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1.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 40: 90-91, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183578

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a major health problem affecting all people worldwide and has a high mortality rate especially in critically ill patients. Although much is known about its different clinical symptoms, there are significant knowledge gaps about its pathology and cellular responses to the virus. Copper plays an essential role in respiration, immune function and free-radical defense. Despite its important action in physiochemical properties, only small amount of copper is presented in biological fluid, none of which presents as free ion form that readily affirms its depletion in critically ill patients. Recent studies confirmed its anti-viral capacity. Closer understanding of copper signaling, its vulnerability, method of assessment and interpretation, administration rout and dosage opens up new perspectives regarding therapeutic copper administration against critically ill COVID-19 patients. So, it seems that physicians should consider copper insufficiency in their critically ill COVID-19 patients. However, an attention should be paid to copper toxicity and estimating the adverse responses depending on copper dose or severity of copper limitation, as well as the duration of copper misbalance.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Cobre/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Oligoelementos/uso terapêutico , Cobre/administração & dosagem , Estado Terminal , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Pandemias , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem
2.
Trials ; 21(1): 890, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109244

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In this study, we investigate the effect of boron-containing compounds and oleoylethanolamide supplementation on the recovery trend in patients with COVID-19. TRIAL DESIGN: The current study is a single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with parallel groups. PARTICIPANTS: The inclusion criteria include male and female patients≥18 years of age, with a confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or antibody test and with written informed consent to participate in this trial. The exclusion criteria include regular use of any other supplement, severe and critical COVID-19 pneumonia, pregnancy and breastfeeding. This study is being conducted at Imam Reza Hospital, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Patients are randomly assigned to four groups. The first group (A) will take one capsule containing 5 mg of boron compounds twice a day for two weeks. The second group (B) will take one capsule containing 200 mg oleoylethanolamide twice a day for two weeks. The third group (C) will take one capsule containing 5 mg boron compounds with 200 mg oleoylethanolamide twice a day for two weeks, and the fourth group (D) does not receive any additional treatment other than routine treatments. Boron-containing compounds and oleoylethanolamide capsules will be synthesized at Nutrition Research Center of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary end point of this study is to investigate the recovery rate of clinical symptoms, including fever, dry cough, and fatigue, as well as preclinical features, including complete blood count (CBC), the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) profiles within two weeks of randomization. RANDOMISATION: Patients are randomized into four equal groups in a parallel design (allocation ratio 1:1). A randomized block procedure is used to divide subjects into one of four treatment blocks (A, B, C, and D) by a computer-generated allocation schedule. BLINDING (MASKING): The participants and investigators (enrolling, assessing, and analyzing) are blinded to the intervention assignments until the end of the study and data analysis. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): The calculated total sample size is 40 patients, with 10 patients in each group. TRIAL STATUS: The protocol is Version 1.0, May 17, 2020. Recruitment began May 19, 2020, and is anticipated to be completed by October 19, 2020. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This clinical trial has been registered by the title of "Assessment of boron-containing compounds and oleoylethanolamide supplementation on the recovery trend in Patients with COVID-19: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial" in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT). The registration number is " IRCT20090609002017N35 ", https://www.irct.ir/trial/48058 . The registration date is 17 May 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Assuntos
Compostos de Boro , Infecções por Coronavirus , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Endocanabinoides , Ácidos Oleicos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Administração Oral , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Boro/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Boro/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Endocanabinoides/administração & dosagem , Endocanabinoides/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Ácidos Oleicos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Oleicos/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Oligoelementos/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD011378, 2020 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Foot ulcers in people with diabetes are non-healing, or poorly healing, partial, or full-thickness wounds below the ankle. These ulcers are common, expensive to manage and cause significant morbidity and mortality. The presence of a wound has an impact on nutritional status because of the metabolic cost of repairing tissue damage, in addition to the nutrient losses via wound fluid. Nutritional interventions may improve wound healing of foot ulcers in people with diabetes. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of nutritional interventions on the healing of foot ulcers in people with diabetes. SEARCH METHODS: In March 2020 we searched the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid Embase and EBSCO CINAHL Plus. We also searched clinical trials registries for ongoing and unpublished studies, and scanned reference lists of relevant included studies as well as reviews, meta-analyses and health technology reports to identify additional studies. There were no restrictions with respect to language, date of publication or study setting. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effect of nutritional interventions on the healing of foot ulcers in people with diabetes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors, working independently, assessed included RCTs for their risk of bias and rated the certainty of evidence using GRADE methodology, using pre-determined inclusion and quality criteria. MAIN RESULTS: We identified nine RCTs (629 participants). Studies explored oral nutritional interventions as follows: a protein (20 g protein per 200 mL bottle), 1 kcal/mL ready-to-drink, nutritional supplement with added vitamins, minerals and trace elements; arginine, glutamine and ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate supplement; 220 mg zinc sulphate supplements; 250 mg magnesium oxide supplements; 1000 mg/day omega-3 fatty acid from flaxseed oil; 150,000 IU of vitamin D, versus 300,000 IU of vitamin D; 250 mg magnesium oxide plus 400 IU vitamin E and 50,000 IU vitamin D supplements. The comparator in eight studies was placebo, and in one study a different dose of vitamin D. Eight studies reported the primary outcome measure of ulcer healing; only two studies reported a measure of complete healing. Six further studies reported measures of change in ulcer dimension, these studies reported only individual parameters of ulcer dimensions (i.e. length, width and depth) and not change in ulcer volume. All of the evidence identified was very low certainty. We downgraded it for risks of bias, indirectness and imprecision. It is uncertain whether oral nutritional supplement with 20 g protein per 200 mL bottle, 1 kcal/mL, nutritional supplement with added vitamins, minerals and trace elements, increases the proportion of ulcers healed at six months more than placebo (risk ratio (RR) 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.42 to 1.53). It is also uncertain whether arginine, glutamine and ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate supplement increases the proportion of ulcers healed at 16 weeks compared with placebo (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.40). It is uncertain whether the following interventions change parameters of ulcer dimensions over time when compared with placebo; 220 mg zinc sulphate supplement containing 50 mg elemental zinc, 250 mg magnesium oxide supplement, 1000 mg/day omega-3 fatty acid from flaxseed oil supplement, magnesium and vitamin E co-supplementation and vitamin D supplementation. It is also uncertain whether 150,000 IU of vitamin D, impacts ulcer dimensions when compared with 300,000 IU of vitamin D. Two studies explored some of the secondary outcomes of interest for this review. It is uncertain whether oral nutritional supplement with 20 g protein per 200 mL bottle, 1 kcal/mL, nutritional supplement with added vitamins, minerals and trace elements, reduces the number of deaths (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.06 to 14.60) or amputations (RR 4.82, 95% CI 0.24 to 95.88) more than placebo. It is uncertain whether arginine, glutamine and ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate supplement increases health-related quality of life at 16 weeks more than placebo (MD -0.03, 95% CI -0.09 to 0.03). It is also uncertain whether arginine, glutamine and ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate supplement reduces the numbers of new ulcers (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.51), or amputations (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.16 to 2.69) more than placebo. None of the included studies reported the secondary outcomes cost of intervention, acceptability of the intervention (or satisfaction) with respect to patient comfort, length of patient hospital stay, surgical interventions, or osteomyelitis incidence. One study exploring the impact of arginine, glutamine and ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate supplement versus placebo did not report on any relevant outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Evidence for the impact of nutritional interventions on the healing of foot ulcers in people with diabetes compared with no nutritional supplementation, or compared with a different dose of nutritional supplementation, remains uncertain, with eight studies showing no clear benefit or harm. It is also uncertain whether there is a difference in rates of adverse events, amputation rate, development of new foot ulcers, or quality of life, between nutritional interventions and placebo. More research is needed to clarify the impact of nutritional interventions on the healing of foot ulcers in people with diabetes.


Assuntos
Pé Diabético/dietoterapia , Cicatrização , Arginina/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Glutamina/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Magnésio/administração & dosagem , Óxido de Magnésio/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minerais/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Valeratos/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Sulfato de Zinco/administração & dosagem
4.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 38: 65-66, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The COVID-19 infection can lead to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), mainly affecting patients aged 60 and older. Preliminary data suggest that the nutritional status can change the course of the infection, and on the matter, zinc is crucial for growth, development, and the maintenance of immune function. In the absence of treatment for this virus, there is an urgent need to find alternative methods that can contribute to control of disease. The aim of this paper is to establish the relation between zinc and COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: From the prior scientific knowledge, we have performed a review of the literature and examine the role of zinc in immune function in the infection by COVID-19. Our findings are that the zinc as an anti-inflammatory agent may help to optimize immune function and reduce the risk of infection. CONCLUSIONS: Zinc supplementation can be a useful strategy to reduce the global burden of infection in the elderly, there is a need the increased reporting to improve our understanding of COVID-19 and the care of affected patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Oligoelementos/imunologia , Zinco/imunologia
5.
J Nutr ; 150(8): 2183-2190, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food fortification is implemented to increase intakes of specific nutrients in the diet, but contributions of fortified foods to nutrient intakes are rarely quantified. OBJECTIVES: We quantified iron, vitamin A, and iodine intakes from fortified staple foods and condiments among women of reproductive age (WRA). METHODS: In subnational (Nigeria, South Africa) and national (Tanzania, Uganda) cross-sectional, clustered household surveys, we assessed fortifiable food consumption. We estimated daily nutrient intakes from fortified foods among WRA by multiplying the daily apparent fortifiable food consumption (by adult male equivalent method) by a fortification content for the food. Two fortification contents were used: measured, based on the median amount quantified from individual food samples collected from households; and potential, based on the targeted amount in national fortification standards. Results for both approaches are reported as percentages of the estimated average requirement (EAR) and recommended nutrient intake (RNI). RESULTS: Fortified foods made modest contributions to measured iron intakes (0%-13% RNI); potential intakes if standards are met were generally higher (0%-65% RNI). Fortified foods contributed substantially to measured vitamin A and iodine intakes (20%-125% and 88%-253% EAR, respectively); potential intakes were higher (53%-655% and 115%-377% EAR, respectively) and would exceed the tolerable upper intake level among 18%-56% of WRA for vitamin A in Nigeria and 1%-8% of WRA for iodine in Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda. CONCLUSIONS: Fortified foods are major contributors to apparent intakes of vitamin A and iodine, but not iron, among WRA. Contributions to vitamin A and iodine are observed despite fortification standards not consistently being met and, if constraints to meeting standards are addressed, there is risk of excessive intakes in some countries. For all programs assessed, nutrient intakes from all dietary sources and fortification standards should be reviewed to inform adjustments where needed to avoid risk of low or excessive intakes.


Assuntos
Alimentos Fortificados , Iodo/administração & dosagem , Ferro na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
6.
Poult Sci ; 99(5): 2718-2726, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359609

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of replacing inorganic trace minerals (ITM) with organic trace minerals (OTM; complexed glycinates) on reproductive performance, blood profiles, and antioxidant status in broiler breeders. A total of 648, 23-week-old healthy broiler breeders (ZhenNing), with similar body weight (1.40 ± 0.002 kg), were randomly divided into 4 groups with 6 replicates in each group (27 hens/replicate) and fed the respective experimental diets for 14 wk (including 2 wk for adaptation). The experimental treatments consisted of T1: Cont., commercially recommended levels of ITM (Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn sulfates); T2: Mix, half trace minerals (TM) were provided from ITM and half from OTM (glycinates); T3: M-OTM, TM were provided from glycinates and reduced to 70% of T1; T4: L-OTM, TM were provided from glycinates and reduced to 50% of T1. The results showed that commercial level of inorganic trace minerals replaced by low-dose complexed glycinates (T3 and T4) exhibited no significant effects on laying performance, 50% ITM replaced by complexed glycinates (T2) numerically improved laying rate by 1.23% than cont. treatment (T1). Broiler breeders fed complexed glycinates tended to produce more qualified eggs (P = 0.05) in T3, with better yolk color (P < 0.01) and eggshell thickness (P = 0.05) in T2 treatment. Replacement of low-dose complexed glycinates reduced fertilization rate (P < 0.01), while it did not affect hatchability. There were no significant differences in serum reproductive hormones such as estrogen and progesterone among the treatments. Serum total protein, albumin, and phosphorus were increased respectively with the replacement of ITM by low-dose OTM from complexed glycinates (P < 0.05). Total liver antioxidant capacity in M-OTM and L-OTM treatment was higher than that of Cont. and Mix treatments (P < 0.01). In conclusion, replacement of high levels of ITM by lower levels of OTM in the form of complexed glycinates is beneficial for egg quality and liver antioxidant status in broiler breeders during the peak laying period.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Minerais/metabolismo , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Animais , Galinhas/sangue , Feminino , Minerais/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem
7.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340216

RESUMO

Public health practices including handwashing and vaccinations help reduce the spread and impact of infections. Nevertheless, the global burden of infection is high, and additional measures are necessary. Acute respiratory tract infections, for example, were responsible for approximately 2.38 million deaths worldwide in 2016. The role nutrition plays in supporting the immune system is well-established. A wealth of mechanistic and clinical data show that vitamins, including vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, E, and folate; trace elements, including zinc, iron, selenium, magnesium, and copper; and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid play important and complementary roles in supporting the immune system. Inadequate intake and status of these nutrients are widespread, leading to a decrease in resistance to infections and as a consequence an increase in disease burden. Against this background the following conclusions are made: (1) supplementation with the above micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids is a safe, effective, and low-cost strategy to help support optimal immune function; (2) supplementation above the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), but within recommended upper safety limits, for specific nutrients such as vitamins C and D is warranted; and (3) public health officials are encouraged to include nutritional strategies in their recommendations to improve public health.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Viroses/imunologia , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD010205, 2020 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32266964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zinc is a vital micronutrient for humans and is essential for protein synthesis, cell growth, and differentiation. Severe zinc deficiency can lead to slower physical, cognitive and sexual growth, cause skin disorders, decrease immunity, increase incidence of acute illnesses in infants and children and contribute to childhood stunting. By estimation, 17.3% of the world population is at risk of inadequate zinc intake. Such nutritional impairment increases the risk of diarrhoea and pneumonia by 20%, as well as leads to a global loss of more than 16 million disability-adjusted life years in children less than five years of age. Not only does zinc deficiency affect lives, it adds to the considerable financial burden on depleted resources in countries that are most affected. By preventing or curing this deficiency, we can improve childhood mortality, morbidity and growth. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of zinc supplementation for the promotion of growth, reduction in mortality, and the prevention of infections in infants less than six months of age. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2018, Issue 4), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 18 May 2018), Embase (1980 to 18 May 2018), and CINAHL (1982 to 18 May 2018). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. An updated search from 1 January 2018 to 29 January 2020 was run in the following databases: CENTRAL via CRS Web, MEDLINE via Ovid, and CINAHL via EBSCOhost. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised controlled (individual and cluster randomised) and quasi-randomised trials of zinc supplementation in healthy, term infants, less than six months of age comparing infant mortality, incidence of diarrhoea or respiratory illnesses, growth and/or serum zinc levels were eligible. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors screened search results (title and abstracts) and relevant full texts. Studies fulfilling prespecified inclusion criteria were included with any disagreements resolved by consensus. Extraction and analysis were then conducted. We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence as indicated by certainty in effect estimates. MAIN RESULTS: Eight studies (with 85,629 infants) were included and five studies were meta-analysed, out of which four studies compared zinc with placebo, and one compared zinc plus riboflavin versus riboflavin. Certain growth outcomes after six months of intervention (Weight for Age Z-scores (WAZ) (standardised mean difference) (SMD) 0.16, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.29; three studies, n = 955; fixed-effect; heterogeneity Chi² P = 0.96); I² = 0%); change in WAZ (SMD 0.16, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.25; one study, n = 386; fixed-effect); (Weight-for-Length Z-score (WLZ) (SMD 0.15, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.28; three studies, n = 955; fixed-effect; heterogeneity: Chi² P = 0.81); I² = 0%); (change in WLZ (SMD 0.17, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.28; one study, n = 386; fixed-effect)) were positively affected by zinc supplementation compared to placebo. A single study reported no difference in the incidence of diarrhoea and lower respiratory tract infection with zinc supplementation. Zinc had no effect on mortality in children younger than 12 months. When zinc plus riboflavin was compared to riboflavin only, significant improvement was observed in the incidence of wasting at 24 months (risk ratio (RR) 0.59, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.96; one study, n = 296; fixed-effect), but significant worsening of incidence of stunting was present at 21 months (RR 1.53, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.16; one study, n = 298; fixed-effect). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant positive impact of zinc supplementation on WAZ and WLZ after six months of intervention in infants compared to placebo. When a combined supplement of zinc and riboflavin was compared to riboflavin, there was a significant reduction in wasting at 24 months, but stunting at 21 months was negatively affected. Although included trials were of good-to-moderate quality, evidence that could be meta-analysed was based on a few studies which affected the overall quality of results. Regardless, there is a need for strong trials conducted in infants younger than six months before a strong recommendation can be made supporting zinc supplementation in this age group.


Assuntos
Crescimento , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Zinco/deficiência , Peso Corporal , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Riboflavina/administração & dosagem , Complexo Vitamínico B/administração & dosagem , Síndrome de Emaciação/prevenção & controle
9.
Poult Sci ; 99(3): 1483-1490, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115033

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of low inclusion levels of organic trace minerals (iron, copper, manganese, and zinc) on performance, eggshell quality, serum hormone levels, and enzyme activities of laying hens during the late laying period. A total of 405 healthy hens (HY-Line White, 50-week-old) were randomly divided into 3 treatments, with 9 replications per treatment and 15 birds per replication. The dietary treatments included a basal diet supplemented with inorganic trace minerals at commercial levels (CON), a basal diet supplemented with inorganic trace minerals at 1/3 commercial levels (ITM), and a basal diet supplemented with proteinated trace minerals at 1/3 commercial levels (TRT). The trial lasted 56 D (8 wk). Compared with the CON group, the ITM group showed decrease in (P < 0.05) egg production, eggshell strength, eggshell palisade layer, palisade layer ratio, serum estrogen, luteinizing hormone, glycosaminoglycan concentration, and carbonic anhydrase activity and increase in (P < 0.05) egg loss and mammillary layer ratio. However, the TRT group almost kept all the indices close to the CON group (P > 0.05). Furthermore, hens fed with low inclusion levels of organic trace minerals had smaller mammillary knobs (P < 0.05) than those in the CON and ITM groups. In conclusion, hens fed with low inclusion levels of proteinated trace minerals had better performance and eggshell strength than those fed with identical levels of inorganic compounds; organic trace minerals improved eggshell quality by improving the eggshell ultrastructure of laying hens during the late laying period.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Casca de Ovo/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Casca de Ovo/ultraestrutura , Feminino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/veterinária , Distribuição Aleatória , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem
10.
Res Vet Sci ; 130: 1-10, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105948

RESUMO

On a spring calving, pastoral dairy farm, the first 40 heifer calves born after calving mid-point (50% of the herd calved) were blood sampled within 24 h. Thirty were selected, using stratified randomisation to form two equal groups (treatment and control) with the same distribution of serum total protein, copper, selenium, zinc, and manganese concentrations, age and breed. From the remaining 10 calves, five were randomly selected into a sentinel group to assess field exposure to Salmonella spp. All calves received two injections of a killed vaccine containing Salmonella spp. antigens at 2 and 6 weeks of age. Concurrently, the treatment group were injected with 1 mL/50 kg trace mineral supplement (TMS) containing 40 mg zinc, 10 mg manganese, 5 mg selenium, 15 mg copper per mL. Sentinel animals received no injections. All animals were bled from 2 to 9 weeks for assay of immune function. At three and four weeks, white blood cells from TMS calves had an increased percentage of cells phagocytosing (effect size = 9.36 and 4.35) and increased number of bacteria ingested per cell (effect size = 0.93 and 1.52). No differences were detected in gamma interferon response (effect size <0.15) or Salmonella sp. antibody titres (effect size <0.20).


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Imunidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Humoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella/fisiologia , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Injeções Subcutâneas/veterinária , Distribuição Aleatória , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem
11.
Environ Geochem Health ; 42(9): 2925-2941, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062738

RESUMO

Fluoride is an essential trace element for humans, and its deficiency or excess in the environment could lead to disease. To investigate the spatial distribution and health risk assessment of fluoride (F-) in drinking water, 302 tap water samples from Chongqing urban areas, China, were collected to analyze F- using an ion chromatograph. The results showed that (1) F- concentration in drinking water ranged from 0.100 to 0.503 mg/L, with an average of 0.238 ± 0.045 mg/L. (2) The spatial autocorrelation analysis showed that high-low clusters were mostly located in Dadukou District and Beibei District, while low-low clusters were mainly in southern Banan District. (3) The fluoride average daily doses of children, teens and adults were 0.030, 0.029 and 0.031 mg/(kg day). (4) Hazard quotients of excessive fluoride (HQe) of children, teens and adults were 0.51 ± 09, 0.49 ± 0.09 and 0.52 ± 0.10, respectively (inferior to 1.00), whereas hazard quotients of inadequate fluoride (HQi) of those groups were 1.21 ± 0.26, 1.23 ± 0.26 and 1.15 ± 0.25, respectively (superior to 1.00). Therefore, average daily fluoride intake of residents with drinking water was inadequate. This could pose dental caries and osteoporosis threats for residents from Chongqing urban areas.


Assuntos
Água Potável/análise , Fluoretos/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , China , Cidades , Cárie Dentária/etiologia , Fluoretos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Osteoporose/etiologia , Recomendações Nutricionais , Medição de Risco , Análise Espacial , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Oligoelementos/análise
12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD008959, 2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin and mineral deficiencies, particularly those of iron, vitamin A, and zinc, affect more than two billion people worldwide. Young children are highly vulnerable because of rapid growth and inadequate dietary practices. Multiple micronutrient powders (MNPs) are single-dose packets containing multiple vitamins and minerals in powder form, which are mixed into any semi-solid food for children six months of age or older. The use of MNPs for home or point-of-use fortification of complementary foods has been proposed as an intervention for improving micronutrient intake in children under two years of age. In 2014, MNP interventions were implemented in 43 countries and reached over three million children. This review updates a previous Cochrane Review, which has become out-of-date. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects and safety of home (point-of-use) fortification of foods with MNPs on nutrition, health, and developmental outcomes in children under two years of age. For the purposes of this review, home fortification with MNP refers to the addition of powders containing vitamins and minerals to semi-solid foods immediately before consumption. This can be done at home or at any other place that meals are consumed (e.g. schools, refugee camps). For this reason, MNPs are also referred to as point-of-use fortification. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases up to July 2019: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and eight other databases. We also searched four trials registers, contacted relevant organisations and authors of included studies to identify any ongoing or unpublished studies, and searched the reference lists of included studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs with individual randomisation or cluster-randomisation. Participants were infants and young children aged 6 to 23 months at the time of intervention, with no identified specific health problems. The intervention consisted of consumption of food fortified at the point of use with MNP formulated with at least iron, zinc, and vitamin A, compared with placebo, no intervention, or use of iron-containing supplements, which is standard practice. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility of studies against the inclusion criteria, extracted data from included studies, and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. We reported categorical outcomes as risk ratios (RRs) or odds ratios (ORs), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and continuous outcomes as mean differences (MDs) and 95% CIs. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included 29 studies (33,147 children) conducted in low- and middle-income countries in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean, where anaemia is a public health problem. Twenty-six studies with 27,051 children contributed data. The interventions lasted between 2 and 44 months, and the powder formulations contained between 5 and 22 nutrients. Among the 26 studies contributing data, 24 studies (26,486 children) compared the use of MNP versus no intervention or placebo; the two remaining studies compared the use of MNP versus an iron-only supplement (iron drops) given daily. The main outcomes of interest were related to anaemia and iron status. We assessed most of the included studies at low risk of selection and attrition bias. We considered some studies to be at high risk of performance and detection bias due to lack of blinding. Most studies were funded by government programmes or foundations; only two were funded by industry. Home fortification with MNP, compared with no intervention or placebo, reduced the risk of anaemia in infants and young children by 18% (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.90; 16 studies; 9927 children; moderate-certainty evidence) and iron deficiency by 53% (RR 0.47, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.56; 7 studies; 1634 children; high-certainty evidence). Children receiving MNP had higher haemoglobin concentrations (MD 2.74 g/L, 95% CI 1.95 to 3.53; 20 studies; 10,509 children; low-certainty evidence) and higher iron status (MD 12.93 µg/L, 95% CI 7.41 to 18.45; 7 studies; 2612 children; moderate-certainty evidence) at follow-up compared with children receiving the control intervention. We did not find an effect on weight-for-age (MD 0.02, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.07; 10 studies; 9287 children; moderate-certainty evidence). Few studies reported morbidity outcomes (three to five studies each outcome) and definitions varied, but MNP did not increase diarrhoea, upper respiratory infection, malaria, or all-cause morbidity. In comparison with daily iron supplementation, the use of MNP produced similar results for anaemia (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.39; 1 study; 145 children; low-certainty evidence) and haemoglobin concentrations (MD -2.81 g/L, 95% CI -10.84 to 5.22; 2 studies; 278 children; very low-certainty evidence) but less diarrhoea (RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.72; 1 study; 262 children; low-certainty of evidence). However, given the limited quantity of data, these results should be interpreted cautiously. Reporting of death was infrequent, although no trials reported deaths attributable to the intervention. Information on side effects and morbidity, including malaria and diarrhoea, was scarce. It appears that use of MNP is efficacious among infants and young children aged 6 to 23 months who are living in settings with different prevalences of anaemia and malaria endemicity, regardless of intervention duration. MNP intake adherence was variable and in some cases comparable to that achieved in infants and young children receiving standard iron supplements as drops or syrups. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Home fortification of foods with MNP is an effective intervention for reducing anaemia and iron deficiency in children younger than two years of age. Providing MNP is better than providing no intervention or placebo and may be comparable to using daily iron supplementation. The benefits of this intervention as a child survival strategy or for developmental outcomes are unclear. Further investigation of morbidity outcomes, including malaria and diarrhoea, is needed. MNP intake adherence was variable and in some cases comparable to that achieved in infants and young children receiving standard iron supplements as drops or syrups.


Assuntos
Alimentos Fortificados , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente/fisiologia , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Deficiência de Vitaminas/prevenção & controle , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências Nutricionais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Lactente , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Estado Nutricional , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem
13.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31973225

RESUMO

Micronutrient deficiencies continue to be widespread among children under-five in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), despite the fact that several effective strategies now exist to prevent them. This kind of malnutrition can have several immediate and long-term consequences, including stunted growth, a higher risk of acquiring infections, and poor development outcomes, all of which may lead to a child not achieving his or her full potential. This review systematically synthesizes the available evidence on the strategies used to prevent micronutrient malnutrition among children under-five in LMICs, including single and multiple micronutrient (MMN) supplementation, lipid-based nutrient supplementation (LNS), targeted and large-scale fortification, and point-of-use-fortification with micronutrient powders (MNPs). We searched relevant databases and grey literature, retrieving 35,924 papers. After application of eligibility criteria, we included 197 unique studies. Of note, we examined the efficacy and effectiveness of interventions. We found that certain outcomes, such as anemia, responded to several intervention types. The risk of anemia was reduced with iron alone, iron-folic acid, MMN supplementation, MNPs, targeted fortification, and large-scale fortification. Stunting and underweight, however, were improved only among children who were provided with LNS, though MMN supplementation also slightly increased length-for-age z-scores. Vitamin A supplementation likely reduced all-cause mortality, while zinc supplementation decreased the incidence of diarrhea. Importantly, many effects of LNS and MNPs held when pooling data from effectiveness studies. Taken together, this evidence further supports the importance of these strategies for reducing the burden of micronutrient malnutrition in children. Population and context should be considered when selecting one or more appropriate interventions for programming.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/prevenção & controle , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Alimentos Fortificados , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Anemia Ferropriva/prevenção & controle , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Renda , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Ferro/deficiência , Masculino , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Magreza/epidemiologia , Magreza/prevenção & controle , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Oligoelementos/deficiência
14.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227090, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Iron-folic acid supplementation during pregnancy is among the very effective interventions to prevent iron deficiency anemia, low birth weight, and prematurity. There is a need of having recent studies on adherence to the supplement that consider the very recent interventions targeted to scale up the use of iron-folic acid (IFA) supplement. Therefore we sought to assess adherence to IFA supplement and its associated factors among antenatal care attending pregnant mothers in governmental health institutions of Adwa town. METHODS: Institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 629 antenatal care attending pregnant mothers. Systematic random sampling method was used to select the study subjects. Data were collected through face-to-face interview and chart-review. Bivariable and multivariable binary logistic regression was computed. Variables with P-value <0.05 were considered statistically significant at 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULT: Only 40.9% (95%CI: 37.0%- 44.7%) of participants were adherent (took four or more tablets per week). Women in the age group of 25-29 years [AOR: 2.22(1.21-4.07)] had increased odds of adherence as compared to those in the age group ≥ 35 years. Women who received nutrition counseling [AOR: 4.12(2.12-8.03)] and partner support [AOR: 2.23 (1.42-3.49)] had increased odds of adherence as compared to those who didn't receive nutrition counseling and partner support respectively. Similarly, women who had satisfactory knowledge on IFA supplement (AOR: 2.16(1.37-3.40)) had increased odds of adherence as compared to those who didn't have satisfactory knowledge on IFA supplement. CONCLUSION: Adherence to the supplement was low. Efforts shall be done to improve awareness of pregnant mothers about IFA supplement through targeted nutrition counseling that includes the engagement of a partner.


Assuntos
Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/normas , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Anemia/prevenção & controle , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Etiópia , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/uso terapêutico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hospitais Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Ferro/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Oligoelementos/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
15.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 55(3): 301-308, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894616

RESUMO

Minerals in animal feed occur in variable structures, most of which determine the uptake and usage in biological processes in the body. Effective chemical breakdown of minerals may ensure efficient utilization in metabolism. The aim this study was to evaluate the effects of mineral supplementation on reproduction in cows. A farm was selected for the experiment due to the fact that it previously experienced different reproductive conditions in the farm. The farm comprises cross-breed cows with Bonsmara dominating in the farm. Twelve pregnant primiparous and multiparous cows of different ages, parity and weight, that had previously experienced reproductive conditions, were randomly selected for this study. The cows were then randomly sub-divided into two groups (experimental and control group) of six. The experimental group was injected with MULTIMIN™ + Se + Cu at a dosage of 1 ml/45 kg BW and Calci 50 p.i. at a dosage of 100-150 ml/500 kg BW at an interval of 6 weeks (from June to October 2017). Blood samples were collected before every injection date. The t test was used to relate the mean weight gain and serum metabolite between the experimental and control groups. The body weight gain was significantly higher in the experimental group compared to the non-supplemented group. Supplemented cows had significantly (p < .05) high levels of triglycerides and creatinine kinase. A case of retained placenta and dystocia among non-supplemented cows were noted. Thus, mineral supplementation can be used to improve productivity and reproductive well-being.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Bovinos/fisiologia , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Dieta/veterinária , Distocia/veterinária , Feminino , Placenta Retida/veterinária , Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória , África do Sul , Oligoelementos/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue
16.
Curr Opin Gastroenterol ; 36(2): 110-117, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895229

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Trace elements are vital components involved in major body functions. Cases of trace elements deficiencies are increasingly encountered in clinical practice, although often underrecognized. This review gives a thorough insight into the newest findings on clinical situations associated with trace elements deficiencies in children and adults, their recognition and management. RECENT FINDINGS: Trace elements deficiencies are frequently found in various conditions, most commonly in burns, bariatric surgery, intestinal failure, renal replacement therapy, oncology, critical illness and cardiac surgery. The main trace elements involved are selenium, zinc, copper and iron. Trace elements deficiencies are associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Recognition of clinical signs of trace elements deficiencies can be challenging. Although trace elements supplementation is indisputable in many circumstances, it is still debatable in other situations such as sepsis and cardiac surgery. SUMMARY: Recent findings on trace elements deficiencies could have important implications on health outcomes. Trace elements delivery is a core component of nutritional care. Front-line clinicians should be aware of at-risk clinical situations to provide correct and timely intervention. Future research should be directed towards investigating the potential benefits of antioxidant trace elements supplementation in children in whom studies are scarce, especially in critical conditions such as burns, sepsis and cardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Deficiências Nutricionais/etiologia , Oligoelementos/deficiência , Deficiências Nutricionais/diagnóstico , Deficiências Nutricionais/terapia , Humanos , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem
17.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(1): 224-232, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1088925

RESUMO

A total of 640 one-day-old Cobb broiler chicks, half male and half female, were reared up to 49 days of age. A completely randomized 2 × 4 factorial design was used. Experimental treatments consisted of four levels of organic zinc supplementation and one control (inorganic zinc supplementation) and two levels of sex (female and male), with four replicates of 16 birds per experimental plot. Animal performance, carcass and cut yields, and meat quality were evaluated. Feed intake increased with zinc supplementation. Broilers that received the lowest level of organic zinc showed better feed conversion than those fed an equivalent level of inorganic zinc. Increased levels of organic zinc reduced the abdominal fat content in females but impaired the oxidative stability of meat. The results showed that male broilers have better performance, carcass yield, and meat quality than females and that organic zinc improves broiler feed conversion and reduces abdominal fat but increases lipid oxidation in meat.(AU)


Foram alojados 640 pintainhos de corte, sendo metade de machos e metade de fêmeas, da linhagem Cobb, de um a 49 dias de idade. Foi adotado um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2 × 4. Os tratamentos experimentais consistiram em quatro níveis de suplementação de zinco orgânico e um controle inorgânico, e diferentes sexos, com quatro repetições de 16 aves por parcela experimental. Foram avaliados o desempenho, a característica da carcaça e dos cortes, bem como a qualidade de carne dos frangos. O aumento dos níveis de zinco elevou o consumo de ração dos frangos. Os frangos que receberam zinco orgânico na exigência mínima apresentaram melhor conversão alimentar comparados àqueles que receberam ração de fonte inorgânica. O aumento nos níveis de zinco orgânico proporcionou redução no teor de gordura abdominal para fêmeas, mas níveis de zinco orgânico prejudicaram a estabilidade oxidativa da carne. Conclui-se que frangos machos apresentam melhor desempenho, carcaça e qualidade de carne em relação às fêmeas, e que o zinco orgânico melhora a conversão alimentar dos frangos, reduz a gordura abdominal, porém eleva a oxidação lipídica da carne.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Ganho de Peso , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carne/análise
18.
Hormones (Athens) ; 19(1): 15-24, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823341

RESUMO

Antibiotics are provided for infections caused by bacteria, and statins help to control hypercholesterolemia. When hungry, you need to eat, and when you are deficient in a particular nutrient, the diet should be chosen wisely to provide what is missing. In the matter of providing the essential trace element selenium (Se), there are two different but partly overlapping views on its nature and requirements. Some consider it a medication that should be given to a subset of more or less well-defined (thyroid) patients only, in order to alleviate symptoms, to improve the course of the disease or even to provide a cure, alone or in an adjuvant mode. Such treatment attempts are conducted for a short time period, and potential medical benefits and side effects are evaluated thoroughly. One could also approach Se in medicine in a more holistic way and evaluate primarily the nutritional status of the patient before considering supplementation. The available evidence for positive health effects of supplemental Se can be interpreted as the consequence of correcting deficiency instead of speculating on a direct pharmaceutical action. This short review provides a novel view on Se in (thyroid) disease and beyond and offers an alternative explanation for its positive health effects, i.e., its provision of the substrate needed for allowing adequate endogenous expression of those selenoproteins that are required in certain conditions. In Se deficiency, the lack of the trace element constitutes the main limitation for the required adaptation of selenoprotein expression to counteract health risks and alleviate disease symptoms. Supplemental Se lifts this restriction and enables the full endogenous response of selenoprotein expression. However, since Se does not act as a pharmacological medication per se, it should not be viewed as a dangerous drug, and, importantly, current data show that supplemental Se does not cause diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Selênio/deficiência , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/deficiência , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Selênio/administração & dosagem , Selenoproteínas/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem
19.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(2): 881-886, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471881

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of injectable trace minerals (ITM) at the time of weaning on growth, antioxidant, and immune response of Nellore (Bos indicus) calves. Weaned calves (n = 159; 213 ± 32 kg) were stratified by body weight (BW) and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: injection (1 mL/45 kg of BW) of saline or ITM. Saline solution consisted of 0.9% NaCl, whereas ITM had 60, 10, 5, and 15 mg/mL of Zn, Mn, Se, and Cu, respectively. The application of ITM increased (P ≤ 0.04) the plasma concentrations of superoxide dismutase on day 7 and plasma glutathione peroxidase on day 7 and day 21. The ITM calves had greater leukocyte concentration on day 64 (P = 0.04), whereas neutrophil and mast cell concentrations did not differ (P ≥ 0.67) between treatments. The ITM calves tended (P ≤ 0.08) to have greater concentrations of lymphocytes on day 64 and eosinophils on day 21, but not (P ≥ 0.15) monocytes, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin compared to saline calves. The ITM calves had less mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC; P = 0.02) and tended to have increased platelet concentrations on day 21 (P = 0.08). Growth performance did not differ between treatments (P ≥ 0.78). Thus, ITM at weaning did not impact growth performance, but increased plasma concentrations of antioxidant enzymes and blood platelets, improved components of the immune system, and reduced MCHC of Nellore calves.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bovinos/fisiologia , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Injeções Subcutâneas/veterinária , Minerais/administração & dosagem , Minerais/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Desmame
20.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 20(1): 585, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801509

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the correlation between dietary selenium (Se) intake and the prevalence of osteoporosis (OP) in the general middle-aged and older population in China. METHODS: Data for analyses were collected from a population based cross-sectional study performed at the Xiangya Hospital Health Management Centre. Dietary Se intake was evaluated using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. OP was diagnosed on the basis of bone mineral density scans using a compact radiographic absorptiometry system. The correlation between dietary Se intake and the prevalence of OP was primarily examined by multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: This cross-sectional study included a total of 6267 subjects (mean age: 52.2 ± 7.4 years; 42% women), and the prevalence of OP among the included subjects was 9.6% (2.3% in men and 19.7% in women). Compared with the lowest quartile, the energy intake, age, gender and body mass index (BMI)-adjusted odds ratios of OP were 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.55-0.94), 0.72 (95% CI 0.51-1.01) and 0.47 (95% CI 0.31-0.73) for the second, third and fourth quartiles of dietary Se intake, respectively (P for trend = 0.001). The results remained consistent in male and female subjects. Adjustment for additional potential confounders (i.e., smoking status, drinking status, physical activity level, nutritional supplements, diabetes, hypertension, fibre intake, and calcium intake) did not cause substantial changes to the results. CONCLUSIONS: In the middle-aged and older humans, participants with lower levels of dietary Se intake have a higher prevalence of OP in a dose-response manner.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Selênio/administração & dosagem , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Idoso , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Prevalência
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