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1.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131821, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388869

RESUMO

Acute exposure to trace metals (TMs) in water is hazardous to human health. The average concentrations (Cavg.) and carcinogenic (CAR) and non-carcinogenic (non-CAR) risks of eight TMs to World Health Organization's (WHO) guidelines and national standard limits (NSLs)were determined. The Cavg. and (the range) of As, Hg, Cd, Pb, Co, Cr, Ni, and Zn were measured as 4.29 ± 0.57 µg L-1 (1.12-10.27 µg L-1), 0.22 ± 0.10 µg L-1 (ND-1.05 µg L-1), 0.31 ± 0.18 µg L-1 (ND-1.80 µg L-1), 4.66 ± 0.32 µg L-1 (0.10-14.22 µg L-1), 24.61 ± 4.65 µg L-1 (3.11-67.25 µg L-1), 16.86 ± 5.54 µg L-1 (5.12-34.61 µg L-1), 14.07 ± 4.37 µg L-1 (3.79-31.39 µg L-1), and 268.42 ± 75.82 (87.29-561.22 µg L-1), respectively. The Cavg. of Co and Hg exceeded the WHO and NSLs. The non-CAR risk assessment was used to order the TMs according to the total target hazard quotient (TTHQ) As > Pb > Cr > Co > Zn > Hg > Ni > Cd. None of the investigated age groups are at risk As there is a low Cavg of all trace metals (i.e., the THQ is > 1). The age groups were ranked based on THQ and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) As < 1 year, >1-10 years, > 11-19 years, and > + 20 years. The ILCR of As for all the age groups was >10-4, whereas for Pb it was <10-6. Cumulative carcinogenic risk (CCR) for As and Pb was at a safe threshold risk (>10-4) for all the age groups.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Mercúrio , Metais Pesados , Oligoelementos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados , Humanos , Lactente , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Oligoelementos/análise , Oligoelementos/toxicidade
2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2326: 327-337, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097280

RESUMO

Trace metal elements, such as zinc, iron, copper, and manganese, play catalytic or structural roles in many enzymes and numerous proteins, and accordingly, contribute to a variety of fundamental biological processes. During the past decade, the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) has become an important model organism for elucidating metal homeostasis in metazoan. We have been using Drosophila as a model to study metal metabolism for many years and have optimized simple and robust assays for determining the metal content in Drosophila, such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), the activity assay of enzymes dependent on metals, and staining metal ions in tissues of Drosophila. In this chapter, we present the step-by-step detailed methods for detecting the metal content in Drosophila melanogaster during metal toxicity study.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster/química , Metais/análise , Animais , Colorimetria/métodos , Drosophila melanogaster/enzimologia , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Ensaios Enzimáticos/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metais/metabolismo , Metais/toxicidade , Oligoelementos/análise , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/toxicidade
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(7): 412, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114120

RESUMO

Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), beryllium (Be), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and thallium (Tl) are reportedly notorious toxic contents of make-ups, with potential to cause cancer and chronic kidney disease, warranting investigation on their toxic effects. One hundred female university students were randomly selected as consistent users of make-ups for upward of 3 years. The serum/urine levels of the 8 elements were regressed against the kidney functions (estimated glomerular rate, eGFR) of the subjects. At coefficient of - 0.009, As had insignificant (0.518) level. The coefficient for Cd was - .155 and insignificant (0.423). At coefficient of - 039, Pb level was insignificant (0.595). The coefficient, 0.061, for Hg was insignificant (0.462). At - 1.585, the coefficient of Be was insignificant (0.292). The coefficient for Ni, 1.384, was insignificant (0.354). At - .002, the coefficient of Se was insignificant (0.635). The coefficient, 0.039, for Tl was significant at 5% (0.015). This finding internally validated the mean serum Tl level, 201.4900 ± 20.63316 µg/L, which was much higher than the normal level of < 2 µg/L and within the toxic range of > 200 µg/L. A policy is needed to address the use of make-ups containing Tl.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Mercúrio , Selênio , Oligoelementos , Arsênio/análise , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/toxicidade , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Mercúrio/análise , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Nigéria , Estudantes , Oligoelementos/análise , Oligoelementos/toxicidade , Universidades
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 221: 112437, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153540

RESUMO

Agricultural soils are receiving higher inputs of trace elements (TEs) from anthropogenic activities. Application of nanoparticles (NPs) in agriculture as nano-pesticides and nano-fertilizers has gained rapid momentum worldwide. The NPs-based fertilizers can facilitate controlled-release of nutrients which may be absorbed by plants more efficiently than conventional fertilizers. Due to their large surface area with high sorption capacity, NPs can be used to reduce excess TEs uptake by plants. The present review summarizes the effects of NPs on plant growth, photosynthesis, mineral nutrients uptake and TEs concentrations. It also highlights the possible mechanisms underlying NPs-mediated reduction of TEs toxicity at the soil and plant interphase. Nanoparticles are effective in immobilization of TEs in soil through alteration of their speciation and improving soil physical, chemical, and biological properties. At the plant level, NPs reduce TEs translocation from roots to shoots by promoting structural alterations, modifying gene expression, and improving antioxidant defense systems. However, the mechanisms underlying NPs-mediated TEs uptake and toxicity reduction vary with NPs type, mode of application, time of NPs exposure, and plant conditions (e.g., species, cultivars, and growth rate). The review emphasizes that NPs may provide new perspectives to resolve the problem of TEs toxicity in crop plants which may also reduce the food security risks. However, the potential of NPs in metal-contaminated soils is only just starting to be realized, and additional studies are required to explore the mechanisms of NPs-mediated TEs immobilization in soil and uptake by plants. Such future knowledge gap has been highlighted and discussed.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/toxicidade , Agricultura , Metais/metabolismo , Metais/toxicidade , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
5.
Environ Geochem Health ; 43(11): 4701-4718, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33969453

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to use of geochemical, chemical, ecotoxicological and biological indicators for a comprehensive assessment of ecological risks related to the mobility, ecotoxicity and bioavailability of trace elements in the bottom sediment of the Roznów reservoir. The study found three elements deserving attention in the sediments: cadmium, nickel and chromium. Cadmium proved to be the most mobile and bioavailable, although the total cadmium content and geochemical indicators did not reveal any risk to organisms. Geochemical indicators showed that the sediments are contaminated with nickel and chromium, but both elements had a low bioaccumulation factor. Fractional analysis also revealed relatively low mobility of Cr and Ni and a higher potential risk of bioavailability for nickel. Most of the tested sediment samples had low toxicity in relation to the tested organisms. For H. incongruens, 11% of the samples were non-toxic, 50% of the samples had low toxicity, and 39% of the samples were toxic. For A. fischeri, no toxicity was found in 7% of the samples, low toxicity in 76% of the samples and toxicity in 17% of the sediment samples. The As, Cd, Cu content in the F1 fraction correlated significantly positively with the content of these metals in mussel tissues. Both biotesting and chemical analysis can reveal a potential risk to aquatic organisms. For a real assessment of the ecological risks associated with trace elements, it is necessary to use bioindicators taken from the environment and exposed to trace elements in situ.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Oligoelementos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Bioacumulação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Oligoelementos/análise , Oligoelementos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7049, 2021 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782481

RESUMO

The present study aims to analyze the temporal variations of PM10 and to assess the health risk indexes caused by trace elements from particulate matter (PM10) via inhalation, ingestion, and dermal absorption by adults and children in Copșa Mica (Romania) during 2009-2019. The results revealed a high multi-annual mean concentration of PM10 and trace elements. The analyzed air pollutants showed a decreasing trend during the studied years, therefore 44.11%, 43.48%, 36.07%, 16.02%, and 15.80% lower values were observed for As, Cd, Ni, PM10, and Pb, respectively, due to environmental regulations. The daily exceedance percentage of Pb and Cd was very high, representing 21.74% and 11.26%, followed by PM10 and As concentrations with 4.72% and 3.92%. The ratio between the trace element concentration measured in Copșa Mica and the country average was 2.46, 4.01, 2.44 and 10.52 times higher for As, Cd, Ni and Pb. The calculated Hazard Quotient values via inhalation were higher than the safe limit (1), which accounted 1.81, 3.89 and 4.52, for As, Cd and Ni, respectively, indicating that the trace elements might present a non-carcinogenic risk to both adults and children. Furthermore, the concentration of all studied trace elements in Copșa Mica showed cancer risk for adults via inhalation and dermal absorption as well.


Assuntos
Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Material Particulado/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Romênia , Oligoelementos/toxicidade , Tempo (Meteorologia)
7.
Environ Geochem Health ; 43(9): 3407-3427, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555492

RESUMO

The city of Manaus is the biggest industrial city of the north Brazilian region, and a haphazard urbanization process characterizes it. The continuous urbanization and industrialization processes have increased the levels of trace elements in the urban environment and have posed great threat on human health. It is, then, essential to assess the pollution levels and the potential risks of the trace elements presence in urban soils. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the status of trace elements soils pollution and their human health risks to the population of Manaus City. Twenty-two soil samples were collected from the surface layer (0-20 cm), and the contents of Ba, Cr, Mn, Zn, Co, Ni, Cu, Cd and Pb were analyzed. Results showed the predominance of kaolinite, gibbsite and goethite as the main minerals of the clay fraction. The trace elements contents were affected by both natural sources and anthropic activities such as industrial operations and vehicular emissions. The soil contamination assessment by Enrichment Factor showed the existence of eight samples classified as considerably contaminated and two samples classified as highly contaminated. Geoaccumulation index also showed the existence of eight samples exhibiting considerable contamination and one sample showing high contamination. The non-carcinogenic health risk was considered low (HI < 1) to both children and adults. However, the carcinogenic risk of Cd and Pb was higher than the safety limits (CRtotal > 1 × 10-6), indicating that the long exposure to contaminated soils increases the probability of children's cancer occurrence.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Oligoelementos , Adulto , Brasil , Criança , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Oligoelementos/análise , Oligoelementos/toxicidade
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 213: 112023, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578096

RESUMO

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play an important role in improving plant tolerance and accumulation of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd). The growth, physiology and absorption of elements and transport in Phragmites australis (P. australis) were investigated under Zn and Cd stress to identify the transport mechanisms of toxic trace elements (TE) under the influence of AMF. Thus, AMF were observed to alleviate the toxic effects of Zn and Cd on P. australis by increasing plant biomass and through different regulatory patterns under different TE concentrations. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) increased under Zn stress, and the activities of SOD, catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and APX significantly increased under high concentrations of Cd. AMF differ in their strategies of regulating the transport of different metals under TE stress. Under Zn stress, the concentration of Zn in P. australis decreased by 10-57%, and the effect on Zn translocation factor (TFZn) was concentration-dependent. AMF increased the TFZn under low concentration stress, but decreased under high concentration stress. Under Cd stress, the concentration of Cd increased by as much as 17-40%, and the TFCd decreased. AMF were also found to change the interaction of Zn×Cd. In the absence of AMF, Cd exposure decreased the Zn concentrations in P. australis at Zn100 mg/L and Zn300 mg/L, while it increased the contents of Zn at Zn700 mg/L. The opposite trend was observed following treatment with AMF. However, regardless of the concentration of Cd, the addition of Zn decreased the concentration of Cd in both treatments in both the presence and absence of AMF. Under different TE stress conditions, the regulation of metal elements by AMF in host plants does not follow a single strategy but a trade-off between different trends of transportations. The findings of our study are important for applying AMF-P. australis systems in the phytoremediation of Zn-Cd co-contaminated ecosystems.


Assuntos
Micorrizas/fisiologia , Poaceae/fisiologia , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Cádmio/metabolismo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Poaceae/microbiologia , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/toxicidade , Zinco/farmacologia
9.
Environ Pollut ; 276: 116558, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631688

RESUMO

Pesticides and trace elements occur in complex mixtures in agroecosystems, affecting soil health and food security. Hence, it is necessary to determine their toxicity in field conditions and to develop monitoring approaches to assess conventional and organic agriculture. The aim of this research was to evaluate the associations between Allium cepa L. cytogenetic biomarkers and the realistic mixture of pesticides and trace elements found in soils of conventional, conversion, and organic crops in an intensive agricultural region in Colombia. Pesticide screening was conducted using GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS methods. Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc were analyzed by ICP-MS; chromium, copper, nickel, and selenium by ICP-OES; and mercury by a direct analyzer. The meristematic cells in roots of Allium cepa L. were analyzed through microscopic observations to quantify cytogenetic effects. In conventional crops, 26 pesticides were detected in the soil samples, and those were below the limit of quantification in organic crops. The mean levels of As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Se were also greater in soils of conventional crops compared to the organics. In addition, the biomarkers of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity appeared augmented in conventional samples, and those were correlated with pesticide and trace element concentrations, pollution indices, and hazard quotients. Subsequently, a discriminant function based on the mitotic index, chromosomal aberrations, and nuclear abnormalities was suitable to classify the samples by crop type. These results demonstrate the sensitivity of Allium cepa L. to the toxicity of complex mixtures in field crops and its potential as an in-situ approach for soil health monitoring in organic and conventional crop systems.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Poluentes do Solo , Oligoelementos , Cromatografia Líquida , Colômbia , Análise Citogenética , Cebolas , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Oligoelementos/toxicidade
10.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 544: 38-43, 2021 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516880

RESUMO

Cobalt ions are the main wear particles associated with orthopaedic implants, causing adverse complications due to cytotoxicity and inflammatory mediators. Recent studies have shown that sub-toxic levels of cobalt ions regulate matrix synthesis and inflammation, but the influence of cobalt ions on mechanotransduction remains unclear. Previously, we reported that sub-toxic levels of cobalt ions modulated primary cilia, which are crucial for mechanotransduction. This study therefore aimed to investigate the effect of cobalt ions on chondrocyte mechanosensation in response to cyclic tensile strain and the association with primary cilia. Sub-toxic levels of cobalt ions impaired chondrocyte mechanosensation and affected the gene expression of aggrecan, collagen II and MMP-13. Moreover, cobalt ions induced HDAC6-dependent primary cilia disassembly, which was associated with either cytoplasmic or ciliary α-tubulin deacetylation. Pharmaceutical HDAC6 inhibition with tubacin restored primary cilia length and mechanotransduction, whereas chemical depletion of primary cilia by chloral hydrate prevented mechanosignalling. Thus, sub-toxic levels of cobalt ions impaired chondrocyte mechanotransduction via HDAC6 activation, which was associated with tubulin deacetylation and primary cilia shortening.


Assuntos
Anilidas/farmacologia , Condrócitos/patologia , Cílios/patologia , Cobalto/toxicidade , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/farmacologia , Metaloproteinase 13 da Matriz/metabolismo , Mecanotransdução Celular , Animais , Bovinos , Células Cultivadas , Condrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Cílios/efeitos dos fármacos , Cílios/metabolismo , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Oligoelementos/toxicidade
11.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 199(12): 4847-4855, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420697

RESUMO

Snacks or junk foods are a form of relatively small, packaged, ready-to-eat fast foods, usually taken not as a regular, but as a stopgap. However, contamination of snacks with trace elemental impurities may pose serious health risk to consumers. The main objective of the present study is to assess the toxicological risk of trace elements TEs (Co, Cu, Fe, and Zn) in commonly consumed snack/junk foods from Ijebu Ode, Ogun State, Southwest, Nigeria. A total of sixty snack food samples were purchased and assayed in replicates for Co, Cu, Fe, and Zn using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Trace elements data were manipulated for simple descriptive and inferential statistics. The toxicological risk of metals was estimated for average daily dose (ADD), hazard quotient (HQ), hazard index (HI), and cancer risk (CR). Results showed Fe as the most abundant TE in the snacks showing insignificant mean concentrations (p > 0.05) varying from 38.10 ± 1.98 mg kg-1 (potato chip) to 71.25 ± 14.68 mg kg-1 (cashew nut). Cashew nut had the highest amounts of the TEs. The HQs of Co in all the snacks except corn flakes consumed by children were greater than the threshold limit of 1.0, indicating non-carcinogenic adverse effects. The CRs of Co in all the food samples exceeded the acceptable limit of 1.0 × 10-4, suggesting possible development of cancer by the consumers. Co is a trace metal of health issues in the snack/junk foods. This study therefore recommends periodic monitoring and toxicological assessment of metals in snacks, especially the raw materials and processing feedstocks.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Oligoelementos , Criança , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Nigéria , Medição de Risco , Lanches , Oligoelementos/análise , Oligoelementos/toxicidade , Zinco
12.
Environ Geochem Health ; 43(1): 621-642, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094390

RESUMO

The present study was conducted at a University campus of Agra to determine concentrations of crustal and trace elements in submicron mode (PM1) particles to reveal sources and detrimental effects of PM1-bound metals (Cr, Cd, Mn, Zn, As, Co, Pb, Cu and Ni) in samples collected in the foggy (1 December 2016-17 January 2017) and non-foggy periods (1 April 2016-30 June 2016). Samples were collected twice a week on preweighed quartz fibre filters (QM-A 47 mm) for 24 h using Envirotech APM 577 (flow rate 10 l min-1). Mass concentration of PM1 was 135.0 ± 28.2 and 54.0 ± 18.5 µg/m3 during foggy and non-foggy period, respectively; crustal and trace elements were 13 and 4% during foggy and 11 and 3% in the non-foggy period. Source identification by PCA (principal component analysis) suggested that biomass burning and coal combustion was the prominent sources in foggy period followed by resuspended soil dust, industrial and vehicular emission, whereas in non-foggy period resuspended soil dust was dominant followed by biomass burning and coal combustion, industrial and vehicular emissions. In both episodes, Mn has the highest Hq (hazard quotient) value and Cr has the highest IlcR (Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk) value for both adults and children. In vitro cytotoxicity impact on macrophage (J774) cells was also tested using MTT assay which revealed decreasing cell viability with increasing particle mass.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Material Particulado/química , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Medição de Risco , Smog/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Oligoelementos/toxicidade , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade
13.
Environ Geochem Health ; 43(1): 585-599, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070230

RESUMO

It is well known and proven that heavy metal contamination of the soils can severely affect the health of the people living in the contaminated areas given the ease with which trace elements can enter the human body. In addition-to agricultural crop depreciation as well as soil erosion, soil pollution can negatively affect the natural function of ecosystems. While certain heavy metals in high doses can be harmful to the body, others such as cadmium, mercury, lead, chromium, silver and arsenic in minimal amounts have delusional effects on the body, causing acute and chronic intoxication. Our research is focused on the identification of heavy metals from the soil (O, Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Pb, Si, Ti, Zn) in 3 areas in Transylvania where factories were in operation, using 4 methods: UV-VIS spectrometry, AAS, SEM-EDAX and X-ray diffractions. High levels of very toxic trace elements such as lead, aluminum, cadmium were found near the studied areas, especially using SEM-EDAX and AAS methods. Knowledge on the soil concentration of TEs, the time exposure and the side effects can lead us to predict the health status of the exposed population. In our study, by determinating the concentration of TEs we set out to formulate a prediction on the health status of the exposed population using literature data.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Nível de Saúde , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Ecossistema , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Romênia , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Oligoelementos/análise , Oligoelementos/toxicidade
14.
Environ Geochem Health ; 43(6): 2377-2392, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32577884

RESUMO

To investigate the source identification of soil elements and risk assessment of trace elements under different land-use types, 32 pairs of topsoil samples (0-20 cm) were collected from two subcatchments in the Liudaogou watershed. The areas of the two subcatchments were 0.343 and 0.045 km2, respectively, and the two subcatchments were divided into four land-use types, including bare land, forestland (FL), grassland (GL) and check-dam land (CDL). The results showed that the coefficients of variations of all soil elements indicated moderate spatial variation. The mean concentrations of Cu, K, Mn, Na and Zn under different land-use types exceeded the soil background values. The results of correlation analysis and principal component analysis illustrated that high homology existed between Cu and Mn in subcatchment 1, and the main source was from coal mines and smelters. Consistent sources of Zn and K in subcatchment 1 were mainly fertilizers and sewage sludge. Cu, K, Mg, Mn, Na and Zn in subcatchment 2 had similar sources, mainly mining and smelting plants, fertilizers and sewage. In addition, Ca had high homology with Fe in two subcatchments, mainly from natural weathering. The enrichment factor values indicated that there was a certain degree of trace element pollution. The values of the pollution index and Nemerow integrated pollution index revealed that moderate pollution was mainly concentrated in FL, GL and CDL. The trace element pollution of GL and CDL may induce contamination of the food chain and threaten human health safety.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , China , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fertilizantes , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Mineração , Medição de Risco , Esgotos , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Oligoelementos/toxicidade
15.
Environ Geochem Health ; 43(2): 855-883, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335845

RESUMO

The impact of the trace elements on selected marine fishes/crustacean in Kuwait (Sheam, Lobster, Speatty, and Nagroor) were investigated (As, Cd, Ni, Pb, and V) using the element concentrations in marine water and sediments. The toxic elements concentrations were measured in water samples (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) for estimation of toxic levels, heavy metal evaluation index (84-360), and the degree of contamination (77-353). Similarly, sediment samples were analyzed for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V and estimated for contamination factor, Igeo index, and ecological risk factor with respect to each element analyzed in the sample. The modified degree of contamination (0.25-3.67), risk index (6.5-282.27), metal pollution index (5.95-18.21), and pollution load index (0.27-1.2) were calculated for the samples. This study demonstrated that the water was medium to high contaminated with Cd, Hg, Pb, and V. The sediment analyses showed that most of the metals were within the toxic limits except for Cd, Cu, and Pb in few samples. Most samples were in between the effect range low-effect range medium and threshold effect level-probable effect level range of most metals, except for Cr, Cu, and Ni. Average trace elements concentration in fishes varieties investigated in this study indicated high As in all varieties irrespective of the season and high Ni in all fish during summer. The bioaccumulation factor showed that the trace elements in sediments contributed more to the fish than water. Concentrations of trace elements were greater in fish sampled in winter than that sampled in summer due to variations in the planktonic population in the sea. The estimated daily intake and the chronic daily intake for the Kuwaiti male and female were calculated. The hazards studied revealed that the consumption of Lobster and Speatty may lead to cancer and non-cancer hazards, in both male and female, Speatty having higher probability. The major sources of toxic elements contamination of Kuwait Bay water and sediment appear to be oil-based contamination, urban sewage, brine from desalination, and the trace elements released due to the natural oxidation-reduction processes.


Assuntos
Baías/química , Peixes/metabolismo , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Kuweit , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano , Oligoelementos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
16.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 64: 126687, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33290928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The levels of a number of essential and toxic trace elements in organs and tissues are affected by the disruptions in body homeostasis caused by obesity. Some of these elements may also be influenced by the consumption of biologically active substances of polyphenolic origin, which possess potent abilities to complex with transition metal ions. AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the content of essential and toxic trace elements in Wistar outbred and hereditary obese Zucker Leprfa (Z) rats consuming a standard balanced diet or hypercaloric diet with excess fat and fructose, supplemented with quercetin or not supplemented. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar and Z rats were fed a control AIN-93M-based semi-synthetic diet or a high-fat-high-carbohydrate diet (HFCD, with 30% fat by weight and 20% fructose provided in the drinking water). A portion of the animals in each line and diet group was administered quercetin at 50 mg/kg body weight. Essential trace elements were included in the diets as a high-purity salt mixture. After the termination of feeding on day 63, the livers, kidneys, and brains of the rats were excised and the content of 16 elements (Fe, Mg, Cu, Mn, Co, Se, Zn, Cr, Ni, Al, Cd, As, Pb, V, Cs, and Ag) was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). RESULTS: In the livers of the Z rats, the contents of Co, Zn, Mg, Fe, Se, and V were reduced and the content of Cr was increased compared to that of the Wistar rats. Supplementation with quercetin significantly decreased liver Fe, V, and Se content, which was more noticeable in the Wistar rats than in the Z rats. In kidneys of Z rats consuming control diet, the contents of Co, Cu, and Cs were decreased whereas those of Ni, Al, and Se were increased compared with the contents in the Wistar rats. The same trend was observed with HFCD feeding except for Cs content. Quercetin reduced kidney V content in both rat lines fed both diets, whereas it reduced Se and Cs only in the Z rats fed control diet. In the brains of the Z rats, a large increase was observed in some trace elements including Pb, Cd, Al, Cr, Ni, Fe, and V compared with the levels in the Wistar rat brains. Supplementation of the control diet with quercetin decreased Al and Ni in the brains of the Z rats. CONCLUSION: There were significant differences in the mineral content of organs between the Wistar and Z rats, with different propensities for obesity. Moreover some of these effects had no straightforward association with decreased feed consumption or hepatic fat accumulation. When introduced into the diets, quercetin affected the content of essential and toxic elements, but with ambiguous physiological significance. Thus, indicators of essential and toxic trace elements deserve to be used in the protocols of preclinical as well as clinical trials of biologically active substances and food supplements.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Quercetina/toxicidade , Oligoelementos/toxicidade , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Suplementos Nutricionais , Masculino , Quercetina/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Ratos Zucker , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem
17.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 40(4): 1222-1231, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332657

RESUMO

Despite their popularity as a game species across North America, little is known about contaminant burdens in wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) inhabiting areas of environmental contamination, and their potential to expose human and wildlife consumers. We compared trace element concentrations and radionuclide activity in muscle and liver tissues of turkeys inhabiting the Savannah River Site (USA), an area with known anthropogenic contaminant inputs, with turkeys from uncontaminated areas offsite. In addition, we tested breast feathers from a subset of individuals for mercury (Hg) to assess the viability of nonlethal sampling for quantifying Hg concentrations. Finally, we quantified arsenic, Hg, and selenium (Se) in blood of live-captured turkeys inhabiting a coal ash basin on the Savannah River Site. Compared with reference samples, we found that turkeys inhabiting the Savannah River Site contained elevated Hg levels in both muscle and liver tissues, and lower concentrations of chromium. Turkeys from the ash basin also had elevated levels of Se. We found a positive correlation between breast muscle and feather Hg concentrations (F1,59 = 267.5, R2 = 0.82, p < 0.001), suggesting that feathers can potentially be used as a nonlethal sampling technique. All elements analyzed were below reference limits set by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for safe consumption. Thus, our data suggest that turkeys likely are not an important pathway of contaminant exposure on the Savannah River Site or other areas with similar contaminant distributions. Environ Toxicol Chem 2021;40:1222-1231. © 2020 SETAC.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Mercúrio , Oligoelementos , Animais , Arsênio/toxicidade , Monitoramento Ambiental , Plumas , Humanos , Oligoelementos/toxicidade , Perus
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 207: 111219, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931966

RESUMO

Contamination by organic and inorganic compounds remains one of the most complex problems in both brackish and marine environments, causing potential implications for the reproductive success and survival of several broadcast spawners. Ficopomatus enigmaticus is a tubeworm polychaete that has previously been used as a model organism for ecotoxicological analysis, due to its sensitivity and ecological relevance. In the present study, the effects of five trace elements (zinc, copper, cadmium, arsenic and lead), one surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) and one polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (benzo(a)pyrene, B(a)P) on the sperm quality of F. enigmaticus were investigated. Sperm suspensions were exposed in vitro to different concentrations of each selected contaminant under four salinity conditions (10, 20, 30, 35). Possible adverse effects on sperm function were assessed by measuring oxidative stress, membrane integrity, viability and DNA damage. Sperm quality impairments induced by organic contaminants were more evident than those induced by inorganic compounds. SDS exerted the largest effect on sperm. In addition, F. enigmaticus sperm showed high tolerance to salinity variation, supporting the wide use of this species as a promising model organism for ecotoxicological assays. Easy and rapid methods on polychaete spermatozoids were shown to be effective as integrated sperm quality parameters or as an alternative analysis for early assessment of marine and brackish water pollution.


Assuntos
Poliquetos/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Arsênio/farmacologia , Bioensaio , Cádmio/toxicidade , Ecotoxicologia/métodos , Masculino , Poliquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Salinidade , Oligoelementos/toxicidade
19.
J Hazard Mater ; 407: 124881, 2021 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360193

RESUMO

During the last two decades, the use of soil amendments has gained high attention due to their role in governing trace element biogeochemistry in the soil. Majority of the studies dealing with soil amendments focused on the soil-plant transfer of trace elements, their compartmentation inside the plants and associated toxic effects. However, there is comparatively limited data regarding the effects of soil amendments on trace-element-induced oxidative stress (variations in stress and tolerance parameters) in plants. Therefore, this review, for the first time, critically elucidates the broad and specific trends in literature data of stress, tolerance and growth parameters under co-application of trace elements and soil amendments. For this purpose, a total of 3120 plant response items from literature data were collected/analyzed. The meta-analysis revealed an overall decrease in stress parameters (reactive oxygen species, membrane damage and lipid peroxidation), while an increase in tolerance parameters (antioxidants) and growth parameters (pigment contents). However, these general trends vary greatly with respect to different types of amendments, trace elements, plant species, plant organs and exposure cultures. In addition, the trends also varied for different types of response items of stress, tolerance and growth parameters (e.g., POD vs CAT, H2O2 vs O2). Manuscript critically discusses some mechanistic explanations for these general and specific trends in literature data. Finally, this review proposed key research gaps and important future perspectives. All the aspects discussed in this review have been strengthened with 23 Tables and 7 Figures. The research gaps and scientific queries established in this review based on meta-analysis of literature data will open new aspects of future research and discussion in the fields of ecotoxicology, stress physiology and remediation.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Oligoelementos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Estresse Oxidativo , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Oligoelementos/análise , Oligoelementos/toxicidade
20.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0240988, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although there are several hypothesized etiologies of Mesoamerican Nephropathy (MeN), evidence has not yet pointed to the underlying cause. Exposure to various trace elements can cause the clinical features observed in MeN. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We measured 15 trace elements, including heavy metals, in renal case-patients (n = 18) and healthy controls (n = 36) in a MeN high-risk region of Nicaragua. Toenails clippings from study participants were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A case-control analysis was performed, and concentrations were also analyzed over participant characteristics and clinical parameters. Nickel (Ni) concentrations were significantly higher in toenails from cases (1.554 mg/kg [0.176-42.647]) than controls (0.208 mg/kg [0.055-51.235]; p<0.001). Ni concentrations correlated positively with serum creatinine levels (p = 0.001) and negatively with eGFR (p = 0.001). Greater Ni exposure was also associated with higher leukocyte (p = 0.001) and neutrophil (p = 0.003) counts, fewer lymphocytes (p = 0.003), and lower hemoglobin (p = 0.004) and hematocrit (p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose, chronic environmental exposure to Ni is a possible health risk in this setting. Ni intoxication and resulting systemic and renal effects could explain the clinical signs observed during early MeN. This study provides compelling evidence for a role of Ni in the acute renal impairment observed in this MeN high-risk population. Additional work to assess exposure levels in a larger and heterogeneous population, identify environmental sources of Ni and exposure pathways, and evaluate the link between Ni and MeN pathogenesis are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Níquel/toxicidade , Oligoelementos/toxicidade , Injúria Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas/etiologia , Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Creatinina/sangue , Doenças Endêmicas , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Unhas/química , Nicarágua/epidemiologia , Níquel/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Oligoelementos/análise , Adulto Jovem
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