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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141296, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182202

RESUMO

Marine mammals and the ecological functions they provide to coastal and pelagic ecosystems are increasingly threatened by the intensification of anthropogenic impacts. The Uruguayan coastline throughout the 20th century, like other coastal environments worldwide, has been the sink of a variety of trace metals derived from the rapid urbanization and industrialization of related land areas. This coastline is inhabited by two species of pinnipeds trophically and spatially segregated. Otaria byronia feeds in coastal environments while Arctocephalus australis preys mainly offshore. The present study aimed to analyze historic changes in concentrations of trace elements in teeth of both species from 1941 to the present day. We analyzed the dentin of 94 canine teeth using stable isotope analysis (δ13C) and ICP-MS to determine their feeding areas and the concentration of 10 trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) respectively. The concentration of Cr was significantly higher during '70-'80s, in both species coinciding with tannery industry development. Both species of pinnipeds have been differentially exposed to trace elements depending on their feeding area. A pelagic diet, possibly based on squid, increased the concentration of Cd in A. australis, while O. byronia has been more exposed to anthropogenic Pb and Cu associated to a costal and more benthic diet. Our results highlight dentin as a reliable matrix for historic studies on the exposure to trace elements. In light of our results, the O. byronia's declining population could be the result of the synergistic effects of trace elements together with other ecological pressures faced in their environment.


Assuntos
Caniformia , Metais Pesados , Oligoelementos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hábitos , Metais Pesados/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 141894, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896791

RESUMO

The objective of this experiment was to valuate, after 14 years, the impact of annual compost applications on micronutrient and potentially toxic trace elements on nectarine tree uptake and soil fertility. The study was performed in the Po valley, Italy, on the variety Stark RedGold (grafted on GF677). Since orchard planting, the following treatments were applied, in a randomized complete block design, with four replicates: 1. unfertilized control; 2. mineral fertilization (N was supplied as NO3NH4 at 70-130 kg ha-1 year-1); 3. compost at 5 t DW ha-1 year-1; 4. compost at 10 t DW ha-1 year-1. The actual rate of application was 12.5 (LOW) and 25 (HIGH) t ha-1, since compost was concentrated in the tree row. Compost was made from domestic organic wastes mixed with pruning material from urban ornamental trees and garden management and stabilized for 3 months. The supply of compost HIGH induced an enrichment of soil total Cu, Zn and Cd, and a decrease of Fe and Co concentration; with values always below the European threshold limits for heavy metals in the soil. In addition, compost (at both rates) increased availability (DTPA-extractable) of Fe, Mn and Zn, Cd, Ni, and Pb in the top soil (0-0.15 m). Total micronutrient and trace element tree content was not affected by fertilization treatments; however, the recycled fraction returned to the soil at the end of the season through abscised leaves and pruned wood of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn was increased by mineral fertilization; Fe and Zn also by compost HIGH. Our data show that the introduction of compost at both 12.5 and 25 t ha-1 year-1 in the row did not increase the risk of pollution related to potentially toxic trace elements and at the same time increased the bioavailability of Fe, Mn and Zn.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Oligoelementos , Itália , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Oligoelementos/análise
3.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127767, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763576

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the spatial distribution of PM2.5 and PM10 collected in four regions (North, Central, South and East Coast) of Peninsular Malaysia during the southwest monsoon. Concurrent measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 were performed using a high volume sampler (HVS) for 24 h (August to September 2018) collecting a total of 104 samples. All samples were then analysed for water soluble inorganic ions (WSII) using ion chromatography, trace metals using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The results showed that the highest average PM2.5 concentration during the sampling campaign was in the North region (33.2 ± 5.3 µg m-3) while for PM10 the highest was in the Central region (38.6 ± 7.70 µg m-3). WSII recorded contributions of 22% for PM2.5 and 20% for PM10 mass, with SO42- the most abundant species with average concentrations of 1.83 ± 0.42 µg m-3 (PM2.5) and 2.19 ± 0.27 µg m-3 (PM10). Using a Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model, soil fertilizer (23%) was identified as the major source of PM2.5 while industrial activity (25%) was identified as the major source of PM10. Overall, the studied metals had hazard quotients (HQ) value of <1 indicating a very low risk of non-carcinogenic elements while the highest excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) was recorded for Cr VI in the South region with values of 8.4E-06 (PM2.5) and 6.6E-05 (PM10). The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) calculated from the PAH concentrations was within the acceptable range for all regions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Indústrias , Malásia , Tamanho da Partícula , Estações do Ano , Análise Espacial , Oligoelementos/análise
4.
Food Chem ; 338: 127936, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932081

RESUMO

The trace and rare earth elements content of 93 honeys of different botanical type and origin have been studied through ICP-MS. Discriminant Analysis (DA) was successful for botanical type and geographical origin classification while Cluster Analysis (CA) was successful only for botanical type. Through Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) analysis, 85.3% were correctly classified by the network according to their geographical origin and 73.3% according to their organic characterization. A Partial Least Squares (PLS) model was constructed, giving a prediction accuracy of more than 95%. Information obtained using Rare Earths (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) and trace elements (Li, Mg, Mn, Ni, Co, Cu, Sr, Ba, Pb) via chemometric evaluation facilitated classification of honey samples.


Assuntos
Quimioinformática , Geografia , Mel/análise , Metabolômica , Análise por Conglomerados , Análise Discriminante , Fraude/prevenção & controle , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Metais Terras Raras/análise , Redes Neurais de Computação , Análise Espectral , Oligoelementos/análise
5.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127800, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750592

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the mineral profile of hair samples of free-ranging capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) in remnants of the Atlantic Forest located in the Northeast of Brazil, and to evaluate the effects of origin, gender and age of the animals on their mineral accumulation in hair. Twenty hair samples from animals of different areas, genders and ages were prepared using microwave-assisted digestion, employing 5 mL of HNO3 and 2.5 mL of H2SO4 for 100 mg of sample. Digestion efficiency was assessed by residual carbon content. The digested samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed considering the composition data of 11 elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Mo, and Na). The digestion method applied was efficient and the most abundant elements with their respective concentration ranges in mg kg-1 were Al (396-2746), Ca (36-3420), Fe (476-51180), K (115-4843), and Na (72-473). ANOVA and PCA differentiated among the capybaras regarding age (adults) and origin (A3), both associated with higher concentrations of Al, Cd, Fe, and K. Although a higher metal bioaccumulation was observed in adult animals, it is important to highlight that this result could have been affected by diet and physiological parameters. The results suggest that A3 was the most anthropized remnant area due to agricultural and urban influences. Multi-elemental determination in hair can be used as a non-invasive method to assess heavy metal contamination in capybaras.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Roedores/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Animais , Brasil , Florestas , Cabelo/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Micro-Ondas , Minerais/análise , Oligoelementos/análise
6.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111676, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181949

RESUMO

Seabirds are used as bioindicators of marine ecosystems, especially for quantifying and tracking pollution sources. The objective of this study was to evaluate the contamination in feathers of young kelp gulls by lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg) and zinc (Zn) on three islands of southern Brazil. The highest values for Pb (2.1310 µg g-1) and Hg (0.0010 µg g-1) were observed in Lobos. Zn was common in all samples with a median around 41.7487 µg g-1 and Cr values were below the quantification limit (0.0300 µg g-1). The Kruskal-Wallis test indicated significant differences in Pb (H = 21.84; p < 0.05) and Zn (H = 958.80; p < 0.05), but no differences were observed in Cr (H = 3.08; p < 0.05) and Hg (H = 3.0; p < 0.05). This study was important to show the impact of trace element pollutants on the seabird communities and oceans.


Assuntos
Charadriiformes , Kelp , Mercúrio , Oligoelementos , Animais , Brasil , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Plumas/química , Mercúrio/análise , Oceanos e Mares , Oligoelementos/análise
7.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111716, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181971

RESUMO

Due to the dramatic quantity of plastic debris released into our environment, one of the biggest challenges of the next decades is to trace and quantify microplastics (MPs) in our environments, especially to better evaluate their capacity to transport other contaminants such as trace metals. In this study, trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sn, Sb, Pb, and U) were analyzed in the microplastic subsurface (200 µm) using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Microplastics subjected to the marine environment were collected on beaches (Guadeloupe) exposed to the north Atlantic gyre. We established a strategy to discriminate sorbed contaminants from additives based on the metal concentration profiles in MP subsurface using qualitative and quantitative approaches. A spatiotemporal correlation of the sorption pattern was proposed to compare MPs in terms of relative exposure time and time-weighted average concentrations in the exposure media.


Assuntos
Terapia a Laser , Oligoelementos , Guadalupe , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Oligoelementos/análise
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(12): 765, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201334

RESUMO

A large number of pollutants, such as trace elements, can be found on the surface of atmospheric particulate matter. Since some trace elements can be hazardous to humans, monitoring the atmospheric emissions is relevant to generate comparative data over the years and to predict the health risks of the exposed population. Thus, the aim of this study was to monitor the concentrations of trace elements in atmospheric particulate matter samples from an industrial area in the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, in Southeast Brazil. After the sampling campaign, the samples (n = 22) were prepared with microwave-assisted extraction and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Then, the analyte results were evaluated through statistical approaches. The enrichment factor calculation, Pearson correlation, principal component analysis, and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to identify the main source of each analyte. The samples presented high levels of Al and Fe, which were mainly associated with natural sources, such as resuspension of soil dust. Cr and Mn mostly can come from natural origin. The anthropogenic influence showed increasing trends for As and Cu, indicating that these elements can be from sources other than natural ones, such as industrial processes and vehicle emissions. Furthermore, extremely high enrichment was observed for Cd, Pb, and Zn, indicating strong anthropogenic impact, which may be related to industrial activity in this area. Thus, the industrial emissions were probably the main source of these analytes in the investigated samples.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Oligoelementos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Brasil , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Oligoelementos/análise
9.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(3): e20200974, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175018

RESUMO

The use of industrial waste as an additive in soil improvement has many advantages, including recycling of waste, reducing the need for waste storage, and obtaining an economical material. With the use of these wastes, desired positive results are obtained in some geotechnical properties of soil. However, the wastes can create trace element contamination in soil and groundwater. In this study, trace elements originating from industrial wastes contaminating groundwater are investigated. The industrial wastes were mixed at different proportions with the soil. These mixtures were compacted into a permeameter cells, and a seepage tests were performed. The leachates obtained from seepage tests were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to determine trace elements. The measured trace element quantities were compared with the allowable values in the relevant standards (EPA 822, WHO, TS266). The results reveal that quantitative values of the trace elements from the leachates were within the allowable limits, except for arsenic and chromium. Furthermore, when fly ash is used As and Cr can be combined with ettringite and be immobilized. Boron and silica fume are hazardous substances caused by trace elements. However, considering its long-term effect, they can be used with fly ash.


Assuntos
Arsênico , Oligoelementos , Arsênico/análise , Cinza de Carvão/análise , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Solo , Oligoelementos/análise
10.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 79(3): 343-353, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057758

RESUMO

Accidents involving economic activities of great impact, such as mining, have caused massive environmental damage. In November 2015, the dam of Fundão, located in the city of Mariana, MG, broke and released 5 × 107 m3 of tailings in the nearby ecosystems, including the Doce River. The physicochemical changes that occurred in the Doce River estuary were analyzed, as well as the trace metal concentrations, both 1 day before and 1 month after the disaster. The analyses of the collected samples (water and sediment) showed changes to the physicochemistry regarding dissolved oxygen, SPM, and temperature (p = 0.008, 0.001, 0.036, respectively). It also detected metals (Fe and Al) in the dissolved fraction beyond the limits recommended by the Brazilian legislation. There was an increase in the total concentrations of Fe and Cd in the sediment after the rupture of the dam and a change in mobile metals (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn), with higher concentrations of mobile metals being found closer to the ocean (p = 0.06356). After the rupture of the dam, there was a change in the granulometric fraction of the sediment, which became composed mainly of silt and clay. All of the results showed a change on the Doce River estuary, caused by the arrival of the tailings, which can result in future harmful effects with the release of metals present in the sediment and adsorbed to the particles. The changes to the sediment, such as changes in the granulometric fraction, can have negative consequences for the benthic community.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Estuários , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Brasil , Desastres , Ecossistema , Mineração , Oligoelementos/análise
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 748: 142484, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113683

RESUMO

The total concentration of three toxic elements (As, Cd and Pb) and five oligoelements (Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni and Se) has been determined using an original and completely validated ICP-MS method. This was applied to rice grains from 26 different genotypes cultivated in the same soil and irrigated with the same water in three different ways: by the traditional continuous flooding (CF) and by two intermittent methods, the sprinkler irrigation (SP) and the periodical saturation of the soil (SA). The adoption of SP hugely minimizes the average amounts of almost all elements in kernels (-98% for As, -90% for Se and Mn, -60% for Mo, -50% for Cd and Pb), with the only exception of Ni, whose concentration increases the average amount found in the CF rice by 7.5 times. Also SA irrigation is able to reduce the amounts of As, Mo and Pb in kernels but it significantly increases the amounts of Mn, Ni and - mainly - Cd. Also the nature of the genotype determined a wide variability of data within each irrigation method. Genotypes belonging to Indica subspecies are the best bioaccumulators of elements in both CF and SP methods and, never, the worst bioaccumulators for any element/irrigation method combination. In the principal component analysis, PC1 can differentiate samples irrigated by SP by those irrigated by CF and SA, whereas PC2 provides differentiation of CF samples by SA samples. When looking at the loading plot Ni is negatively correlated to the majority of the other elements, except Cu and Cd having negative loadings on PC2. These results allow to envisage that a proper combination of the irrigation method and the nature of rice genotype might be a very valuable tool in order to successfully achieve specific objectives of food safety or the attainment of functional properties.


Assuntos
Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Oligoelementos , Bioacumulação , Genótipo , Oryza/genética , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Oligoelementos/análise
12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 725, 2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098455

RESUMO

The results of surface snow monitoring in Vecherny Oasis, Thala Hills, East Antarctica, for evaluation of Belarusian Antarctic Station environmental impact are presented. Snow samples from the depth up to 15-20 cm were collected during 4-5th and 7-10th seasonal Belarusian Antarctic expeditions in the period from 2012 to 2018. Chemical-analytical study and determination of Ag, Al, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Na, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Th, Tl, V, U, and Zn content were performed using ISP-MS method. Altogether 85 snow samples were analyzed. High spatial variability of trace elements content in the surface snow and differences between human impacted and non-impacted areas are shown. The elevated average content of trace elements in surface snow within the human impacted areas in comparison with ice sheet has been revealed. Based on the concentration of elements and EFc, the anthropogenic origin of Sb, Se, As, Cd, Zn, Cr, Cu, Mo, V, and Pb in the surface snow were suggested. Contribution of local sources of trace elements is considered to be more important for Vecherny Oasis than their regional or transboundary transfers. The development of guidelines for unified procedure of snow sampling for the goal of local impact monitoring in Antarctica would be useful for data comparison across Antarctic.


Assuntos
Oligoelementos , Regiões Antárticas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Neve , Oligoelementos/análise
13.
Chemosphere ; 261: 128055, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113660

RESUMO

Red deer antlers have a number of advantages that make them a unique material for monitoring trace elements. As antlers are shed and regrown every year, results of toxicological investigations can be applied to a particular region and time. We analyzed the content of four toxic (Pb, Cd, Hg, As) and three essential (Cu, Zn, Fe) trace elements in 254 red deer antler samples spanning between 1953 and 2012. Age of stags did not influence concentrations of analyzed elements in antlers, except for Zn whose level increased with age. The highest concentrations of toxic elements occurred at the beginning of the analyzed period. Levels of Pb, Hg and Zn in antlers decreased over the course of the study. Levels of Cd and As were low and presented a steady trend. Variations in the levels of the analyzed elements in red deer antlers are considered to reflect levels of exposure of animals in their habitat over the sixty-year study period. The range of essential element levels did not indicate any contamination. Environmental conditions in the Mazury Region during the last decades appeared to have improved significantly, as established by declining trends of toxic elements levels in deer antlers.


Assuntos
Chifres de Veado/química , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Cervos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Oligoelementos/toxicidade , Animais , Monitoramento Biológico/história , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Masculino , Metais Pesados/análise , Polônia , Oligoelementos/análise
14.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 22(11): 2230-2243, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029610

RESUMO

A large group of trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti, V, and Zn) was measured for the first time in 226 air samples collected at a coastal monitoring station in Gdynia (northern Poland), in the period from January 12th to August 30th, 2019. The 24 h measurements included fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations, meteorological parameters and backward air mass trajectory analyses. The monthly mean PM2.5 mass concentration ranged from 17.3 µg m-3 to 55.0 µg m-3, and the peak value of 167 µg m-3 was found in February. Overall, considerable differences in the trace element concentrations were observed. However, their seasonal distributions were not similar. In particular, elements such as Cd, Cu, Mo, Ni, V and Zn showed significantly higher concentrations (p < 0.05) in winter compared to spring or summer. The winter peak of trace element concentrations in PM2.5 indicated that local power plants and fossil fuel/coal combustion in the residential sector were the major anthropogenic sources of air pollutants. Based on multivariate analysis (PCA) of the standardized database (14 elements and PM2.5), a significant contribution of different sources and processes was identified, i.e. local traffic emission, local/regional coal/oil burning in power plants and domestic heating units, industrial activities, petrochemical industry and maritime transport. The Cu/Fe ratios revealed that both local traffic and brake-wear emission considerably influenced the chemical composition of PM2.5. In addition, the results of the V/Ni ratio suggested local mixed industrial sources (petrochemical refinery and industrial plants) with possible contributions from the port area and shipping activities to the total PM2.5 loadings. The local ship emission was more pronounced during the summer period.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Oligoelementos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Polônia , Estações do Ano , Oligoelementos/análise
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 670, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009644

RESUMO

Antarctica is considered as one of the most pristine areas on Earth. However, increasing intensity of human presence on the sixth continent (scientific operations, functioning of the numerous scientific stations, tourism activities) makes it crucial to investigate the level of environmental pollution within the vulnerable ecosystem of Antarctica. Soils play a significant role in processes of accumulation, mobilization, redistribution of chemical elements within landscapes, and ecosystems. The aim of this work was to analyze the levels of 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eight trace elements in soils of King George and Ardley islands, Western Antarctica. Moreover, our work was aimed to determine the trends and reasons of anthropogenic pollution of Antarctic soils and characterization of accumulation levels of trace elements and PAHs. Results showed the predominance of light PAHs in all studied sites. The content of benzo(a)pyrene does not exceed the threshold concentration (adopted by different national environmental legislation systems). At the same time, the content of benzo(a)pyrene, which is a marker of anthropogenic contamination, is relatively low or equal to 0 in soils of reference landscapes. Cu and Zn were found as most abundant elements in all studied soils. The highest lead concentration content has been described in soil from Bellingshausen station. In general term, obtained Igeo values for trace elements in all samples were under or slightly above the 0 level, indicating low to moderate pollution of the studied soils. This study also contributes new data on trace element accumulation in soils strongly influenced by ornithogenic factor. Principal component analysis allowed to estimate the probable sources of specific trace metals and their relationship with soil variables. Ornithogenic factor has been also revealed as a driver for some trace element accumulation especially in breeding penguin colonies. High contents of organic matter in ornithogenic habitats could increase trace metal mobility, environmental risks for surrounding terrestrial environments should be considered.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Regiões Antárticas , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Ilhas , Solo
16.
J Environ Qual ; 49(1): 163-171, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016370

RESUMO

Annual and multiyear records of trace element deposition are difficult to develop using monitoring systems but have proven feasible using plant material in several settings. Here, we used material from several tree species (Populus deltoides W. Bartram ex Marshall, Platanus occidentalis L., and Ginkgo biloba L.) to detect atmospheric deposition of trace elements (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in six localities along a transect from near-urban to far-urban in southeastern Indianapolis, IN, and one control site. We captured soil (legacy footprint), bark (multiannual record), and leaves (seasonal record) across a broad swath of the urban landscape and using a multi-metal approach. Tree bark, leaf, and proximal soil samples were collected and analyzed for their trace element content. The highest trace metal concentrations occurred at the near-urban sites, with particularly high Cu and Pb values. The highest Zn values were found at one of the far-urban sites, which is located near a large brownfield that was a former coal and coke storage and processing facility. No correlation was found between soil trace element composition and that of bark and leaves, perhaps indicating a disconnect between legacy inputs recorded in soils and current inputs recorded in the biological materials. Overall, the tree species analyzed served well as trace element bioindicators, although less so for G. biloba, and thus this approach is promising for further understanding the role that airborne pollution and deposition play in urban watersheds.


Assuntos
Oligoelementos/análise , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Solo , Árvores
17.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(3): e20181196, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053103

RESUMO

Honey is a food of nutritional, medicinal and commercial importance. The physicochemical characteristics, pollen spectrum and mineral composition of eighteen honey samples obtained from regions (Cachoeira, Coqueiros, Maragojipe and Santiago do Iguape) near the Paraguaçu River, Bahia, Brazil were evaluated. Botanical families Asteraceae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Myrtaceae and Palmae were most frequently found. Five samples had water contents above the maximum limit established by the Brazilian legislation (> 20%). The mineral composition was determined by ICP OES, after microwave digestion. Ca, K, Mg and Na were measured (mg Kg-1) in the range from: 18.85 to 79.61; 366.74 to 1214.98; 12.46 to 44.59 and 11.56 to 85.39, respectively. Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn had variable concentration ranges, between 0.05 and 6.13 mg Kg-1. Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se and V showed values below the LOD. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) demonstrated that there are no similarities of mineral composition among honey samples.


Assuntos
Mel , Oligoelementos , Brasil , Mel/análise , Pólen/química , Rios , Análise Espectral , Oligoelementos/análise
18.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 79(3): 310-320, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901336

RESUMO

The concentrations of trace elements in feather moss Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. were used to indicate the relative levels of air pollution by trace elements in Polish national parks. Pleurozium schreberi was collected from nine national parks. The highest concentrations were recorded in the moss samples from the southern and most industrialised part of the country; the lowest from northern and north-eastern Poland. A comparison of data obtained from Polish national parks in the 1970s and 1990s showed a significant decrease in the concentrations of heavy metals. In the linear covariability estimation, the t quantile approach was used for multi-element comparison. A number of positive covariabilities were observed. This is a result of anthropogenic activity and the geochemical characteristics of the local environment, including crust composition to which soil composition is related. The statistical approach of t quantile to study common relationships between element concentrations can be used in the interpretation of biomonitoring research results in similar studies.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Bryopsida/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Parques Recreativos , Oligoelementos/análise , Bryopsida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise de Ativação de Nêutrons , Polônia
19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239732, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986774

RESUMO

A large assemblage (n = 307) of architectural glasses (tesserae and windows) from the early 8th-century Umayyad residential site at Khirbat al-Minya was analysed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Trace element patterns are essential to establish the provenance of the base glass, while the comparative evaluation of the colouring and opacifying additives allow us to advance a production model for the manufacture of glass mosaic tesserae during the early Islamic period. The primary glass types are Levantine I and Egypt 1a, as well as a few older, reused tesserae, and Mesopotamian plant ash glass used for amber-coloured window fragments. Chemical data revealed fundamental differences in the colouring and opacification technologies between the Egyptian and Levantine tesserae. Co-variations of lead and bismuth, and copper, tin and zinc in the Egypt 1a tesserae provide first evidence for the production of different mosaic colours in a single workshop, specialising in the manufacture of tesserae of different colours. No such trend is apparent in the Levantine samples. Red, cobalt blue and gold leaf tesserae were found to be exclusively made from a Levantine base glass, indicating that the generation of some colours may have been a specialised process. The same may apply to the amber-coloured window glass fragments of Mesopotamian origin that exhibit very unusual characteristics, combining elevated copper (2% CuO) with an excess in iron oxide (5% Fe2O3). These findings have significant implications for the production model of strongly coloured glass and the exploitation of resources during the early Islamic period.


Assuntos
Arquitetura/história , Vidro/química , Vidro/história , Cor , Corantes/análise , Cobre/análise , Egito , Compostos Férricos/análise , História do Século XVIII , Chumbo/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Oriente Médio , Minerais/análise , Estanho/análise , Oligoelementos/análise
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867215

RESUMO

The mineralogical and geochemical patterns of calcareous vineyard soils located in Alcubillas (La Mancha, Central Spain) have been evaluated; also their variability has been studied. The information provided by this study supports the assessment of geochemical spatial variability, the origin of these soils, their elements and the factors that control their distribution. The presence of quartz, calcite, feldspar and, in particular, illite and kaolinite is due to their inheritance from surrounding lithologies (and pedological processes), which mostly include limestones, marls and other sedimentary rocks, as well as metasedimentary rocks of Hercynian origin. Furthermore, since the presence and accumulation of certain trace elements in vineyard soils is a relevant global hazard (in particular with respect to wine production quality), the spatial distributions of Ba, Cr, Cu, Pb, Rb, Sr, V and Zr (carried out using geostatistical techniques and geometry-based interpolation methods) were investigated in order to determine the origin of these trace elements. The presence of these elements can be interpreted as being due to geogenic, pedogenic and, in certain cases, anthropic influences. The nature of certain agricultural practices, including the use of fertilizers, phytosanitary products and machinery, could explain the local increases in some trace element contents.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Oligoelementos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fazendas , Humanos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Espanha , Oligoelementos/análise
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