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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 215: 112135, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780782

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, which mainly input to the aquatic environment through discharge of industrial and agricultural waste, can be a threat to human and animal health. Selenium (Se) possesses a beneficial role in protecting animals and ameliorating the toxic effects of Cd. However, the comparative antagonistic effects of different Se sources such as inorganic, organic Se and nano-form Se on Cd toxicity are still under-investigated. Hence, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the comparative of Se sources antagonism on Cd-induced nephrotoxicity via oxidative stress and selenoproteome transcription. In the present study, Cd-diet disturbed in the system balance of 5 trace elements (Zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Se, Cd) and impaired renal function. Se sources, including nano- Se (NS), Se- yeast (SY), sodium selenite (SS) and mixed selenium (MS) significantly recovered the balance of 4 trace elements (Zn, Cu, Cd, Se) and renal impaired indexes (blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CREA)). Histological appearance of Cd-treated kidney indicated renal tubular epithelial vacuoles, particle degeneration and enlarged capsular space. Ultrastructure observation results illustrated that Cd-induced mitochondrial cristae reduction, membrane disappearance, and nuclear deformation. Treatment with Se sources, NS appeared a better impact on improving kidney tissues against the pathological alterations resulting from Cd administration. Meanwhile, NS reflected a significant impact on relieving Cd-induced kidney oxidative damage, and significantly restored the antioxidant defense system of the body. Our findings also showed NS ameliorated the Cd-induced downtrends expression of selenoproteome and selenoprotein synthesis related transcription factors. Overall, NS was the most effective Se source in avoiding of Cd cumulative toxicity, improving antioxidant capacity and regulating of selenoproteome transcriptome and selenoprotein synthesis related transcription factors expression, which contributes to ameliorate Cd-induced nephrotoxicity in chickens. These results demonstrated diet supplement with NS may prove to be an effective approach for alleviating Cd toxicity and minimizing Cd -induced health risk.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Substâncias Protetoras/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Cobre/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Ferro/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Selenoproteínas/metabolismo , Selenito de Sódio , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Fermento Seco , Zinco/metabolismo
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 213: 112023, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578096

RESUMO

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play an important role in improving plant tolerance and accumulation of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd). The growth, physiology and absorption of elements and transport in Phragmites australis (P. australis) were investigated under Zn and Cd stress to identify the transport mechanisms of toxic trace elements (TE) under the influence of AMF. Thus, AMF were observed to alleviate the toxic effects of Zn and Cd on P. australis by increasing plant biomass and through different regulatory patterns under different TE concentrations. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) increased under Zn stress, and the activities of SOD, catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and APX significantly increased under high concentrations of Cd. AMF differ in their strategies of regulating the transport of different metals under TE stress. Under Zn stress, the concentration of Zn in P. australis decreased by 10-57%, and the effect on Zn translocation factor (TFZn) was concentration-dependent. AMF increased the TFZn under low concentration stress, but decreased under high concentration stress. Under Cd stress, the concentration of Cd increased by as much as 17-40%, and the TFCd decreased. AMF were also found to change the interaction of Zn×Cd. In the absence of AMF, Cd exposure decreased the Zn concentrations in P. australis at Zn100 mg/L and Zn300 mg/L, while it increased the contents of Zn at Zn700 mg/L. The opposite trend was observed following treatment with AMF. However, regardless of the concentration of Cd, the addition of Zn decreased the concentration of Cd in both treatments in both the presence and absence of AMF. Under different TE stress conditions, the regulation of metal elements by AMF in host plants does not follow a single strategy but a trade-off between different trends of transportations. The findings of our study are important for applying AMF-P. australis systems in the phytoremediation of Zn-Cd co-contaminated ecosystems.


Assuntos
Micorrizas/fisiologia , Poaceae/fisiologia , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Cádmio/metabolismo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Poaceae/microbiologia , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/toxicidade , Zinco/farmacologia
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 209: 111733, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385679

RESUMO

Both essential and non-essential elements have been associated with female reproductive function in epidemiologic investigations, including among IVF populations. To date, most investigators have used blood or urine to assess biomarkers of exposure, with few employing ovarian follicular fluid (FF). FF may offer a more direct "snapshot" of the oocyte microenvironment than blood or urine, however previous studies report follicle-to-follicle variability in FF constituents that may contribute to exposure misclassification. Our objectives were to investigate sources of trace element variability, to estimate FF biomarker reliability among women undergoing IVF (n = 34), and to determine the minimum number of follicles required to estimate subject-specific mean concentrations. We measured As, Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, Se, and Zn in FF samples using inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry. Inter-subject (between-women) variability contributed most of the variability in FF element concentrations, with ovarian, follicular, and analytical as smaller sources of variability. The proportion of variability attributable to sources between-follicles differed by age, body mass index (BMI), race, and cigarette smoking for Cu, Se, and Zn, by BMI and cigarette smoking for As, by primary infertility diagnosis for Hg, Cu, Se, and Zn, and by ovarian stimulation protocol for Mn and Se. Four to five individual follicles were sufficient to estimate subject-specific mean Cu, Se, and Zn concentrations, while >14 were necessary for As, Hg, Cd, Pb, and Mn. Overall, our results suggest that FF is a suitable source of biomarkers of As and Hg exposure in ovarian follicles. Although limited in size, our study offers the most comprehensive exploration of biological variation in FF trace elements to date and may provide guidance for future studies of ovarian trace element exposures.


Assuntos
Líquido Folicular/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Líquido Folicular/química , Humanos , Mercúrio/análise , Oócitos , Folículo Ovariano , Oligoelementos/análise
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111615, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396135

RESUMO

Thyroid tumor and thyroid goiter are prevalent disease around the world. In this case-control study, we investigated the association between exposure to a total of twelve mineral elements and thyroid disease as well as thyroid functions. Participants with thyroid tumor or goiter (N = 197) were matched with a healthy population (N = 197) by age (± 2 years old) and same sex. Questionnaires were used to collect data about the demographic characteristics and information of subjects. Serum and urine samples were collected simultaneously for each of the subjects. Mineral elements, iodine level of urine and levels of the total seven thyroid function indexes in serum were detected respectively. Conditional logistic regression was applied to estimate the associations between mineral elements and the risk of thyroid tumor and goiter through single-element models and multiple-element models. Multiple linear regression was used to evaluate relationships between mineral elements and percentage changes of thyroid functions. Higher concentrations of mineral elements in the recruited population were found in this study than other comparable studies, and the levels of chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se), antimony (Sb), thallium (Tl) and lead (Pb) in the case group were lower than the control group. According to the single-element models, Cr, Mn, Ni, Sb and Tl showed significant negative associations with the risk of thyroid tumor and goiter, and, Cd showed nonmonotonic dose response. Cd and mercury (Hg) showed a nonmonotonic percentage change with T4, while Tl was associated with the increased FT4 in the control group. Therefore, Cd, Hg and Tl may disturb the balance of thyroid function to some extent, and Cr, Mn, Ni, Cd, Sb, and Tl may become potential influencing factors for the risk of thyroid tumor and goiter.


Assuntos
Bócio/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Minerais/metabolismo , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Bócio/epidemiologia , Bócio/urina , Humanos , Iodo/urina , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Metais Pesados/urina , Minerais/urina , Análise Multivariada , Testes de Função Tireóidea , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/urina , Oligoelementos/urina , Adulto Jovem
5.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127800, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750592

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the mineral profile of hair samples of free-ranging capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) in remnants of the Atlantic Forest located in the Northeast of Brazil, and to evaluate the effects of origin, gender and age of the animals on their mineral accumulation in hair. Twenty hair samples from animals of different areas, genders and ages were prepared using microwave-assisted digestion, employing 5 mL of HNO3 and 2.5 mL of H2SO4 for 100 mg of sample. Digestion efficiency was assessed by residual carbon content. The digested samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed considering the composition data of 11 elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Mo, and Na). The digestion method applied was efficient and the most abundant elements with their respective concentration ranges in mg kg-1 were Al (396-2746), Ca (36-3420), Fe (476-51180), K (115-4843), and Na (72-473). ANOVA and PCA differentiated among the capybaras regarding age (adults) and origin (A3), both associated with higher concentrations of Al, Cd, Fe, and K. Although a higher metal bioaccumulation was observed in adult animals, it is important to highlight that this result could have been affected by diet and physiological parameters. The results suggest that A3 was the most anthropized remnant area due to agricultural and urban influences. Multi-elemental determination in hair can be used as a non-invasive method to assess heavy metal contamination in capybaras.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Roedores/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Animais , Brasil , Florestas , Cabelo/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Micro-Ondas , Minerais/análise , Oligoelementos/análise
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 207: 111563, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254417

RESUMO

Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been hypothesized as a cause of declining sheep reproductive efficiency. Understanding the long-term effects of EDCs such as heavy metals on reproductive health requires investigation in 'real life' of sheep that are reared in industrial areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of long-term exposure of Kermani rams to high levels of environmental heavy metals probably emitted from a copper smelter at KhatoonAbad in ShahreBabak, Kerman province. Testicular characteristics were determined in randomly-selected rams (3-4 years old) at 4 directions (south, north, east, and west) and 4 distances (10, 20, 30, and 40 km) from the smelter. Testicular trace element contents, size, serum testosterone, histological attributes and seminal characteristics, except semen volume, were affected by both the direction and the distance from the smelter (P < 0.05). Testicular contents of Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ni, and sperm abnormalities were higher at 10 km south from the smelter and lower at 40 km west. Other parameters were higher at 40 km west and lower at 10 km south. Interestingly, the testicular contents of Cu at 10 km south were lower and associated with higher sperm abnormalities in the rams reared closer to the smelter. The highest weight, length and circumference of the testis were found at 40 km west. The lowest concentration of testosterone was observed at 10 km south, being 92.6% lower than the highest values obtained at 40 km west. The diameter of seminiferous tubules and epithelial height at 10 km south were 8.9% and 27.5% lower than the highest values obtained at 40 km west. A positive correlation between Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni contents in the testis with sperm abnormalities, and a negative correlation between these elements with the other parameters were found. It was concluded that long-term exposure to heavy metals might have been a cause of decreased fertility in rams and probably other living species in this region.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cobre/toxicidade , Masculino , Reprodução , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Ovinos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Testículo/fisiologia , Testosterona/sangue , Testes de Toxicidade Crônica , Oligoelementos/metabolismo
7.
Nutrients ; 12(12)2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371327

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the impact of diet-induced obesity (DIO) on trace element homeostasis and gene expression in the olfactory bulb and to identify potential interaction effects between diet, sex, and strain. Our study is based on evidence that obesity and olfactory bulb impairments are linked to neurodegenerative processes. Briefly, C57BL/6J (B6J) and DBA/2J (D2J) male and female mice were fed either a low-fat diet or a high-fat diet for 16 weeks. Brain tissue was then evaluated for iron, manganese, copper, and zinc concentrations and mRNA gene expression. There was a statistically significant diet-by-sex interaction for iron and a three-way interaction between diet, sex, and strain for zinc in the olfactory bulb. Obese male B6J mice had a striking 75% increase in iron and a 50% increase in manganese compared with the control. There was an increase in zinc due to DIO in B6J males and D2J females, but a decrease in zinc in B6J females and D2J males. Obese male D2J mice had significantly upregulated mRNA gene expression for divalent metal transporter 1, alpha-synuclein, amyloid precursor protein, dopamine receptor D2, and tyrosine hydroxylase. B6J females with DIO had significantly upregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression. Our results demonstrate that DIO has the potential to disrupt trace element homeostasis and mRNA gene expression in the olfactory bulb, with effects that depend on sex and genetics. We found that DIO led to alterations in iron and manganese predominantly in male B6J mice, and gene expression dysregulation mainly in male D2J mice. These results have important implications for health outcomes related to obesity with possible connections to neurodegenerative disease.


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Homeostase/fisiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Bulbo Olfatório/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Cobre/metabolismo , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras/efeitos adversos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Ferro/metabolismo , Masculino , Manganês/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Camundongos Obesos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/etiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Obesidade/etiologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fatores Sexuais , Zinco/metabolismo
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 110965, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798747

RESUMO

Toxic and essential trace elements are associated with human fertility. However, limited studies have been conducted on the relationship between trace elements and in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes in the Chinese population. In this exploratory study, 103 couples who underwent IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment in our reproductive center were recruited. Serum and follicular fluid (FF) samples and seminal plasma samples were collected from the female and male partners, respectively, on the day of oocyte retrieval. Concentrations of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in the specimens were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Generalized linear models were used to evaluate the associations of toxic and essential trace element levels with the intermediate parameters and outcomes of IVF at both the sex-specific and couple levels. The Cr level in the serum of the female partners was inversely associated with the count of mature oocytes retrieved (p for trend = 0.033). In terms of embryo development, As concentrations in female serum and FF were inversely associated with the probabilities to obtain good-quality cleavage embryos (p for trend < 0.01). There were significant correlations between follicular Se concentrations and seminal As concentrations and higher quality cleavage embryos (p for trend < 0.01). Moreover, a positive correlation was observed between the female serum Se concentrations and blastocyst formation (p for trend = 0.031). In contrast, a higher follicular Se level was negatively correlated with embryo development at the blastocyst stage (p for trend < 0.01). Regarding the clinical outcomes, a positive association of Se levels in seminal plasma and a negative association of follicular Cd levels was observed with the probabilities of pregnancy (p for trend = 0.006 and 0.035, respectively) and live birth (p for trend = 0.014 and 0.027, respectively). The results indicate that exposure to toxic elements (Cr, As and Cd) is associated with intermediate parameters and outcomes of IVF. Furthermore, male Se exposure may be related to better pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Líquido Folicular/química , Sêmen/química , Soro/química , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Adulto , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Humanos , Masculino , Oligoelementos/sangue , Adulto Jovem
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111094, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818876

RESUMO

Previous studies suggested the suitability of the brackish-water serpulid (Ficopomatus enigmaticus) to be used as model organism for both marine and brackish waters monitoring, by the performance of sperm toxicity and larval development assays. The present study focused on larval development after the exposure of two F. enigmaticus populations (Mediterranean and Atlantic, collected in Italy and Portugal, respectively) to different trace elements (copper, mercury, arsenic, cadmium, and lead) at different concentrations. Results of larval development assays were presented as the percentage of abnormal developed larvae. The effect, measured in terms of EC50 for all toxicants tested, showed that mercury was the most toxic metal for larvae of both populations. Specifically, the tested trace elements may be racked in the following order from the highest to the lowest toxicity: Mediterranean: mercury > copper > lead > arsenic > cadmium; Atlantic: mercury > copper > cadmium > arsenic > lead. Responses of both populations were similar for arsenic. Lead was the least toxic element for the Atlantic population, while cadmium showed the least toxicity for the Mediterranean population. These preliminary results demonstrate the sensitivity and suitability of the organisms to be used in ecotoxicological bioassays and monitoring protocols. Moreover, chemical analyses on soft tissues and calcareous tubes of collected test organisms and their sampling site water were performed, to identify and quantify the concentration of the tested trace elements in these 3 matrices. Populations exhibited less sensitivity to a certain element together with a relevantly higher concentration of the same element in soft tissues. This may indicate a certain resistance to particular contaminant toxic effects by organisms that tend to accumulate the same toxicant. This highlights the potential correlation between wild-caught test organisms' responses and a deep characterization of the sampling site to identify putative abnormalities or differences in model organism response during bioassay execution.


Assuntos
Bioensaio/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Animais , Arsênico/análise , Cádmio/análise , Ecotoxicologia , Substâncias Perigosas/análise , Itália , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Mercúrio/análise , Poliquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Portugal , Oligoelementos/análise
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111175, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32836161

RESUMO

Mangroves are susceptible to contamination due to their proximity to shores and human activities. Exposure to excessive trace metals can disturb their physiological functions and may eventually lead to death. Rhizophora mucronata is a common species growing in the mangrove forests of Thailand. Previous studies have shown that seedlings of R. mucronata are tolerant of trace metal and that they accumulate a large metal content in their root tissue. However, knowledge of their tolerance mechanisms is still lacking. To elicit the role of metal detoxification and sequestration by phytochelatins (PC) in the roots of R. mucronata seedlings, the impacts of Cu and Zn exposure were assessed on 1) physiological characteristics 2) the concentration of glutathione (GSH), a precursor of PC and 3) the level of the transcripts encoding phytochelatin synthase (PCS), the key enzyme for PC biosynthesis. Seedlings of R. mucronata were exposed to Cu and Zn in a hydroponic experiment (200 mg Cu or Zn/L in 1/4× Hoagland solution containing 8‰ NaCl, single addition). We found that both trace metals were largely accumulated in the roots. Only Cu-treated seedlings showed a decrease in the photosynthetic efficiency, in line with observed toxicity symptoms (i.e. bent stems and slight wilting of leaves). Metal accumulation, however, did not induce oxidative stress in the roots as indicated by similar level of total reactive species and lipid peroxidation across treatments. The GSH content in the roots exposed to Cu was significantly reduced while no change was observed in Zn-exposed roots. Coordinated semi-quantitative PCR and RT-qPCR revealed pcs down-regulation in Cu-treated roots, whereas Zn-treated roots showed a down-regulation on day 1 and a subsequent recovery on day 5. Failure of detoxification and sequestration of excess Cu due to GSH limitation and down-regulation of pcs may lead to the phytotoxic effects observed in Cu-treated plants. Our results suggest that both GSH and PC play an important role in trace metal tolerance in R. mucronata seedlings.


Assuntos
Aminoaciltransferases/genética , Cobre/toxicidade , Glutationa/metabolismo , Rhizophoraceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Zinco/toxicidade , Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Rhizophoraceae/genética , Rhizophoraceae/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/genética , Plântula/metabolismo
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0007759, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555641

RESUMO

Naegleria fowleri is a single-cell organism living in warm freshwater that can become a deadly human pathogen known as a brain-eating amoeba. The condition caused by N. fowleri, primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, is usually a fatal infection of the brain with rapid and severe onset. Iron is a common element on earth and a crucial cofactor for all living organisms. However, its bioavailable form can be scarce in certain niches, where it becomes a factor that limits growth. To obtain iron, many pathogens use different machineries to exploit an iron-withholding strategy that has evolved in mammals and is important to host-parasite interactions. The present study demonstrates the importance of iron in the biology of N. fowleri and explores the plausibility of exploiting iron as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. We used different biochemical and analytical methods to explore the effect of decreased iron availability on the cellular processes of the amoeba. We show that, under iron starvation, nonessential, iron-dependent, mostly cytosolic pathways in N. fowleri are downregulated, while the metal is utilized in the mitochondria to maintain vital respiratory processes. Surprisingly, N. fowleri fails to respond to acute shortages of iron by inducing the reductive iron uptake system that seems to be the main iron-obtaining strategy of the parasite. Our findings suggest that iron restriction may be used to slow the progression of infection, which may make the difference between life and death for patients.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ferro/metabolismo , Naegleria fowleri/genética , Naegleria fowleri/metabolismo , Respiração Celular , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo
13.
Chemosphere ; 257: 127183, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497841

RESUMO

Here, we evaluate maternal offloading of 16 trace elements (Essential: Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se and Zn; Nonessential: Al, As, Ba, Cd, Hg, Pb, Tl and U) and determine mother-offspring isotopic fractionation of δ13C and δ15N in muscle and liver tissue of four pregnant Mustelus higmani and 18 associated embryos sampled from the Amazon Coast of Brazil. Embryo muscle tissue had significantly higher concentrations of most trace elements when compared to mothers, with the exception of Hg. Embryo liver accumulated more nonessential elements than muscle (n = 7 vs. 0, respectively), while the Se:Hg molar ratio was >1 in liver and muscle of both mothers and embryos. Livers of embryos were moderately enriched in δ13C and δ15N when compared to that of their mother. Negative correlations were observed between embryo body length and δ13C and trace elements concentrations. We conclude that mothers offload a large portion of all essential elements and Al, As and Pb to their young and that the isotopic fractionation of embryos reflects maternal diet and habitat occupied, with δ13C diluted with embryonic growth. We also show that muscle and liver accumulate trace elements at different rates relative to the body length of embryos. The Se:Hg molar ratio suggests that Se could play a protective role against Hg toxicity during early stages of M. higmani embryonic development.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Músculos/metabolismo , Tubarões/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Brasil , Ecossistema , Feminino , Isótopos , Fígado/química , Mercúrio , Músculos/química , Gravidez , Oligoelementos/análise
14.
Chemosphere ; 257: 127102, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534292

RESUMO

A field investigation was conducted to monitor the trace element accumulation pattern and potential in lemongrass varieties when cultivated in varying concentrations of tannery sludge contaminated soils. Regression model equations were developed to predict the trace elements concentration in lemongrass plant parts. Model efficiency values ranged between 0.53 and 0.85 for roots and 0.50 to 0.77 for shoots. R2 for all the equations was high and ranged between 0.52 and 0.95 for roots and 0.50 to 0.91 for shoots. Path analysis coefficients revealed the status of interdependence between soil properties and heavy metal concentrations in plant tissues and their translocation pattern in the same. TF > 1 for Ni and Pb was recorded in all test varieties at different tannery sludge concentrations in soil and for Cd in Suwarna variety grown in sole TS. BAF>1 and BAC>1 for Ni and Pb was observed for all test varieties. BCF>1 for Cr was found in Suwarna variety at sole tannery sludge. It can be concluded that lemongrass can accumulate lead and nickel in its harvestable plant parts. Hence, it can act as a suitable phytoextractor for the same metals. Range of essential oil content (percentage) varied in all test varieties i.e. Shikhar (1.04-1.29), Krishna (0.94-1.05), Suwarna (0.82-0.95) and Chirharit (0.87-1.06) at different tannery sludge concentrations. Moreover, heavy metal content in the essential oil of all test varieties was found to be within the permissible limits, hence cultivation of lemongrass can be recommended at metal contaminated sites with minimum risk of food chain contamination.


Assuntos
Cymbopogon/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Níquel/análise , Óleos Voláteis , Raízes de Plantas/química , Plantas , Esgotos , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Oligoelementos/análise
15.
Chemosphere ; 257: 127165, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480088

RESUMO

Phytoplankton and bacterioplankton are the key components of the organic matter cycle in aquatic ecosystems, and their interactions can impact the transfer of carbon and ecosystem functioning. The aim of this work was to assess the consequences of chemical contamination on the coupling between phytoplankton and bacterioplankton in two contrasting marine coastal ecosystems: lagoon waters and offshore waters. Bacterial carbon demand was sustained by primary carbon production in the offshore situation, suggesting a tight coupling between both compartments. In contrast, in lagoon waters, due to a higher nutrient and organic matter availability, bacteria could rely on allochthonous carbon sources to sustain their carbon requirements, decreasing so the coupling between both compartments. Exposure to chemical contaminants, pesticides and metal trace elements, resulted in a significant inhibition of the metabolic activities (primary production and bacterial carbon demand) involved in the carbon cycle, especially in offshore waters during spring and fall, inducing a significant decrease of the coupling between primary producers and heterotrophs. This coupling loss was even more evident upon sediment resuspension for both ecosystems due to the important release of nutrients and organic matter. Resulting enrichment alleviated the toxic effects of contaminants as indicated by the stimulation of phytoplankton biomass and carbon production, and modified the composition of the phytoplankton community, impacting so the interactions between phytoplankton and bacterioplankton.


Assuntos
Fitoplâncton/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biomassa , Carbono/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Praguicidas/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Água do Mar/química , Oligoelementos/metabolismo
16.
Poult Sci ; 99(5): 2718-2726, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359609

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of replacing inorganic trace minerals (ITM) with organic trace minerals (OTM; complexed glycinates) on reproductive performance, blood profiles, and antioxidant status in broiler breeders. A total of 648, 23-week-old healthy broiler breeders (ZhenNing), with similar body weight (1.40 ± 0.002 kg), were randomly divided into 4 groups with 6 replicates in each group (27 hens/replicate) and fed the respective experimental diets for 14 wk (including 2 wk for adaptation). The experimental treatments consisted of T1: Cont., commercially recommended levels of ITM (Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn sulfates); T2: Mix, half trace minerals (TM) were provided from ITM and half from OTM (glycinates); T3: M-OTM, TM were provided from glycinates and reduced to 70% of T1; T4: L-OTM, TM were provided from glycinates and reduced to 50% of T1. The results showed that commercial level of inorganic trace minerals replaced by low-dose complexed glycinates (T3 and T4) exhibited no significant effects on laying performance, 50% ITM replaced by complexed glycinates (T2) numerically improved laying rate by 1.23% than cont. treatment (T1). Broiler breeders fed complexed glycinates tended to produce more qualified eggs (P = 0.05) in T3, with better yolk color (P < 0.01) and eggshell thickness (P = 0.05) in T2 treatment. Replacement of low-dose complexed glycinates reduced fertilization rate (P < 0.01), while it did not affect hatchability. There were no significant differences in serum reproductive hormones such as estrogen and progesterone among the treatments. Serum total protein, albumin, and phosphorus were increased respectively with the replacement of ITM by low-dose OTM from complexed glycinates (P < 0.05). Total liver antioxidant capacity in M-OTM and L-OTM treatment was higher than that of Cont. and Mix treatments (P < 0.01). In conclusion, replacement of high levels of ITM by lower levels of OTM in the form of complexed glycinates is beneficial for egg quality and liver antioxidant status in broiler breeders during the peak laying period.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Minerais/metabolismo , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Animais , Galinhas/sangue , Feminino , Minerais/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem
17.
Orv Hetil ; 161(22): 917-923, 2020 05.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453701

RESUMO

Our body contains physiologically many metal ions used for its metabolic processes and function. Metal ion changes can start pathological processes, however, the pathological processes may also lead to changes in metal ion concentration. In this study, the authors summarize the physiologically present metal ions' change in liver diseases with various aetiologies, the consequences are discussed as well as the connections with the progression. Further, the authors point out the element concentration changes as diagnostic or prognostic values for the liver diseases as well. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(22): 917-923.


Assuntos
Hepatopatias/etiologia , Metais , Humanos , Oligoelementos/metabolismo
18.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 79(1): 89-100, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32274555

RESUMO

Gastropod mollusks have achieved an eminent importance as biological indicators of environmental quality. In the present study, we applied a multibiomarker approach to evaluate its applicability for the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, exposed to common industrial and agricultural pollutants at environmentally relevant concentrations. The snails were exposed to copper (Cu2+, 10 µg L-1), zinc (Zn2+, 130 µg L-1), cadmium (Cd2+, 15 µg L-1), or the thiocarbamate fungicide "Tattoo" (91 µg L-1) during 14 days. Metal treatment and exposure to "Tattoo" caused variable patterns of increase or decrease of metal levels in the digestive gland, with a clear accumulation of only Cd and Zn after respective metal exposure. Treatment with Cu and "Tattoo" caused an increase of cytochrome P450-related EROD activity. Glutathione S-transferase was inhibited by exposure to Cu, Zn, and "Tattoo." Treatment with the "Tattoo" led to an inhibition of cholinesterase activity, whereas Cu and Cd increased its activity. Caspase-3 activity was enhanced by up to 3.3 times in all treatments. A nearly uniform inhibitory effect for oxidative stress response parameters was observed in all kinds of exposure, revealing an inhibition of superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) activity, a depression of glutathione (GSH and GSSG) and of protein carbonyl levels. Pollutant-specific effects were observed for the catalase activity, superoxide anion production, and lipid peroxidation levels. Due to the high response sensitivity of Lymnaea stagnalis to chemical impacts, we suggest our study as a contribution for biomarker studies with this species under field conditions.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Lymnaea/efeitos dos fármacos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiocarbamatos/toxicidade , Oligoelementos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fungicidas Industriais/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lymnaea/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Tanques/química , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Tiocarbamatos/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Ucrânia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
19.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 104(5): 668-672, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303812

RESUMO

The effect of shoot cutting was tested on cadmium, lead and zinc concentration in leaves and capitula of Erigeron annuus, an invasive species, which is considered as a potential phytoremediator. Plant material and soil were collected in the city center of Kraków, southern Poland, considered as one of the most contaminated cities in Europe. We proved that the concentration of zinc in leaves and capitula was higher after regrowth, concentration of cadmium was lower in capitula than in leaves, and the average value of bio-concentration factor for zinc and cadmium was less than 1, whereas for lead it was greater than 1 in both plant organs. Our results suggested that E. annuus can be potentially used for phytoremediation of lead and cutting the shoots can promote effectiveness of zinc removal from the contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Bioacumulação , Erigeron/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Erigeron/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Brotos de Planta/química , Polônia , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo
20.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 104(5): 649-657, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277244

RESUMO

Mineral fertilizers and organic manure are used as soil amender to enhance the mineral status of the soil. These fertilizers contain trace metals besides providing macro and micronutrients. The present study was performed to observe the effect of mineral fertilizers, poultry manure and cow manure on trace metal content of soil and various parts (root, shoot, and grains) of maize plant (Zea mays L.). The analysis of metals was performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AA-6300 Shimadzu Japan). The highest level of Pb, Fe, Ni and Cu was observed in the root as 0.36-0.55, 70.41-83.03, 4.98-7.44 and 2.94-4.43 mg kg- 1, respectively. The highest level of Cd, Zn and Mn was determined in grains as 0.44-1.59, 28.05-46.39 and 26.24-46.57 mg kg- 1, respectively. The values of all metals were found within their permissible limit given by FAO/WHO except for the Cd. The interactive use of mineral and organic fertilizers enhanced the level of trace metals in maize as compared to their sole application. In the present findings, the health risk index for all metals was less than 1 in all treatments. So, it was concluded that the level of metals in poultry manure, cow manure and mineral fertilizer treated maize did not pose any potential threat to the consumers.


Assuntos
Bioacumulação , Fertilizantes/análise , Esterco/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Bovinos , Japão , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Minerais/análise , Aves Domésticas , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/metabolismo
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