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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(2): 65, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449210

RESUMO

In areca nut and husk, 14 elements (As, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, and Zn) were determined, while 34 elements including rare earth elements were detected in the corresponding soil samples using instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry methods, whereas the concentration levels of Hg in tested samples are negligible, perhaps, below the detection limits. No rare earth elements were detected in edible areca nut. The concentration levels of various essential elements and heavy elements such as As, Cd, and Cu present in areca nut are within the permissible levels, whereas Pb content is relatively higher than FAO/WHO's permissible levels. The order of bioaccumulation index for heavy metals in areca nut was Cd > Sb > Cu > Zn ≥ Mn ≥ Co > Pb ≥ As. Bioaccumulation index values are indicating that areca palm may not be able to accumulate other heavy elements in the edible areca nut, except for Cd. On the basis of pollution indices, Northeast Indian soil may be relatively unpolluted.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Oligoelementos , Areca , Monitoramento Ambiental , Índia , Metais Pesados/análise , Nozes/química , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Oligoelementos/análise
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111598, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396119

RESUMO

Within the domain of phytoremediation research, the proper disposal of harvestable plant parts, that remove pollutants from contaminated soil, has been attracted extensive attention. Here, the bioenergy generation capability of trace metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Mn, and As) polluted plants was assessed. The biogas production potential of accumulators or hyperaccumulator plants, Elsholtzia haichowensis, Sedum alfredii, Solanum nigrum, Phytolacca americana and Pteris vittata were 259.2 ± 1.9, 238.7 ± 4.2, 135.9 ± 0.9, 129.5 ± 2.9 and 106.8 ± 2.1 mL/g, respectively. The presence of Cu (at approximately 1000 mg/kg) increased the cumulative biogas production, the daily methane production and the methane yield of E. haichowensis. For S. alfredii, the presence of Zn (≥500 mg/kg) showed a significant negative impact on the methane content in biogas, and the daily methane production, which decreased the biogas and methane yield. The biogas production potential increased when the content of Mn was at 5 000-10,000 mg/kg, subsequently, decreased when the value of Mn at 20,000 mg/kg. However, Cd (1-200 mg/kg), Pb (125-2000 mg/kg) and As (1250-10,000 mg/kg) showed no distinctive change in the cumulative biogas production of S. nigrum, S. alfredii and P. vittata, respectively. The methane yield showed a strong positive correlation (R2 =0.9704) with cumulative biogas production, and the energy potential of the plant residues were at 415-985 kWh/ton. Thus, the anaerobic digestion has bright potential for the disposal of trace metal contaminated plants, and has promising prospects for the use in energy production.


Assuntos
Anaerobiose , Biocombustíveis , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais , Metano , Plantas , Pteris/química , Sedum
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111719, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396050

RESUMO

Long-term exposure to high levels of arsenic has been documented to induce skin and liver damage, affecting hundreds of millions of people. While arsenic-induced skin and liver damage and trace element alterations have been studied, their correlations and risks have not been explained. Based on the above premise, this study included a total of 172 subjects from a coal-burning arsenic poisoning area. The levels of 18 trace elements in hair and six liver function indices in serum were detected, and the associations between and risks of trace elements related to skin and liver damage were analyzed. Finally, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and areas under the curve (AUC) were used to analyze the diagnostic values of certain trace elements for arsenic-induced skin and liver damage. The results found that a decrease in Se was a risk factor for arsenic-induced skin and liver damage (OR = 8.33 and 1.92, respectively). Furthermore, increases in Al and V were risk factors for arsenic-induced skin damage (OR = 1.05) and liver damage (OR = 13.16), respectively. In addition, the results found that Se and Al possessed certain diagnostic values for arsenic-induced skin damage (AUC = 0.93, 0.80), that Se possessed a diagnostic value for liver damage (AUC = 0.93), and that the combination of Se and Al increased the diagnostic value for skin damage (AUC = 0.96). This study provides an important research basis for further understanding the reasons for arsenic-induced skin and liver damage, for screening and identifying candidate diagnostic biomarkers, and for improving prevention and control strategies for arsenism.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Arsênico/etiologia , Arsênico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Carvão Mineral/efeitos adversos , Dermatopatias/induzido quimicamente , Oligoelementos/análise , Adulto , Intoxicação por Arsênico/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/análise , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/diagnóstico , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111615, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396135

RESUMO

Thyroid tumor and thyroid goiter are prevalent disease around the world. In this case-control study, we investigated the association between exposure to a total of twelve mineral elements and thyroid disease as well as thyroid functions. Participants with thyroid tumor or goiter (N = 197) were matched with a healthy population (N = 197) by age (± 2 years old) and same sex. Questionnaires were used to collect data about the demographic characteristics and information of subjects. Serum and urine samples were collected simultaneously for each of the subjects. Mineral elements, iodine level of urine and levels of the total seven thyroid function indexes in serum were detected respectively. Conditional logistic regression was applied to estimate the associations between mineral elements and the risk of thyroid tumor and goiter through single-element models and multiple-element models. Multiple linear regression was used to evaluate relationships between mineral elements and percentage changes of thyroid functions. Higher concentrations of mineral elements in the recruited population were found in this study than other comparable studies, and the levels of chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se), antimony (Sb), thallium (Tl) and lead (Pb) in the case group were lower than the control group. According to the single-element models, Cr, Mn, Ni, Sb and Tl showed significant negative associations with the risk of thyroid tumor and goiter, and, Cd showed nonmonotonic dose response. Cd and mercury (Hg) showed a nonmonotonic percentage change with T4, while Tl was associated with the increased FT4 in the control group. Therefore, Cd, Hg and Tl may disturb the balance of thyroid function to some extent, and Cr, Mn, Ni, Cd, Sb, and Tl may become potential influencing factors for the risk of thyroid tumor and goiter.


Assuntos
Bócio/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Minerais/metabolismo , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Bócio/epidemiologia , Bócio/urina , Humanos , Iodo/urina , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Metais Pesados/urina , Minerais/urina , Análise Multivariada , Testes de Função Tireóidea , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/urina , Oligoelementos/urina , Adulto Jovem
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111729, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396060

RESUMO

In this work, carboxyl-functionalized hollow polymer microspheres (CHPMs) was successfully fabricated using poly (styrene-itaconic anhydride) particles as the core template and itaconic anhydride and trans-anethole cross-linked with divinylbenzene as the shell. The desirable microspheres and hollow structure of CHPMs were demonstrated by scanning and transmission electron microscopies, respectively. The characterized CHPMs as an adsorbent was packed into a solid phase extraction column to simultaneously detect the V(V), Cr(III), Cu(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) in digested food samples by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A series of experimental parameters of solid-phase extraction (SPE) were investigated through vast experiments to improve sensitivity of the proposed method in metal ions detection. The detection limits of the method reached 0.8-3.2 ng L-1 for the target elements, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 1.2% to 3.5% were obtained from eleven parallel experiments using a 1.0 µg L-1 sample solution. The stability allowed the material to withstand more than 15 cycling while the recoveries remained above 88%. In food samples, the detection limits were at 0.20-0.80 µg kg-1, and satisfactory recoveries of 85-104% were obtained in spike tests of laver, fish as well as chicken.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Oligoelementos/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Microesferas , Polímeros/química , Análise Espectral
6.
Environ Pollut ; 269: 116145, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316503

RESUMO

The assessment of trace metal pollution in aquatic environments remains a challenge. Chemical methods are insufficient and bioindicators seem to be the most promising alternative. Finding an adequate species is important to ensure accurate data. The combined use of several bioindicators may help to overcome the limitations of species' spatial distribution and specific reactions. The aims of the present study were to compare the contents and bioaccumulation capability of 11 trace elements in Ceratophyllum demersum and different organs of Hydrocharis morsus-ranae and to validate H. morsus-ranae as a bioindicator of pollution in aquatic reservoirs using C. demersum, an established bioindicator, as a reference species. The application of several statistical techniques allowed us to identify similarities in accumulation patterns and concentration gradients between the two species. The results showed that concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Zn, V in C. demersum and roots of H. morsus-ranae were similar and mostly higher than in the leaves and stems of H. morsus-ranae. The contents of Cd, Co, Cr, Li, Mn, Ni, Rb, V, Zn were positively correlated. The inner transport of metals in H. morsus-ranae was limited (TF < 1). Both species are accumulators (BF > 103) of Ni and Zn, and H. morsus-ranae also of Cu and Pb. Frog-bit roots were chosen to be most promising in bioindication. Major axis regression analysis showed that the uptake of Cd, Cr, Co, Li and Pb was similar in the two species. Neural networks demonstrated substantial uniformity in responses of C. demersum and roots of H. morsus-ranae to the type of anthropogenic activity and land use and similar spatial distributions of Cd, Cr, Co, Li and Pb. When Nemerow Pollution Index was applied, both species showed congruent gradients of contamination. Thus, H. morsus-ranae was validated as a reliable bioindicator of trace metal pollution in freshwater.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Oligoelementos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Doce , Metais Pesados/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 757: 143882, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316508

RESUMO

As the largest river in Shanxi Province, the Fen River is the main water source for regional economic and ecological development. Water deficiency and industrialization have led to serious water pollution in the Fen River. The major and trace elements of seasonal river waters were measured to determine the spatiotemporal variations and assess the water quality as well as its controlling factors in the Fen River. Trace elements are divided into high abundance elements (B, Ba, Li, and Mn) and low abundance elements (As, Cu, Fe, Ni, Rb, Se, U, and V). The spatial variation of trace elements is obvious, with low values upstream, intermediate values downstream, and very high values midstream. The average values of the trace elements showed different seasonal variations, with high values of As, B, Ba, Mn, and Rb in the wet season, high Cu, V, and Li values in the dry season, and minor seasonal variations of Fe, Ni, Se, and U concentrations. Principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation analysis (CA) showed natural origins of Ba, Mn, Ni, and U, anthropogenic input of As, B, Cu, Li, Rb, Se, and V. According to the results of absolute principal component sore-multivariate linear regression (APCS-MLR), the major pollution sources in the Fen River basin were related to human activities. The land use type significantly influenced the concentrations of trace elements, with high values in the cropland and low values in the forest. The water quality index (WQI) values were higher in the midstream and wet season. In comparison with other rivers in the world, the pollution of the Fen River is at a moderate level. Health risk assessment showed that As, Ba, Mn, Ni, V, and Se were the potential pollutants damaging in the Fen River, especially for children. This study highlights the importance of seasonal sample analysis and can provide vital data for water quality conservation in the Fen River basin.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Oligoelementos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Criança , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Oligoelementos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 754: 142148, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254937

RESUMO

Seabirds, with approximately 1 billion specimens, are the main exchangers of nutrients between Terrestial and Marine Systems and they have become an emerging interest group because of their effects on the planet's ecosystem. This review paper aims to highlight the impact of seabird droppings at different trophic levels, their occurrence, ecological risks and effects on soil, water, atmosphere and biota at global and local level to try to understand the ecological and climatic changes associated with the activities of these birds. Seabirds they have a very marked influence on the ecosystems where they form their colonies since, in addition to their function as predators, alongside with their depositions, they condition the primary producers and, consequently, the rest of the food chain. Their excrements contain large amounts of N, P and trace elements, most of which are bioavailable. In this study, besides bringing together the different works on nutrients and trace elements in excrements and differentiating some terms referring to these excrements, a brief historical overview of their importance for agriculture is made. In addition, the impacts produced by these birds on the ecosystem are also analysed according to two levels, at a global and local level. At each of these levels, a current state of the effects on the different compartments of the ecosystems is made, from the biota to the soils, the water or the atmosphere. This review supports the idea that more studies are needed both at the atmospheric level and in the terrestrial or marine environment for a better understanding of the changes these birds generate.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Oligoelementos , Animais , Aves , Cadeia Alimentar , Solo , Oligoelementos/análise
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 754: 142026, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254949

RESUMO

Ergene Basin is located in Thrace, Turkey, where industries are densely populated. This study aimed to determine exposure of people living in Ergene Basin (Çorlu and Çerkezköy) to fine and coarse PM, and its potentially toxic element (PTE) content by considering variation in respiratory airway deposition rates with daily activities and PM particle size by employing deposition models of International Commission on Radiological Protection and Multiple Path Particle Dosimetry. Fine and coarse PM samples were collected daily for a year at points in Çorlu and Çerkezköy representing urban and industrial settings, respectively. A questionnaire survey was conducted in the study area to obtain time-activity budgets, and associated variation was included in the health risk assessment by considering time-activity-dependent inhalation rates. The studied PTEs were Al, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Se. The mean fine and coarse PM concentrations were measured as 23 and 14 µg/m3 in Çorlu, and 22 and 12 µg/m3 in Çerkezköy, respectively. The only PTE that exceeded acceptable risk in terms of total carcinogenic risk was Cr. Non-carcinogenic risks of all the PTEs including Cr were below the threshold. The use of deposition fractions in the health risk assessment (HRA) calculations was found to prevent overestimation of health risks by at least 91% and 87% for fine and coarse PM, respectively, compared to the regular HRA. Minor differences in risk between Çorlu and Çerkezköy suggest that urban pollution sources could be at least as influential on human health as industrial sources.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Artrópodes , Oligoelementos , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado , Medição de Risco , Turquia
10.
J Environ Manage ; 278(Pt 2): 111570, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129023

RESUMO

The increasing frequency and severity of wildfires poses human health risks, especially for those within burnt regions. The potential health effects of fire ash on farmworkers in orchards via inhalation exposure after fire is rarely studied. After the 2017 Thomas Fire, in Ventura County (California, USA), fire ash and corresponding soil samples were collected from several impacted orchards and analyzed for eight trace elements (TEs) and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results indicate that except for mercury (Hg), the concentrations of TEs and PAHs were higher in ash samples compared with the corresponding soil samples. In general, ash samples showed greater potential to expose farmworkers to health risks than the corresponding soil samples. One site had particularly high concentrations of As (778 mg kg-1), Cr (629 mg kg-1), and Cu (499 mg kg-1) in the ash. This location corresponds to a house which was burned during the Thomas Fire, which might have contained chromated copper arsenate as a wood preservative. Therefore, the existence of construction materials in orchards could add hazardous materials to ash deposited on soil. Furthermore, a monitored dust generation experiment was designed to obtain the particle emission factors (PEF) of soil and ash, which is an essential parameter for the calculation of inhalation health risks. A two-fold difference in the PEFs was found between ash and the corresponding soil sample. Hence, health risks through inhalation exposure from fire ash may be underestimated if the default PEF suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency is used.


Assuntos
Fogo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes do Solo , Oligoelementos , California , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Oligoelementos/análise
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 207: 111563, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254417

RESUMO

Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been hypothesized as a cause of declining sheep reproductive efficiency. Understanding the long-term effects of EDCs such as heavy metals on reproductive health requires investigation in 'real life' of sheep that are reared in industrial areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of long-term exposure of Kermani rams to high levels of environmental heavy metals probably emitted from a copper smelter at KhatoonAbad in ShahreBabak, Kerman province. Testicular characteristics were determined in randomly-selected rams (3-4 years old) at 4 directions (south, north, east, and west) and 4 distances (10, 20, 30, and 40 km) from the smelter. Testicular trace element contents, size, serum testosterone, histological attributes and seminal characteristics, except semen volume, were affected by both the direction and the distance from the smelter (P < 0.05). Testicular contents of Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ni, and sperm abnormalities were higher at 10 km south from the smelter and lower at 40 km west. Other parameters were higher at 40 km west and lower at 10 km south. Interestingly, the testicular contents of Cu at 10 km south were lower and associated with higher sperm abnormalities in the rams reared closer to the smelter. The highest weight, length and circumference of the testis were found at 40 km west. The lowest concentration of testosterone was observed at 10 km south, being 92.6% lower than the highest values obtained at 40 km west. The diameter of seminiferous tubules and epithelial height at 10 km south were 8.9% and 27.5% lower than the highest values obtained at 40 km west. A positive correlation between Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni contents in the testis with sperm abnormalities, and a negative correlation between these elements with the other parameters were found. It was concluded that long-term exposure to heavy metals might have been a cause of decreased fertility in rams and probably other living species in this region.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cobre/toxicidade , Masculino , Reprodução , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Ovinos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Testículo/fisiologia , Testosterona/sangue , Testes de Toxicidade Crônica , Oligoelementos/metabolismo
12.
Chemosphere ; 263: 127882, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818846

RESUMO

This study reports the distribution, contamination level, and possible sources of 54 metal (oid)s in the soils found around brick kilns in south-western Bangladesh. In total, 40 soil samples were collected from the vicinity of five brick kilns in four directions at 250 m intervals. This study reveals that the mean respective concentrations of caesium (Cs), beryllium (Be), lead (Pb), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), dysprosium (Dy), holmium (Ho), terbium (Tb), erbium (Er), thulium (Tm), ytterbium (Yb), thorium (Th), germanium (Ge), yttrium (Y), zirconium (Zr), niobium (Nb), silver (Ag), hafnium (Hf), tantalum (Ta), and tungsten (W), were 7.83, 3.19, 22.93, 85.93, 9.61, 36.86, 7.30, 1.23, 5.76, 1.13, 0.99, 3.14, 0.45, 2.91, 17.72, 3.04, 30.07, 185.13, 13.99, 0.30, 5.34, 1.26, and 2.61 µg g-1. Furthermore, those amounts exceeded their respective shale values. The pollution evaluation indices indicated a moderate level of contamination by Cs, Pb, Th, Ag, Hf, Ta, W, and lanthanides but excluding lanthanum (La) and lutetium (Lu). The pollution load index revealed pollution at two brickfields. Multivariate statistics reported that coal combustion in the brick kilns is the primary source of lanthanides, actinides, Y, Zr, and Hf in the soil, while other elements derived mostly from natural sources. A portion originated from coal combustion in brick kilns and agricultural activities. Changes in metal (oid)s concentrations were non-linear with the distance between the kilns and sampling points. Consequently, further studies are required and should consider meteorological factors and severity of human impact in the study area.


Assuntos
Oligoelementos , Bangladesh , Disprósio , Humanos , Praseodímio , Solo , Oligoelementos/análise
13.
Chemosphere ; 263: 127695, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818848

RESUMO

The submarine discharge of the high pH clarified Bayer effluent of the Gardanne alumina plant (Marseille region, France) leads to the formation of concretions at the outfall 324 m underwater and to a plume of white particles. The bulk chemical composition of the concretions has been determined by SF-ICP-MS. Mg and Al are the major elements measured with concentrations of a few hundred mg g-1. Ca and S are also found at concentrations in the range of mg g-1. Among the measured trace elements there is a specific interest in As and V because of environmental concerns pointed out by regulation authorities. Their concentrations are of tens to thousands µg g-1, respectively. Concentrations of the other elements are in the range of a few ng g-1 to few hundreds µg g-1. In order to constrain the dispersion of particles in the environment and to understand how chemical elements can be scavenged from or released to seawater, the size distribution of particles composing the concretions has been measured by settling rate experiments and, for each size class of particles, their chemical composition has been determined. For example, As and V are mainly associated to particles with mean diameters between 15.6 and 63 µm and settling rates around 96 m d-1. Overall, all the main elements (Mg, Al, Ca, S) composing concretions are associated to this size class of particles which represents 53-60% of the total concretion mass.


Assuntos
Óxido de Alumínio , Oligoelementos , Monitoramento Ambiental , França , Água do Mar , Oligoelementos/análise
14.
Environ Res ; 192: 110274, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038363

RESUMO

Despite the COVID-19 pandemic and wearing masks in many countries, women are keen on elegance, beauty and the use of face foundations. Assessment of health risks associated with the regular use of face foundation by females is dynamic due to the emerging products. The most common international 14 brands of face foundation powders were collected and the concentrations of different elements (Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, P, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, V and Zn) in each sample were determined. A combined approach merging the conventional and computational tools was used for investigating the risk of exposure to toxic elements. Monte Carlo simulations were applied to calculate risks associated with twenty elements. We attempted different probability distribution functions for concentrations because the actual distribution functions are not known, and the only data available are the mean value and standard deviation of concentrations obtained from experiment. Our results indicate that the total non-carcinogenic health risk through exposure to different elements (Hazardous Index, HI) does not strongly depend on the choice of the probability distribution function for the concentrations. We also show that taking into account probability distributions of other variables and parameters such as body weight, exposed skin area, skin adhesion, etc. does not significantly change the main result rather just slightly broadening the final Hazardous Index distribution function. We found that calculated HI is well below unity for all considered samples, i.e., the dermal exposure to toxic elements in the considered facial powders is negligible and the considered face foundation powders are quite safe to use.


Assuntos
Oligoelementos , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , Pós , Medição de Risco
15.
Chemosphere ; 267: 129181, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340883

RESUMO

The bioaccessibility of metal(loid)s in ambient particulate matter (PM) has been recently used to represent the risk of inhalation exposure. Nevertheless, different methodological factors affect the bioaccessibility values; among these, the type and composition of surrogate biological fluids and the liquid to solid ratio have been revealed to be the most important. To better understand how these methodological aspects affect the bioaccessibility, a reference material corresponding to urban dust (SRM1648a) was contacted with synthetic biological fluids commonly used in the literature representing surrogate fluids that may interact with fine (Gamble's solutions, artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF)) and coarse particles (gastric fluid), for liquid to solid (L/S) ratios ranging from 500 to 20,000. Visual MINTEQ 3.1. was used to enhance the discussion on how the solubility of metals in the leaching solution depends on the composition of the simulated fluids and the speciation of metals. The results obtained indicate that a small change in the composition of Gamble's solution (the presence of glycine) may increase significantly the bioaccessibility at a L/S ratio of 5,000. The highest bioaccessibility of most of the studied metal(loid)s at a L/S ratio of 5,000 was found for ALF fluid. The study of the effect of the L/S ratio showed that metal(loid)s bioaccessibility in Gamble's fluid increased logarithmically with increasing L/S ratio, while it remained practically constant in ALF and gastric fluid. This different behavior is explained assuming that the leaching of metal(loid)s in Gamble's solution is solubility-controlled, while in ALF and gastric fluid is availability-controlled.


Assuntos
Poeira , Oligoelementos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Metais , Material Particulado
16.
J Environ Manage ; 280: 111848, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360389

RESUMO

The restoration of mining areas, in particular if they are located near towns or villages, is essential to reduce their potential risks for human health and to minimize their visual impacts. In this study, we assess the rehabilitation of a waste rock pile adjacent to the town of Tharsis (SW Spain). We measured vegetation cover and its diversity, and chemical composition of plants and soil, twelve years after remediation by lime amendments, added topsoil and planted vegetation. In general, the applied measures were successful covering with woody vegetation the upper part of the waste rock pile, and providing a greening visual landscape for the town nearby. The most abundant species were the gum rockrose (Cistus ladanifer) and the legume shrub Retama sphaerocarpa, this latter species most probably introduced in the seedbank of the added topsoil. Also in the soil seedbank, probably arrived the invasive Acacia saligna, of fast growth. In contrast, the lower part of the slopes was almost devoid of vegetation. We interpret that partial failure in the rehabilitation process as due to the acid mine drainage, which caused downslope a decrease of soil pH and increased availability of trace elements, thus impeding growth and establishment of plants. In addition, some plants, like C. ladanifer, growing at the base of the rock pile, had concentrations of Cd above the maximum tolerable level for animals, therefore representing a toxicity risk. Finally, we propose here an alternative technique to restore waste rock piles, by sorting and selectively handling the extractive wastes, thus reducing infiltration rates, seepages and the negative effect of the acid mine drainage. Those modified waste rock piles will be rehabilitated by the addition of topsoil and planted vegetation, as successfully worked out in the upper slopes of the study site.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Oligoelementos , Humanos , Mineração , Plantas , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Espanha
17.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 101: 117-122, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334507

RESUMO

Gangba sheep are known for having typical sensory characteristics attributed to free range conditions and grazing on wild plants. The genuine Gangba mutton was selected as the experimental group, and the commercial Tibetan mutton was selected as the control group, the nutritive composition of basic chemical components, amino acids and fatty acids in mutton were investigated to correlate its unique meat quality and eating satisfaction. The results showed that fatty acids were significantly higher (P<0.05) in Gangba mutton than in commercial mutton, and the higher content of flavoring amino acids (glutamic acid and aspartame) were primarily responsible for the taste attributes umami of meat juices. Moreover, the trace elements analysis in mutton and grazing factors (forage, water source and soil) were conducted, to explain the source of essential trace elements in mutton. The concentrations of essential trace elements show that the Gangba mutton was a valuable source for highly available Cu and Zn in human nutrition, and well managed with few detected of toxicity metal. The concentrations of essential trace elements in mutton are closely related to the trace elements in environmental grazing factors. In conclusion, the congenital grazing conditions (a highly mineralized water resource, natural forages and clean soils) were shown to contribute to the unique meat characteristics of Gangba sheep.


Assuntos
Carne , Oligoelementos , Animais , Análise Fatorial , Ácidos Graxos , Carne/análise , Ovinos , Tibet
18.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 101: 282-292, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334523

RESUMO

Steel slag (SS) is one of byproduct of steel manufacture industry. The environmental concerns of SS may limit their re-use in different applications. The goal of this study was to investigate the leaching behavior of metals from SS before and after treated by microbially induced carbonate precipitation (MICP). Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure and water leaching tests were performed to evaluate the leaching behavior of major elements (Fe, Mg and Ca) and trace elements (Ba, Cu and Mn) in three scenarios. The concentrations of leaching metals increased with the content of SS. After it reached the peak concentration, the leaching concentration decreased with the content of SS. The leachability of all elements concerned in this study was below 0.5%. The carbonate generated from the MICP process contributed to the low leachability of metals. After bio-modified by MICP process, the leaching concentrations of Ba from TCLP, SPLP and WLT tests were below 2.0 mg/L, which was the limit in drinking water regulated by U.S. EPA. The concentrations of Cu leached out from MICP-treated SS-sand samples were below 1.3 mg/L which is the limit regulated by national secondary drinking water. Compared with the regulations of U.S.EPA and Mississippi Department of Environment Quality (MDEQ), MICP-treated samples were classified as non-hazardous materials with respects to the leaching of metals. Meanwhile, maximum contaminant limits regulated by U.S.EPA states that MICP-treated SS are eco-friendly materials that can be reused as construction materials.


Assuntos
Aço , Oligoelementos , Carbonatos , Materiais de Construção , Metais
19.
Nutrition ; 81: 111016, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059127

RESUMO

The world is currently facing the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic which places great pressure on health care systems and workers, often presents with severe clinical features, and sometimes requires admission into intensive care units. Derangements in nutritional status, both for obesity and malnutrition, are relevant for the clinical outcome in acute illness. Systemic inflammation, immune system impairment, sarcopenia, and preexisting associated conditions, such as respiratory, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases related to obesity, could act as crucial factors linking nutritional status and the course and outcome of COVID-19. Nevertheless, vitamins and trace elements play an essential role in modulating immune response and inflammatory status. Overall, evaluation of the patient's nutritional status is not negligible for its implications on susceptibility, course, severity, and responsiveness to therapies, in order to perform a tailored nutritional intervention as an integral part of the treatment of patients with COVID-19. The aim of this study was to review the current data on the relevance of nutritional status, including trace elements and vitamin status, in influencing the course and outcome of the disease 3 mo after the World Health Organization's declaration of COVID-19 as a pandemic.


Assuntos
/complicações , Desnutrição/complicações , Obesidade/complicações , Oligoelementos/deficiência , /epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Estado Nutricional , Pandemias , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/imunologia , Doenças Respiratórias/fisiopatologia , Sarcopenia/complicações , Replicação Viral
20.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127767, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763576

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the spatial distribution of PM2.5 and PM10 collected in four regions (North, Central, South and East Coast) of Peninsular Malaysia during the southwest monsoon. Concurrent measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 were performed using a high volume sampler (HVS) for 24 h (August to September 2018) collecting a total of 104 samples. All samples were then analysed for water soluble inorganic ions (WSII) using ion chromatography, trace metals using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The results showed that the highest average PM2.5 concentration during the sampling campaign was in the North region (33.2 ± 5.3 µg m-3) while for PM10 the highest was in the Central region (38.6 ± 7.70 µg m-3). WSII recorded contributions of 22% for PM2.5 and 20% for PM10 mass, with SO42- the most abundant species with average concentrations of 1.83 ± 0.42 µg m-3 (PM2.5) and 2.19 ± 0.27 µg m-3 (PM10). Using a Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model, soil fertilizer (23%) was identified as the major source of PM2.5 while industrial activity (25%) was identified as the major source of PM10. Overall, the studied metals had hazard quotients (HQ) value of <1 indicating a very low risk of non-carcinogenic elements while the highest excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) was recorded for Cr VI in the South region with values of 8.4E-06 (PM2.5) and 6.6E-05 (PM10). The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) calculated from the PAH concentrations was within the acceptable range for all regions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Indústrias , Malásia , Tamanho da Partícula , Estações do Ano , Análise Espacial , Oligoelementos/análise
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