Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 8.088
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248025, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657167

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Healthcare workers (HCW) treating COVID-19 patients are at high risk for infection and may also spread infection through their contact with vulnerable patients. Smell loss has been associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, but it is unknown whether monitoring for smell loss can be used to identify asymptomatic infection among high risk individuals. In this study we sought to determine if tracking smell sensitivity and loss using an at-home assessment could identify SARS-CoV-2 infection in HCW. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a prospective cohort study tracking 473 HCW across three months to determine if smell loss could predict SARS-CoV-2 infection in this high-risk group. HCW subjects completed a longitudinal, behavioral at-home assessment of olfaction with household items, as well as detailed symptom surveys that included a parosmia screening questionnaire, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction testing to identify SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our main measures were the prevalence of smell loss in SARS-CoV-2-positive HCW versus SARS-CoV-2-negative HCW, and timing of smell loss relative to SARS-CoV-2 test positivity. SARS-CoV-2 was identified in 17 (3.6%) of 473 HCW. HCW with SARS-CoV-2 infection were more likely to report smell loss than SARS-CoV-2-negative HCW on both the at-home assessment and the screening questionnaire (9/17, 53% vs 105/456, 23%, P < .01). 6/9 (67%) of SARS-CoV-2-positive HCW reporting smell loss reported smell loss prior to having a positive SARS-CoV-2 test, and smell loss was reported a median of two days before testing positive. Neurological symptoms were reported more frequently among SARS-CoV-2-positive HCW who reported smell loss compared to those without smell loss (9/9, 100% vs 3/8, 38%, P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective study of HCW, self-reported changes in smell using two different measures were predictive of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Smell loss frequently preceded a positive test and was associated with neurological symptoms.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/tendências , Adulto , /virologia , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Autorrelato , Olfato/fisiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc ; 59(1): 4-6, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666408

RESUMO

Some reports have been recently published on olfactory loss in people with severe COVID-19. It is suggested to take into consideration the recommendations of the American Academy of Otolaryngology and the British Association of Otorhinolaryngology to include olfactory loss as an early clinical symptom of COVID-19 and consider sudden olfactory loss, as a high index of suspicion of SARS-CoV-2 infection. It can be established that the majority of patients with olfactory loss due to COVID-19, present hyposmia and not anosmia. Patients with olfactory loss, who had SARS-CoV-2 infection, should be classified as loss secondary to viral infection.


Assuntos
/etiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/virologia , Humanos , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Pandemias , Olfato/fisiologia
3.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(2): 147-152, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593456

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Chronic rhinosinusitis is associated with altered mucociliary clearance and olfaction. The study aimed to analyse the reversibility of impairment and endoscopic factors predicting changes in mucociliary clearance and olfactory parameters. METHODS: This prospective study included patients undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery for medically refractory chronic rhinosinusitis. Pre- and post-operative measurements of mucociliary clearance, olfactory thresholds, and identification scores were recorded. RESULTS: Of the 96 patients, 65.6 per cent had polyposis and 80.2 per cent underwent primary surgery. Improvements in mucociliary clearance and olfaction scores were seen in all patients, with greater reversibility of impairment in patients with polyposis and in those who underwent revision surgery. The presence of polyps correlated significantly with changes in mucociliary clearance and olfaction. CONCLUSION: The study highlights improvements in mucociliary clearance, olfactory thresholds and identification scores after functional endoscopic sinus surgery in chronic rhinosinusitis with or without nasal polyposis, as well as for primary and revision surgeries. Adequate post-operative care and prevention of polyps recurrence help to improve mucociliary clearance and olfaction scores.


Assuntos
Endoscopia/efeitos adversos , Depuração Mucociliar/fisiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Seios Paranasais/patologia , Sinusite/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pólipos Nasais/complicações , Pólipos Nasais/epidemiologia , Pólipos Nasais/cirurgia , Seios Paranasais/diagnóstico por imagem , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Olfato/fisiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
4.
J Vis Exp ; (167)2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586703

RESUMO

The Controlled Odor Mimic Permeation System (COMPS) was developed to provide a convenient field testing method of odor delivery at controlled and reproducible rates. COMPS are composed of an odorant of interest on an absorbent material sealed inside of a permeable polymer bag. The permeable layer allows for a constant release of the odorant over a given amount of time. The permeable bag is further stored in a secondary, impermeable bag. The double-containment procedure allows for equilibration of the odorant from the permeable bag but within the impermeable outer layer, resulting in an instant and reproducible source of odorant vapor upon removal from the outer packaging. COMPS are used in both olfactory testing for experimental scenarios and for olfactory detection training, such as with detection canines. COMPS can be used to contain a wide range of odorants (e.g., narcotics powders) and provide a controlled release of the associated odorants. Odor availability from COMPS is expressed in terms of permeation rate (i.e., the rate of the odorant vapor released from a COMPS per unit time) and is typically measured by gravimetric means. The permeation rate for a given mass or volume of odorant can be adjusted as needed by varying the bag thickness, surface area, and/or polymer type. The available odor concentration from a COMPS can also be measured by headspace analysis techniques such as solid phase microextraction with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS).


Assuntos
Odorantes/análise , Olfato/fisiologia , Animais , Cães , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Gases , Permeabilidade , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Pressão de Vapor
5.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(2): 1114-1134, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33577069

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The novel coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic had intense social and economic effects. Patients infected with COVID-19 may present with a series of conditions. A considerable number of patients express taste and smell disturbances as a prodromal, coexistent, or as the only manifestation of COVID-19 infection. The objective of the present review is to review the hypothetical mechanisms of action and etiopathogenesis of dysgeusia in COVID-19 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Multiple scientific databases were explored, including PubMed, Medline, Scopus, Cochrane-library, LILACS, Livivo and OpenGrey. All types of articles that discussed the pathogenesis of dysgeusia were included, while articles that described dysgeusia without detail about its mode of action were excluded. RESULTS: A total of 47 articles, with different designs, were included in this review. These articles suggested direct viral neural invasion to olfactory and gustatory nerves, viral cytotoxicity to taste buds, angiotensin II imbalance, augmented pro-inflammatory cytokines, and disturbances in salivary glands and sialic acid. COVID-19 induced-dysgeusia was also associated with systemic diseases, medications, zinc, chemicals, and disinfectants. CONCLUSIONS: The most likely cause of transient dysgeusia in COVID-19 is peripheral neurotropism and direct toxicity to taste buds or olfactory epithelium. Other factors may also play a contributory role in dysgeusia, such as a defect in the quality and quantity of saliva, pro-inflammatory cytokines, angiotensin II accumulation, systemic diseases, hypozincemia, and excessive use of chemicals.


Assuntos
/complicações , Disgeusia/etiologia , Disgeusia/metabolismo , Ageusia/diagnóstico , Ageusia/etiologia , Ageusia/metabolismo , Disgeusia/diagnóstico , Humanos , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Olfato/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia
6.
Neurosci Lett ; 748: 135694, 2021 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600902

RESUMO

Patients with COVID-19 often complain of smell and taste disorders (STD). STD emerge early in the course of the disease, seem to be more common in SARS-CoV-2 infection than in other upper respiratory tract infections, and could in some cases persist for long after resolution of respiratory symptoms. Current evidence suggests that STD probably result from a loss of function of olfactory sensory neurons and taste buds, mainly caused by infection, inflammation, and subsequent dysfunction of supporting non-neuronal cells in the mucosa. However, the possible occurrence of other mechanisms leading to chemosensory dysfunction has also been hypothesized, and contrasting data have been reported regarding the direct infection of sensory neurons by SARS-CoV-2. In this mini-review, we summarize the currently available literature on pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and outcomes of STD in COVID-19 and discuss possible future directions of research on this topic.


Assuntos
/complicações , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/etiologia , /imunologia , Humanos , Mucosa Bucal/imunologia , Mucosa Bucal/patologia , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Mucosa Olfatória/imunologia , Mucosa Olfatória/patologia , Neurônios Receptores Olfatórios/imunologia , Neurônios Receptores Olfatórios/patologia , Olfato/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Papilas Gustativas/imunologia , Papilas Gustativas/patologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Paladar/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/fisiopatologia
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1115, 2021 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602917

RESUMO

Animals form and update learned associations between otherwise neutral sensory cues and aversive outcomes (i.e., punishment) to predict and avoid danger in changing environments. When a cue later occurs without punishment, this unexpected omission of aversive outcome is encoded as reward via activation of reward-encoding dopaminergic neurons. How such activation occurs remains unknown. Using real-time in vivo functional imaging, optogenetics, behavioral analysis and synaptic reconstruction from electron microscopy data, we identify the neural circuit mechanism through which Drosophila reward-encoding dopaminergic neurons are activated when an olfactory cue is unexpectedly no longer paired with electric shock punishment. Reduced activation of punishment-encoding dopaminergic neurons relieves depression of olfactory synaptic inputs to cholinergic neurons. Synaptic excitation by these cholinergic neurons of reward-encoding dopaminergic neurons increases their odor response, thus decreasing aversiveness of the odor. These studies reveal how an excitatory cholinergic relay from punishment- to reward-encoding dopaminergic neurons encodes the absence of punishment as reward, revealing a general circuit motif for updating aversive memories that could be present in mammals.


Assuntos
Dopamina/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Punição , Recompensa , Animais , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Condicionamento Clássico , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Reversão de Aprendizagem , Olfato/fisiologia , Sinapses/fisiologia
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1120, 2021 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602925

RESUMO

The integration and interaction of vision, touch, hearing, smell, and taste in the human multisensory neural network facilitate high-level cognitive functionalities, such as crossmodal integration, recognition, and imagination for accurate evaluation and comprehensive understanding of the multimodal world. Here, we report a bioinspired multisensory neural network that integrates artificial optic, afferent, auditory, and simulated olfactory and gustatory sensory nerves. With distributed multiple sensors and biomimetic hierarchical architectures, our system can not only sense, process, and memorize multimodal information, but also fuse multisensory data at hardware and software level. Using crossmodal learning, the system is capable of crossmodally recognizing and imagining multimodal information, such as visualizing alphabet letters upon handwritten input, recognizing multimodal visual/smell/taste information or imagining a never-seen picture when hearing its description. Our multisensory neural network provides a promising approach towards robotic sensing and perception.


Assuntos
Biomimética , Redes Neurais de Computação , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Humanos , Imaginação , Aprendizagem , Neurônios/fisiologia , Olfato/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Tato/fisiologia , Visão Ocular/fisiologia
9.
Nature ; 590(7845): 284-289, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461212

RESUMO

Lungfishes belong to lobe-fined fish (Sarcopterygii) that, in the Devonian period, 'conquered' the land and ultimately gave rise to all land vertebrates, including humans1-3. Here we determine the chromosome-quality genome of the Australian lungfish (Neoceratodus forsteri), which is known to have the largest genome of any animal. The vast size of this genome, which is about 14× larger than that of humans, is attributable mostly to huge intergenic regions and introns with high repeat content (around 90%), the components of which resemble those of tetrapods (comprising mainly long interspersed nuclear elements) more than they do those of ray-finned fish. The lungfish genome continues to expand independently (its transposable elements are still active), through mechanisms different to those of the enormous genomes of salamanders. The 17 fully assembled lungfish macrochromosomes maintain synteny to other vertebrate chromosomes, and all microchromosomes maintain conserved ancient homology with the ancestral vertebrate karyotype. Our phylogenomic analyses confirm previous reports that lungfish occupy a key evolutionary position as the closest living relatives to tetrapods4,5, underscoring the importance of lungfish for understanding innovations associated with terrestrialization. Lungfish preadaptations to living on land include the gain of limb-like expression in developmental genes such as hoxc13 and sall1 in their lobed fins. Increased rates of evolution and the duplication of genes associated with obligate air-breathing, such as lung surfactants and the expansion of odorant receptor gene families (which encode proteins involved in detecting airborne odours), contribute to the tetrapod-like biology of lungfishes. These findings advance our understanding of this major transition during vertebrate evolution.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Evolução Biológica , Peixes/genética , Marcha/genética , Genoma/genética , Pulmão , Vertebrados/genética , Ar , Nadadeiras de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Cromossomos/genética , Extremidades/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Peixes/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Genes Homeobox/genética , Genômica , Humanos , Elementos Nucleotídeos Longos e Dispersos/genética , Pulmão/anatomia & histologia , Pulmão/fisiologia , Camundongos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Respiração , Olfato/fisiologia , Sintenia , Vertebrados/fisiologia , Órgão Vomeronasal/anatomia & histologia
10.
Acta Otolaryngol ; 141(3): 299-302, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307905

RESUMO

Background: It has been noted that olfactory and gustatory disturbances may precede or accompany the typical features of COVID-19, such as fever and cough. Hence, a high index of suspicion is required when patients report sudden loss of smell or taste, in order to facilitate timely diagnosis and isolation.Aims/objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of olfactory and gustatory disturbances in COVID-19 positive patients from a cohort representative of Melbourne, Australia.Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was conducted on patients who tested positive for COVID-19. Standardised phone consultations and online follow-up questionnaires were performed to assess clinical features of COVID-19, with a focus on smell and taste disorders.Results: The most frequent symptoms experienced were taste and smell disturbances with 74% experiencing either smell or taste disturbance or both. Post-recovery, 34% of patients continued to experience ongoing hyposmia and 2% anosmia, whereas 28% continued to suffer from hypogeusia or ageusia.Conclusion and significance: This study presents the high rates of improvement of both olfactory and gustatory disturbance in a short-lived period. It also highlights the importance of these symptoms in prompting appropriate testing, quarantine precautions, initiate early olfactory retraining and the potential for continued sensory disturbance.


Assuntos
/complicações , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Olfato/fisiologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/epidemiologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Distúrbios do Paladar/etiologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/fisiopatologia , Vitória/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Acta Otolaryngol ; 141(3): 293-298, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33346687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Olfactory dysfunction is frequent in COVID-19 and it might occur along with pulmonary involvement. These manifestations do not seem to share pathophysiological mechanisms, but clinical data on the subject is lacking. Aims/Objectives: This study aims to correlate the olfactory function (OF) and the radiological pulmonary involvement among in-hospital patients with COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19 were consecutively recruited. They had their objective OF evaluated by the Alcohol Sniff Test and underwent a chest computed tomography (cCT). Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the cCT scans were performed by a blinded radiologist. The quantitative assessment included both the grade of involved parenchyma and the CT severity score (CT-SS). Data obtained were then compared. RESULTS: 57 patients were included. There was no correlation between the OF and the grade of lung involvement (p-value: .884) or the CT-SS (Pearson's coefficient: -.111). Yet, patients with radiological findings on the cCT typical for COVID-19 did not present significantly different OF from the remaining (p-value: .193). Conclusions: Olfactory dysfunction does not correlate with the radiological lung involvement in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. SIGNIFICANCE: There is also clinical evidence that the olfactory disorder and the pulmonary disease in COVID-19 have distinct mechanisms.Supplemental data for this article is available online at here.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Olfato/fisiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , /epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias
12.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(1): 102761, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080550

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is a pandemic disease known with one of the symptoms is sudden onset anosmia. This symptom sometimes may be the only sign of the disease, therefore it must be research widely. OBJECTIVE: We aim to evaluate odor dysfunction in COVID-19 patients objectively and safely without any risk of transmitting the disease. METHODS: The odor threshold test was performed on 105 patients hospitalized at the XXXX Training and Research Hospital on the COVID-19 pandemic service before any treatment began. Odor threshold was tested using a modification of the Connecticut Chemosensory Clinical Research Center olfactory function test. COVID-19 signs and symptoms, PCR test results, thorax computed tomography (CT) findings, and length of hospital stay were recorded. Odor tests were scored between 0-8, 0-1 anosmia, 2-3 severely hyposmia, 4 moderate hyposmia, 5 mild hyposmia, 6 and above normosmia. RESULTS: Forty-one (39%) of the 105 patients were diagnosed with COVID-19 after the PCR results. Patients with an odor threshold score < 5 were classified as "Smell-Impaired Group", patients with an odor threshold score ≥ 5 were placed in "Smell Intact Group". The incidence of female patients in smell-impaired group was significantly higher (p ˂ 0.05). The proportion of patients who were PCR-positive for COVID-19 in smell-impaired group was significantly higher (p ˂ 0.05) than in smell intact group. Among patients with an odor threshold score from 0 to 1 (anosmic; n = 15), 12 (80%) demonstrated PCR positivity (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Anosmia can be predictive for coronavirus disease. Odor threshold test can be helpful for diagnosis.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Pandemias , Olfato/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Turquia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(1): 102796, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An association between IL-6 levels and cytokine storm syndrome in COVID-19 patients has been suggested. Cases with higher IL-6 levels have more rapid progression and a higher complication rate. On the other hand, COVID-19 cases with anosmia have a milder course of the disease. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate whether there is a relationship between serum IL-6 levels and presence of anosmia in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 based on laboratory (PCR) were stratified into two groups based on presence of olfactory dysfunction (OD). In all cases with and without anosmia; psychophysical test (Sniffin' Sticks test) and a survey on olfactory symptoms were obtained. Threshold (t) - discrimination (d) - identification (i), and total (TDI) scores reflecting olfactory function were calculated. Clinical symptoms, serum IL-6 levels, other laboratory parameters, and chest computed tomography (CT) findings were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 59 patients were included, comprising 23 patients with anosmia and 36 patients without OD based on TDI scores. Patients with anosmia (41.39 ± 15.04) were significantly younger compared to cases without anosmia (52.19 ± 18.50). There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of comorbidities, smoking history, and symptoms including nasal congestion and rhinorrhea. Although serum IL-6 levels of all patients were above normal values (7 pg/mL), patients with anosmia had significantly lower serum IL-6 levels (16.72 ± 14.28 pg/mL) compared to patients without OD (60.95 ± 89.33 pg/mL) (p = 0.026). CONCLUSION: Patients with COVID-19 related anosmia tend to have significantly lower serum levels of IL-6 compared to patients without OD, and the lower IL-6 levels is related to milder course of the disease. With the effect of low cytokine storm and IL-6 level, it may be said that anosmic cases have a milder disease in COVID-19.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , Interleucina-6/sangue , Pandemias , Olfato/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , /etiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Support Care Cancer ; 29(1): 49-66, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734392

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Taste and smell disturbances in patients affected by cancer are very common, but often under-recognized symptoms. If not addressed properly, they may impact nutritional status, food enjoyment, and quality of life. Treatment tools available for clinicians to manage chemosensory alterations are limited and are often based on personal clinical experiences. The aim of this study was to assess current oncological and palliative care literature through a scoping review, in order to identify available treatments for taste and smell alterations in cancer patients. METHODS: Medline, Embase, CINAHL, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, and Google Scholar were searched from inception until January 2020, with subject headings relevant to the domains of chemosensory alterations, palliative, and cancer care. A total of 10,718 English and French language publications were reviewed, yielding 43 articles on the researched topic. RESULTS: The heterogeneity of selected articles led to difficulties in interpretation and analysis of the available evidence. Included publications differed in study design, population sample, anticancer treatments, and measures of assessment for taste and smell disturbances. A broad variety of treatment options were described including zinc and polaprezinc, radio-protectors, vitamins and supplements, anti-xerostomia agents, active swallowing exercises, nutritional interventions, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, and photobiomodulation. CONCLUSION: This scoping review identifies the current state of knowledge regarding chemosensory alterations within supportive cancer care. Despite not reaching firm conclusions, this article offers therapeutic venues to further explore in larger and more methodologically sound studies.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Olfato/tratamento farmacológico , Olfato/fisiologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/tratamento farmacológico , Paladar/fisiologia , Adulto , Amifostina/uso terapêutico , Carnosina/análogos & derivados , Carnosina/uso terapêutico , Dronabinol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/patologia , Compostos Organometálicos/uso terapêutico , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Selênio/uso terapêutico , Distúrbios do Paladar/patologia , Compostos de Zinco/uso terapêutico
15.
Am J Med Sci ; 361(2): 216-225, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of olfactory dysfunction or "loss of smell" has been reported as an atypical symptom in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available literature to evaluate the prevalence of "loss of smell" in COVID-19 as well as its utility for prognosticating the disease severity. METHODS: An exhaustive search of the PubMed/Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, LitCovid NIH, and WHO COVID-19 database was conducted through August 6th, 2020. All studies reporting the prevalence of "loss of smell" (anosmia and/or hyposmia/microsmia) in laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients were included. Pooled prevalence for cases (positive COVID-19 through reverse transcriptase (RT-PCR) and/or serology IgG/IgM) and controls (negative RT-PCR and/or serology) was compared, and the odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI) and the p-value were calculated. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 51 studies with 11074 confirmed COVID-19 patients were included. Of these, 21 studies used a control group with 3425 patients. The symptom of "loss of smell" (OR: 14.7, CI: 8.9-24.3) was significantly higher in the COVID-19 group when compared to the control group. Seven studies comparing severe COVID-19 patients with- and without "loss of smell" demonstrated favorable prognosis for patients with "loss of smell" (OR: 0.36, CI 0.27-0.48). CONCLUSIONS: Olfactory dysfunction or "loss of smell" is a prevalent symptom in COVID-19 patients. Moreover, COVID-19 patients with "loss of smell" appear to have a milder course of the disease.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , /diagnóstico , /epidemiologia , Humanos , Olfato/fisiologia
16.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243535, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320870

RESUMO

High-frequency oscillations of the frontal cortex are involved in functions of the brain that fuse processed data from different sensory modules or bind them with elements stored in the memory. These oscillations also provide inhibitory connections to neural circuits that perform lower-level processes. Deficit in the performance of these oscillations has been examined as a marker for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Additionally, the neurodegenerative processes associated with AD, such as the deposition of amyloid-beta plaques, do not occur in a spatially homogeneous fashion and progress more prominently in the medial temporal lobe in the early stages of the disease. This region of the brain contains neural circuitry involved in olfactory perception. Several studies have suggested that olfactory deficit can be used as a marker for early diagnosis of AD. A quantitative assessment of the performance of the olfactory system can hence serve as a potential biomarker for Alzheimer's disease, offering a relatively convenient and inexpensive diagnosis method. This study examines the decline in the perception of olfactory stimuli and the deficit in the performance of high-frequency frontal oscillations in response to olfactory stimulation as markers for AD. Two measurement modalities are employed for assessing the olfactory performance: 1) An interactive smell identification test is used to sample the response to a sizable variety of odorants, and 2) Electroencephalography data are collected in an olfactory perception task with a pair of selected odorants in order to assess the connectivity of frontal cortex regions. Statistical analysis methods are used to assess the significance of selected features extracted from the recorded modalities as Alzheimer's biomarkers. Olfactory decline regressed to age in both healthy and mild AD groups are evaluated, and single- and multi-modal classifiers are also developed. The novel aspects of this study include: 1) Combining EEG response to olfactory stimulation with behavioral assessment of olfactory perception as a marker of AD, 2) Identification of odorants most significantly affected in mild AD patients, 3) Identification of odorants which are still adequately perceived by mild AD patients, 4) Analysis of the decline in the spatial coherence of different oscillatory bands in response to olfactory stimulation, and 5) Being the first study to quantitatively assess the performance of olfactory decline due to aging and AD in the Iranian population.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Lobo Frontal/patologia , Percepção Olfatória/fisiologia , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/metabolismo , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Odorantes , Olfato/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/patologia
17.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243941, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To introduce new ways to calculate OB volumes, checking their validity and comparing them to already established technique i.e. OB volumetric based on manual segmentation of OB boundaries. METHODS: Two approaches were used to calculate OB volumes (1) Manual Segmentation using planimetric manual contouring; (2) Box-frame method, calculating the parameters based on a box placed around the OB. RESULTS: We calculated OB volumes using both techniques and found comparable outcomes. High inter-observer reliability was found for volumes calculated by both observers. For manual segmentation, Cronbach's alpha (α) was 0.91 and 0.93 for right and left OB volume, respectively, whereas for the box-frame method α was 0.94 and 0.90 for right and left OB, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The simple box-frame method of OB volume calculation appears reliable. Its results are comparable to an established technique.


Assuntos
Bulbo Olfatório/anatomia & histologia , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia , Olfato/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bulbo Olfatório/diagnóstico por imagem
18.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243893, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370353

RESUMO

Psychosocial chronic stress is a critical risk factor for the development of mood disorders. However, little is known about the consequences of acute stress in the context of chronic stress, and about the related brain responses. In the present study we examined the physio-behavioural effects of a supplementation with a sensory functional food ingredient (FI) containing Citrus sinensis extract (D11399, Phodé, France) in a pig psychosocial chronic stress model. Female pigs underwent a 5- to 6-week stress protocol while receiving daily the FI (FI, n = 10) or a placebo (Sham, n = 10). We performed pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) to study the brain responses to an acute stress (injection of Synacthen®, a synthetic ACTH-related agonist) and to the FI odour with or without previous chronic supplementation. The olfactory stimulation with the ingredient elicited higher brain responses in FI animals, demonstrating memory retrieval and habituation to the odour. Pharmacological stress with Synacthen injection resulted in an increased activity in several brain regions associated with arousal, associative learning (hippocampus) and cognition (cingulate cortex) in chronically stressed animals. This highlighted the specific impact of acute stress on the brain. These responses were alleviated in animals previously supplemented by the FI during the entire chronic stress exposure. As chronic stress establishes upon the accumulation of acute stress events, any attenuation of the brain responses to acute stress can be interpreted as a beneficial effect, suggesting that FI could be a viable treatment to help individuals coping with repeated stressful events and eventually to reduce chronic stress. This study provides additional evidence on the potential benefits of this FI, of which the long-term consequences in terms of behaviour and physiology need to be further investigated.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Citrus/química , Olfato/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico , Animais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Ingredientes de Alimentos/análise , França , Alimento Funcional/análise , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Olfato/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos
19.
Trials ; 21(1): 942, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225989

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate a therapeutic role for omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the treatment of olfactory dysfunction associated with COVID-19 infection TRIAL DESIGN: Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial PARTICIPANTS: Eligible patients are adults with self-reported new-onset olfactory dysfunction of any duration associated with laboratory-confirmed or clinically suspected COVID-19 patients. Exclusion criteria include patients with pre-existing olfactory dysfunction, history of chronic rhinosinusitis or history of sinus surgery, current use of nasal steroid sprays or omega-3 supplementation, fish allergy, or inability to provide informed consent for any reason. The trial is conducted at Mount Sinai Hospital INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: The intervention group will receive 2000 mg daily of omega-3 supplementation in the form of two "Fish Oil, Ultra Omega-3" capsules (product of Pharmavite®) daily. The comparator group will take 2 placebo capsules of identical size, shape, and odor daily for 6 weeks. MAIN OUTCOMES: Each subject will take a Brief Smell Identification Test at study enrolment and completion after 6 weeks. The primary outcome will be change in Brief Smell Identification Test over the 6-week period. RANDOMISATION: Patients will be randomized by the Investigational Drug Pharmacy at the Icahn School of Medicine at Sinai via a computer-generated sequence in a 1:1 allocation to treatment or control arms. BLINDING (MASKING): Both participants and researchers will be blinded. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): There will be 88 participants randomized to each group. A total of 176 participants will be randomized. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol Version 1, 8/3/2020 Recruitment is ongoing, started 8/5/2020 with estimated completion 11/30/2020. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov with Protocol Identifier: NCT04495816 . TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04495816 . Registered 3 August 2020 FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Transtornos do Olfato/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Betacoronavirus/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Método Duplo-Cego , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Humanos , New York/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Pandemias , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Olfato/efeitos dos fármacos , Olfato/fisiologia
20.
Soins Gerontol ; 25(145): 18-21, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988482

RESUMO

Compared with other sensory modalities, age-related alterations in taste and smell are less known and less investigated in clinical practice. In fact, the elderly with a loss of smell or taste may not always report it or be aware of it. In addition, the clinical evaluation of taste and smell by specific tests is rarely performed.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Paladar/diagnóstico , Idoso , Humanos , Olfato/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...