic maceration. The operational conditions for maximizing the recovery of phenolic compounds and flavonoids and antioxidant capacity were determined to be 190 °C, leaf moisture content of 5%, and aqueous ethanol concentration of 80%.


Assuntos
Flavonas/química , Glucosídeos/química , Iridoides/química , Olea/química , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonas/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides , Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Iridoides/isolamento & purificação , Olea/metabolismo , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Solventes/química , Temperatura Ambiente
11.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(12): 5319-5326, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extra virgin olive oil is a food with a recognized health claim in the EU related to its phenolic content. Based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, we observed for the first time that most high-phenolic olive oils also contain significant quantities of another potential beneficial ingredient, S-(E)-elenolide, which is a non-phenolic compound related to oleuropein or ligstroside. Elenolide had only been found in olive leaves and fruits as the Z isomer or had been synthesized and had been recognized as an antihypertensive agent. RESULTS: (E)-Elenolide was isolated from olive oil and its structure was elucidated and completely characterized for the first time using 1D and 2D NMR and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In addition, we developed a method of quantitative measurement based on qNMR. Investigation of 2120 olive oil samples showed that elenolide was present in the majority of samples, in quantities ranging from 0 to 2821 mg kg-1 . Although elenolic acid, which is a hydrated derivative of elenolide, had been reported as an olive oil ingredient, this is the first time that elenolide has proved to be transformed to elenolic acid after reaction with water. Finally, it was found that the quantity of elenolide in olive oil depends on the quantity of water remaining in the olive oil during storage. CONCLUSION: S-(E)-Elenolide is a new important substance of olive oil and could be used as marker of high-quality oils with low water content. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Olea/química , Azeite de Oliva/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Frutas/química , Isomerismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética
12.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 128(3): 384-390, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103424

RESUMO

The present work investigates the bioconversion of the olive cake (OC) generated by olive oil industries in Morocco through solid-state fermentation using selected filamentous fungi to increase its nutritional values for subsequent valorization as ruminants feed. The fungi, namely Beauveria bassiana, Fusarium flocciferum, Rhizodiscina cf. lignyota, and Aspergillus niger were cultured on OC for 15 days. Chemical composition as well as enzymes activities were determined. Results showed (i) an increase in protein content of up to 94% for treated OC and (ii) significant (P < 0.05) decreases of phenolic compounds, up to 43%, 70% and 42% for total phenolic content, total flavonoids content, and total condensed tannins, respectively. Moreover, the RP-HPLC analysis of fermented OC confirmed the degradation of individual phenolic compounds by the strains. These findings demonstrate that F. flocciferum and Rhizodiscina cf. lignyota are efficient enzymes producers leading to a nutritive enhancement of this by-product.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fermentação , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Valor Nutritivo/fisiologia , Olea/química , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/metabolismo , Ração Animal/efeitos adversos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Aspergillus niger/metabolismo , Reatores Biológicos , Análise de Alimentos , Fungos/metabolismo , Olea/metabolismo , Resíduos Sólidos , Técnicas de Síntese em Fase Sólida
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 676: 834-839, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056191

RESUMO

In Mediterranean countries the table olive industry produces a huge volume of wastewaters that are phytotoxic due to their high sodium content. Olives intended for Spanish-style green olives are currently debittered with NaOH that generates lyes and washing waters that cannot be used for agronomic purposes. In this study, the substitution of NaOH with KOH during the debittering of Manzanilla and Hojiblanca cultivars was assessed as well as the vacuum evaporation of the olive wastewaters to comply with fertilizer requirements. Typical lactic acid fermentation occurred in brines of olives treated with KOH and a final product with similar color and flavor characteristics to those treated with NaOH was achieved. However, lower texture was found in olives debittered with KOH than those with NaOH, using them at the same molar concentration. Furthermore, the lyes and washing waters from the KOH treatment were concentrated up to 10% of their initial volume and they complied with Spanish requirements to be considered as organo-mineral fertilizers (Corganic > 4%, K2O > 2%, Ntotal + K20 > 6%) although an external source of nitrogen would be needed. They also had a high content in phenolic compounds, particularly hydroxytyrosol. This research demonstrates that table olives can be processed with KOH and the generated waste streams could have potential applications in agriculture or being a source of bioactive substances.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Fertilizantes , Hidróxidos/química , Olea/química , Compostos de Potássio/química , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/química , Fermentação
14.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991720

RESUMO

Sofrito is a Mediterranean tomato-based sauce that typically also contains olive oil, onion, and garlic. The preparation of sofrito modifies the bioactive compounds (carotenoids and polyphenols) in the ingredients to more bioavailable forms, promoting cis-lycopene formation and polyphenol bioaccessibility. To evaluate the health benefits of this cooking technique, the effect of consuming an acute dose of sofrito on the inflammatory status was studied. In a clinical trial, 22 healthy male subjects consumed a single dose of sofrito (240 g/70 kg) after three days without ingesting any tomato products and following a low-antioxidant diet the day before the intervention. Plasma carotenoids and total polyphenol excretion (TPE) were evaluated, as well as the inflammatory biomarkers C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). After the sofrito intake, a significant decrease in CRP (p = 0.010) and TNF-α (p = 0.011) was observed, but only TNF-α was inversely correlated with an increase in TPE and plasma ß-carotene (not the major carotenoid, lycopene). The positive health effects of this tomato-based product may be attributed not only to lycopene, but to the bioactive compounds of all the ingredients.


Assuntos
Allium/química , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Culinária/métodos , Inflamação/sangue , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Olea/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacocinética , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/farmacocinética , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Disponibilidade Biológica , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Carotenoides/farmacocinética , Carotenoides/uso terapêutico , Citocinas/sangue , Dieta Mediterrânea , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Licopeno/farmacocinética , Licopeno/farmacologia , Licopeno/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Azeite de Oliva/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Polifenóis/farmacocinética , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem , beta Caroteno/farmacocinética , beta Caroteno/farmacologia , beta Caroteno/uso terapêutico
15.
In Vivo ; 33(3): 707-715, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The rapid increase in the number of people who are overweight or obese, which increases the risk of diseases and health problems, is becoming an important issue. Herein, we investigated whether olive leaf extract (OLE) has potent anti-obesity effects in high-fat induced mouse models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were randomized into normal control, high-fat diet (HFD), HFD with OLE, and HFD with garcinia groups and administered experimental diets for 12 weeks. Body weight and food intake were measured once per week and obesity-related biomarkers were evaluated in the serum and adipose tissue. RESULTS: OLE significantly suppressed weight gain, food efficiency ratio, visceral fat accumulation, and serum lipid composition in HFD-induced mice. Furthermore, the expression of adipogenesis- and thermogenesis-related molecules was decreased in the OLE-treated group. CONCLUSION: OLE prevents obesity development by regulating the expression of molecules involved in adipogenesis and thermogenesis.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Olea/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/química , Biomarcadores , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Camundongos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Termogênese/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(4): 307-310, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30930370

RESUMO

In this study, fatty acid composition and tocopherol contents of cold pressed olive oils belonged to Ayvalik, Gemlik, Domat, Çilli, Çöpasi and Söbüasi varieties were determined. The fatty acid composition of the olive oils showed differences depending on the olive variety. The major fatty acids such as oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids were found as 62.49-68.53%; 8.30-17.93%; 14.39-19.47%, respectively. The highest oleic, linoleic and palmitic acid contents were determined in the varieties of Çilli (68.53%), Söbüasi (17.93%) and Gemlik (19.47%), respectively. Palmitic, oleic and linoleic fatty acids of the local varieties such as Çilli, Çöpasi, Söbüasi were similar to those of Ayvalik and Gemlik varieties. The most abundant isomer of tocopherol in olive oils was α-tocopherol (18.22-36.02 mg/100g). The highest α- and γ- tocopherols were observed in olive oils of Söbüasi variety (36.02 mg/100g) and Gemlik variety (8.12 mg/100g), respectively. It is concluded that the olive variety is an important factor on the fatty acid composition and tocopherol content of the olive oil.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Olea/química , Olea/classificação , Azeite de Oliva/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Tocoferóis/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácidos Graxos/isolamento & purificação , Isomerismo , Tocoferóis/isolamento & purificação
17.
Food Chem ; 289: 7-15, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955668

RESUMO

Ultrasound-assisted extraction is an innovative technique applied to the extraction process for virgin olive oil (VOO), which is generally employed to increase plant efficiency and improve product quality. A high-power ultrasound (US) device was introduced at an industrial plant that can process at 2 tons/h to evaluate the technique's physicochemical impact on quality parameters of VOO that was caused by an intensive mass transfer induced by acoustic cavitation process and shockwaves. The impact on oil yield was also evaluated with respect to the ripening stage and malaxation time. No significant effects on the legal and commercial parameters of VOO (including quality indices, sterols, triterpene dialcohols, waxes and diacylglycerols) were found for olives at medium-early ripening stage. Significant physical changes, increased extraction yield (22.7%), enhanced phenol content (10.1%) were observed in US-VOO compared to control (C) oil extracted with a traditional process at an early maturity index.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Olea/metabolismo , Azeite de Oliva/isolamento & purificação , Olea/química , Azeite de Oliva/química , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Pressão , Sonicação , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
18.
Molecules ; 24(7)2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939812

RESUMO

Maslinic acid triggers compelling antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in different human cancer cell lines. Hence, the chemopreventive activity was investigated on early stages of carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) which is a model that mimics human sporadic colorectal cancer. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered either maslinic acid at 5, 10 or 25 mg/kg dissolved in (2-hydroxypropyl)-ß-cyclodextrin 20% (w/v) or the solvent for 49 days. After one week of treatment, animals received three weekly intraperitoneal injections of DMH at the dose of 20 mg/kg. Maslinic acid reduced the preneoplastic biomarkers, aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and mucin-depleted foci (MDF), already at 5 mg/kg in a 15% and 27%, respectively. The decline was significant at 25 mg/kg with decreases of 33% and 51%, respectively. Correlation analysis showed a significant association between the concentrations of maslinic acid found in the colon and the reduction of ACF (r = 0.999, P = 0.019) and MDF (r = 0.997, P = 0.049). The present findings demonstrate that maslinic acid induced an inhibition of the initiation stages of carcinogenesis. The assessment of this pentacyclic triterpene at the colon sheds light for designing diets with foods rich in maslinic acid to exert a chemopreventive activity in colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
1,2-Dimetilidrazina/toxicidade , Focos de Criptas Aberrantes/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo/prevenção & controle , Olea/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/prevenção & controle , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Focos de Criptas Aberrantes/induzido quimicamente , Focos de Criptas Aberrantes/patologia , Animais , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Neoplasias do Colo/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Masculino , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/induzido quimicamente , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
19.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 89: 672-676, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991150

RESUMO

The present study investigated the effects of dietary olive leaf (Olea europea L.) extract (OLE) on some blood parameters and immune (TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-8) related genes in different tissues (head kidney, liver and spleen) and resistance of common carp, Cyprinus carpio to Edwardsiella tarda. Five diets were prepared for fed fish (mean body weight 15.90 ±â€¯0.93 g) with different rates of OLE (0.0%, 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.50% and 1.0%). A control diet was prepared non-supplemented with OLE. Increased haematocrit ratio, serum myeloperoxidase activity, immune response gene levels (IL-1ß in head kidney tissue and TNF-α in spleen tissue) and survival rate against E. tarda particularly in the 0.1% OLE treatment group. In conclusion, results of the present study show that feeding common carp with a diet containing 1 g/kg OLE over a period of 60 days might be adequate to improve fish immune parameters, and survival rate against E. tarda. Therefore, OLE can be used as a dietary additive to prevent E. tarda in common carp.


Assuntos
Carpas/genética , Carpas/imunologia , Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Olea/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Carpas/sangue , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Interleucinas/genética , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(16): 15803-15815, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953323

RESUMO

A consortium of highly degrading microorganisms was used in an integrated bioaugmentation/electrocoagulation process for treating olive mill wastewater. The system was investigated for treating 1 m3 day-1, at a pilot scale, for 2 years; hydraulic loading rate and organic loading rate were 2880 l m-2 day-1 and 37,930 g COD m-2 day-1, respectively. Average removal efficiency for COD, oils, and total phenols was 63.9%, 85.2%, and 43.6%, respectively. The olive mill consortium, OMC, consisted of seven actinomycete strains. The strains were confirmed, by 16S rDNA analysis, to belong to five Streptomyces, one Kitasatospora, and one Micromonospora strains, at 100-99.06% similarities. Hydrolytic enzyme activities of OMC strains were remarkably higher for degrading cellulosic and lipid constituents (enzyme-cumulative indices, 14-16.1), than the phenolic constituents (indices, 4.1-6.5). The establishment of actinomycetes in the treatment system was indicated by their increased counts in the biofilm at the end of the biofilter, reaching 13-fold higher than that in the control bed. The treated effluent was toxic to the seedlings of Jatropha curcas (Jatropha) and Simmondsia chinensis (Jojoba). Though its application in irrigation of 3-year-old Jatropha shrubs, significantly, enhanced the fruit yield up to 1.85-fold higher than the control, without affecting the seed oil content, after 3-month application, the irrigated soil showed insignificant changes in its biochemical properties. This developed bioaugmentation/electrocoagulation process can treat wastewater with extremely high organic strength, while its approximate construction and operational costs are limited to 0.03 and 0.51 US$ m-3, respectively. It produces a treated effluent that can be reused in irrigation of specific plants. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Olea/química , Azeite de Oliva/química , Águas Residuárias/química , Biocombustíveis , Eletrocoagulação , Resíduos Industriais , Projetos Piloto , Solo , Águas Residuárias/análise
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