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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247016, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339416

RESUMO

Abstract Pheretima posthuma (Vaillant, 1868), a native earthworm of Pakistan and Southeast Asia, has wide utilization in vermicomposting and bioremediation process. In this study, P. posthuma coelomic fluid (PCF) and body paste (PBP) was evaluated as antibacterial agent against ampicillin (AMP) resistant five Gram positive and four Gram negative clinical isolates. The antibacterial effect of different doses (i.e. 25-100 µg/ml) of PCF and PBP along with AMP and azithromycin (AZM) (negative and positive controls, respectively) were observed through disc diffusion and micro-dilution methods. All nine clinical isolates were noticed as AMP resistant and AZM sensitive. Antibacterial effects of PCF and PBP were dose dependent and zone of inhibitions (ZI) against all clinical isolates were between 23.4 ± 0.92 to 0 ± 00 mm. The sensitivity profile of PCF and PBP against clinical isolates was noticed as 44.44 and 55.56%, respectively. Both PCF and PBP showed bacteriostatic (BTS) action against S. aureus, S. pyogenes, K. pneumonia, N. gonorrhoeae. Moreover, the cumulative BTS potential of PCF and PBP against all isolates was 66.67 and 55.56%, respectively. The MICs of PCF and PBP were ranged from 50-200 µg/ml against selected isolates. The bacterial growth curves indicated that PCF and PBP inhibited the growth of all isolates at their specific MIC concentrations. However, PBP has better antibacterial potential compared to PCF against selected isolates. Therefore, it is concluded that both PCF and PBP of P. posthuma possess antibacterial and BTS potential against ampicillin resistant clinical isolates. This organism might be considered as a second choice of antibacterial agents and can further be utilized in pharmaceutical industries for novel drug manufacturing by prospecting bioactive potential agents.


Resumo Pheretima posthuma (Vaillant, 1868), uma minhoca nativa do Paquistão e sudeste da Ásia, tem ampla utilização em processos de vermicompostagem e biorremediação. Neste estudo, o fluido celômico de P. posthuma (PCF) e a pasta corporal (PBP) foram avaliados como agente antibacteriano contra cinco isolados clínicos Gram-positivos e quatro Gram-negativos resistentes à ampicilina (AMP). O efeito antibacteriano de diferentes doses (ou seja, 25-100 µg / ml) de PCF e PBP juntamente com AMP e azitromicina (AZM) (controles negativo e positivo, respectivamente) foi observado por meio de métodos de difusão em disco e microdiluição. Todos os nove isolados clínicos foram notados como resistentes a AMP e sensíveis a AZM. Os efeitos antibacterianos de PCF e PBP foram dependentes da dose e a zona de inibição (ZI) contra todos os isolados clínicos foi entre 23,4 ± 0,92 a 0 ± 00 mm. O perfil de sensibilidade do PCF e PBP contra isolados clínicos foi observado como 44,44% e 55,56%, respectivamente. Tanto o PCF quanto o PBP mostraram ação bacteriostática (BTS) contra S. aureus, S. pyogenes, K. pneumonia, N. gonorrhoeae. Além disso, o potencial BTS cumulativo de PCF e PBP contra todos os isolados foi de 66,67% e 55,56%, respectivamente. Os MICs de PCF e PBP variaram de 50-200 µg / ml contra isolados selecionados. As curvas de crescimento bacteriano indicaram que o PCF e o PBP inibiram o crescimento de todos os isolados em suas concentrações específicas de MIC. No entanto, PBP tem melhor potencial antibacteriano em comparação com PCF contra isolados selecionados. Portanto, conclui-se que tanto o PCF quanto o PBP de P. posthuma possuem potencial antibacteriano e BTS contra isolados clínicos resistentes à ampicilina. Esse organismo pode ser considerado como uma segunda escolha de agentes antibacterianos e pode ainda ser utilizado nas indústrias farmacêuticas para a fabricação de novos medicamentos por meio da prospecção de agentes com potencial bioativo.


Assuntos
Animais , Oligoquetos , Staphylococcus aureus , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Ampicilina/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247562, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339410

RESUMO

Abstract To investigate the role of cow dung in soil reclamation and bio assimilation along with bio accumulation of heavy metals in earthworm (P. posthuma) (N=900) earthworms were used and treatment groups of CD-soil mixture of different proportion of cow dung were designed. Nonlethal doses of lead acetate and cadmium chloride were added in treatment groups. Mature P. posthuma were released in each experimental pot maintaining the favorable conditions. The pH, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, exchangeable cations, and heavy metal level of each mixture was evaluated. The results indicated that bio-assimilation of Pb and Cd by P. posthuma were significantly (P ˂ 0.01) higher in different soil-CD treatments compared to control. Highest bio-assimilation of both metals was observed in T1 of both groups (Pb = 563.8 mg/kg and Cd = 42.95 mg/kg). The contents of both metals were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) lowered in casting. The nutrient concentration in the final castings of all soil-CD treatments were also equally transformed from less or insoluble to more soluble and available for plants, except for carbon level which increased with CD proportion. It is concluded that cow dung as organic matter has a positive effect on soil reclamation and bio-assimilation of metals by P. posthuma.


RESUMO Para investigar o papel do esterco de vaca na recuperação do solo e bioassimilação, juntamente com a bioacumulação de metais pesados ​​em minhocas (P. posthuma) (N = 900), minhocas foram usadas e grupos de tratamento de mistura CD-solo de diferentes proporções de esterco de vaca foram projetados. Doses não letais de acetato de chumbo e cloreto de cádmio foram adicionadas aos grupos de tratamento. P. posthuma maduros foram liberados em cada vaso experimental, mantendo as condições favoráveis. Foram avaliados o pH, carbono, nitrogênio, fósforo, cátions trocáveis ​​e nível de metais pesados ​​de cada mistura. Os resultados indicaram que a bioassimilação de Pb e Cd por P. posthuma foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,01) maior em diferentes tratamentos de solo-CD em relação ao controle. A maior bioassimilação de ambos os metais foi observada em T1 de ambos os grupos (Pb = 563,8 mg / kg e Cd = 42,95 mg / kg). O conteúdo de ambos os metais foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,05) reduzido na fundição. A concentração de nutrientes nas fundições finais de todos os tratamentos de solo-CD também foi igualmente transformada de menos ou insolúvel para mais solúvel e disponível para as plantas, exceto o nível de carbono que aumenta com a proporção de CD. Conclui-se que o esterco de vaca como matéria orgânica tem um efeito positivo na recuperação do solo e na bioassimilação de metais por P. posthuma.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo , Cádmio , Bovinos , Bioacumulação
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247913, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278555

RESUMO

Abstract The aim of this paper was recording the occurrence of the species Lumbriculus variegatus (Müller, 1774) (Oligochaeta, Lumbriculidae) in lotic systems of the State of São Paulo. Specimens were collected in Sapucaí River, located in Campos do Jordão State Park. The mapping of geographical distribution of this species is of interest to public health since L. variegatus may be an intermediate host of Dioctophyme renale (Goeze, 1782) (Nematoda, Dioctophymatidae), a parasite of recognized zoonotic potential. Distribution data serves as a basis for environmental monitoring and evaluation, being essential to map possible cases of the disease (Dioctophimosis) and provide information to health professionals.


Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar a ocorrência de Lumbriculus variegatus (Müller, 1774) (Oligochaeta, Lumbriculidae) em um sistema lótico do Estado de São Paulo. Os espécimes foram coletados no rio Sapucaí, localizado no Parque Estadual de Campos do Jordão. O mapeamento da distribuição geográfica desta espécie é de interesse para saúde pública uma vez que L. variegatus pode ser um hospedeiro intermediário de Dioctophyme renale (Goeze, 1782) (Nematoda, Dioctophymatidae), parasito de reconhecido potencial zoonótico. Dados de distribuição servem de base para monitoramento e avaliação ambiental, sendo essenciais para mapear possíveis casos da doença (Dioctofimose) e fornecer informações para profissionais de saúde.


Assuntos
Animais , Oligoquetos , Nematoides , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios
4.
J Hazard Mater ; 442: 130128, 2023 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36303338

RESUMO

Glyphosate (GLY) and flazasulfuron (FLA) are two non-selective herbicides commonly applied together. However, research focused on their single and combined ecotoxicological impacts towards non-target organisms is still inconclusive. Therefore, this study aimed to test their single effects on soil's habitat and retention functions, and to unravel their combined impacts to earthworms and terrestrial plants. For this, ecotoxicological assays were performed with plants (Medicago sativa), oligochaetes (Eisenia fetida) and collembola (Folsomia candida). Soil elutriates were also prepared and tested in macrophytes (Lemna minor) and microalgae (Raphidocelis subcapitata). FLA (82-413 µg kg-1) reduced earthworms' and collembola's reproduction and severely impaired M. sativa growth, being much more toxic than GLY (up to 30 mg kg-1). In fact, the latter only affected plant growth (≥ 9 mg kg-1) and earthworms (≥ 13 mg kg-1), especially at high concentrations, with no effects on collembola. Moreover, only elutriates from FLA-contaminated soils significantly impacted L. minor and R. sucapitata. The experiments revealed that the co-exposure to GLY and FLA enhanced the toxic effects of contaminated soils not only on plants but also on earthworms'. However, such increase in toxicity was dependent on GLY residual concentrations in soils. Overall, this work underpins that herbicides risk assessment should consider herbicides co-exposures, since the evaluation of single exposures is not representative of current phytosanitary practices and of the potential effects under field conditions, where residues of different compounds may persist in soils.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Herbicidas , Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Ecossistema , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Plantas
5.
Chemosphere ; 311(Pt 1): 137027, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36419262

RESUMO

Reproduction is a significant biological process for organisms responding to environmental stresses, however, little is known about the reproductive strategies of invertebrates under long-term exposure to contaminations. In this study, earthworm Metaphire californica (Kinberg, 1867) from contaminated fields with an increased metal gradient were collected to investigate their reproductive responses. The results showed heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Zn, and Pb) induced histological damage to earthworms' seminal vesicles, including tissue disorders and cavities, and decreases in mature spermatozoa. Sperm morphology analysis indicated deformity rates were up to13.2% (e.g. head swollen or missing) for worms from the most contaminated site, which coincided with DNA damages. Furthermore, the computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system was employed for the evaluation of sperm kinetic traits. Results suggested earthworms exposed to higher contamination showed a lower sperm viability rate but faster sperm velocity after re-exposure with Cd solution (like the curvilinear velocity and straight-line velocity paraments) compared with those from relatively clean sites. The activities of lactate dehydrogenase and sorbitol dehydrogenase showed the highest 32.5% and 12.5% up-regulation respectively with the increased metal gradient. In conclusion, this study elucidated the earthworm reproductive toxicity, underlying reproductive compensation, metal stress-induced damages, and adaptive responses caused by heavy metal exposure, while also providing the possibility of sperm trait analysis (CASA) for related earthworm toxicological studies.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Oligoquetos , Masculino , Animais , Cádmio , Sêmen , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Reprodução
6.
Chemosphere ; 311(Pt 1): 137046, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36419272

RESUMO

Potential adverse effects of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) on soil invertebrates have not been studied. Here we investigated the mechanism of MC-LR toxicity to earthworm (Eisenia fetida) intestine at the individual level and at the cellular level. The results showed an inverse relationship between the bodyweight and survival rate of earthworms over exposure time- and MC-LR doses in soil. Dose-dependent intestinal lesions and disturbances of enzymatic activities (e.g., cellulase, Na+/K+-ATPase, and AChE) were observed, which resulted in intestinal dysfunction. Excessive reactive oxygen species generation led to DNA damage and lipid peroxidation of intestinal cells. The oxidative damage to DNA prolonged cell cycle arrest at the G2/M-phase transition in mitosis, thus stimulating and accelerating apoptosis in earthworm intestine. MC-LR target earthworm intestine tissue. MC-LR at low concentrations can damage earthworm intestine regardless of exposure routes (oral or contact). High toxicity of MC-LR to earthworms delineates its ecological risks to terrestrial ecosystems.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Animais , Ecossistema , Intestinos , Solo
7.
Chemosphere ; 311(Pt 1): 136833, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36241120

RESUMO

Virgin microplastics (MPs) would undergo aging process when entering environment, the adsorption capability of pollutants onto MPs may change during the aging process. To better understand the influence of aged polyethylene microplastics (PE-MP) on the bioavailability of three heavy metals (Zn, Pb, and Cd) in soil, hydrogen peroxide exposure (3% H2O2) and ultraviolet irradiation methods were employed to simulate the aging process. After aging process, different amount (0.1%, 1%, 10%) of PE-MP (pristine or aged) was added into soil to assess the ability of soil (containing PE-MP) adsorbing heavy metal. Moreover, different amount (0.01%, 0.1%, 1%) of PE-MP (pristine or aged) was added into soil to cultivate the earthworms to assess the impact of PE-MP on bioavailability of three heavy metals. Results indicated that the aged and virgin PE-MP had similar capability to adsorb heavy metal, the adsorption ability of Zn2+, Pb2+, and Cd2+ to pristine PE-MP were 2.42, 7.47, and 7.76 mg/g, respectively. The concentration of Zn or Pb in earthworms in treatments of metal +1% PE-MP was slightly higher than that in single metal (Zn or Pb) treatment, moreover, the concentration of Cd in earthworms in treatment of Cd + 1% PE-MP was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than that in single Cd treatment, exhibiting that 1% of PE-MP enhanced the bioavailability of heavy metals in soil. However, heavy metal concentrations in earthworms in treatments of metal + pristine PE-MP showed insignificant (p > 0.05) difference with those in treatments of metal + aged PE-MP, indicating that the aging process in this study did not change the environmental influence of PE-MP on heavy metals bioavailability. Superoxide dismutase activity, reactive oxygen species level, malondialdehyde content, and related gene expression in earthworms showed that PE-MP and heavy metals would bring toxic synergy to earthworms, therefore, the influence of MPs should be comprehensively considered when determining the environmental risk of heavy metals in soil.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Solo , Microplásticos , Plásticos/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cádmio/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Polietileno/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Chumbo/toxicidade , Chumbo/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/análise
8.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt A): 116472, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36242973

RESUMO

The importing of sources of exogenous organic carbon is an effective method for the prevention of soil degradation in sloping soils. Earthworm casts (ECs) have been recognised as a contributor to long-term carbon protection, but relatively few studies have examined the temporal impact ECs have on the achievement of this goal and its efficacy in the mitigation of soil erosion challenges in the Loess Plateau region in China. This study conducted field simulated rainfall experiments as a means of investigating the effects of five ECs (0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 g/m2, labelled CG, E1, E2, E3 and E4) on runoff, sediment and soil aggregate composition after 60, 90 and 150 days of fallow. As E4 was fallow for 150 days, the total runoff, runoff coefficient and total sediment amount decreased by 34.0%, 37.6% and 82.80% in comparison to CG. The runoff and sediment analytical models were able to accurately simulate the runoff and sediment yield processes through ECs application (R2≥0.704, RMSE≤1.108, NSE≥0.513). After being fallow for 150 days, soil sorptivity (S) increased from 0.151 cm/min0.5 to 0.310 cm/min0.5 as ECs application quantity increased. In contrast, the calibration constants of splash erosion (Cr) decreased from 0.150 to 0.090 and runoff erosion (Cf) decreased from 0.120 to 0.081. ECs were found to considerably enhance the number of aggregates that were more prominent than 0.25 mm in size. When E4 was fallow for 150 days, the fraction of >0.25 mm aggregate (WSA0.25) increased by 120.69% in comparison to CG. The mean weight diameter (MWD) grew by 105.96%, the geometric mean diameter (GMD) increased by 98.81% and the soil erodibility value K improved by 43.78%. When the amount of ECs was 800 g/m2, the stability of soil aggregates was effectively improved against water erosion while runoff and sediment transport were controlled. This can help improve the current soil and water loss situation in the Loess Plateau while also improving cultivated land soil quality. At the same time, a longer fallow period time promotes soil aggregate formation. This study is focused on the exceptional performance of ECs in limiting soil erosion on the Loess Plateau in China, which may provide novel solutions for soil and water conservation and the prevention of non-point source pollution.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Animais , Chuva , Solo , Carbono/análise , Água , China , Sedimentos Geológicos
9.
Chemosphere ; 311(Pt 1): 136931, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36273604

RESUMO

Present study is aimed to evaluate the influence of earthworm (Eisenia fetida), Cyanobacteria (Cylindrospermum stagnale), and rice husk biochar (BC) on cadmium (Cd) detoxification in artificially contaminated soil. The Cd content was kept at 10 mg/kg in factorial design I, coupled with 2% and 0% BC. E. fetida and C. stagnale un-inoculated and inoculated experiments were maintained respectively as negative and positive controls. In factorial design II, E. fetida and C. stagnale were inoculated, along with BC (0% and 2%, denoted as B), without BC (WB), along with four different Cd concentrations (Cd-0, Cd-5, Cd-10, and Cd-20 mg/kg). Results suggest a substantial amount of Cd removal in BC-assisted treatments when compared to negative control-1. Cd (mg/g) in E. fetida tissue ranged from 0.019 (WB2) to 0.0985 (B4). C. stagnale of WB4 (0.036) bioaccumulated the most Cd (mg/g), while B2 showed the least (0.018). The maximum quantity of metallothionein (5.34 µM/mg) was detected in E. fetida of B4 (factorial design - II) and the minimum was claimed in WB1 (0.48 µM/mg) at the end. Earthworm metallothionein protein is a key component in Cd removal from soil by playing an important role in detoxification process. Microbial communities and humic substances were observed in BC-assisted treatments, which aided in Cd-contaminated soil remediation. The present findings suggest that BC (2%) + earthworms + algae could be a suitable remediation strategy for Cd contaminated soil. BC + earthworm + algal-based investigation on heavy metal remediation will be a valuable platform for detoxifying harmful metals in soils.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Oligoquetos , Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Cádmio/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Carvão Vegetal , Solo , Metalotioneína
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 367: 128305, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36370943

RESUMO

Earthworm-induced microbial enrichment is the key to success in vermitechnology, yet the influence of initial earthworm stocking density on microbial community profiles in vermibeds is unknown. Therefore, vermicomposting of lignocellulosic feedstock was performed with different stocking densities of two earthworms (Eisenia fetida and Eudrilus eugeniae) compared with composting. Eventually, earthworm growth, microbial (activity and community profiles), and physicochemical dynamics were assessed. The earthworm population significantly increased under low stocking, while denser stocking (15/kg) was stressful. The XRD-based crystallinity assessment revealed that comminuting efficiency of Eisenia and Eudrilus was prudent at 7 and 10 worm/kg stockings, respectively. Moreover, the 5 and 7 worm/kg stockings effectively mobilized microbial activity, promoting NPK-mineralization and C-humification balance. Correlation statistics indicated that earthworm stocking density-driven microbial community shift and fatty acid profiles strongly influenced metal removal in vermibeds. Hence, the findings implied that 5-7 worm/kg stockings of earthworms produced high-quality sanitized vermicompost.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Oligoquetos , Animais , Ácidos Graxos , Solo/química , Metais
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 1): 159010, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174681

RESUMO

Earthworm conversion is an eco-friendly biological process that converts livestock waste into a benign nutrient-rich organic fertilizer. However, little is known about the impacts of earthworm-converted livestock manure on the antibiotic resistome in the earthworm gut microbiota. Herein, lab-scale vermicomposting was performed to comprehensively evaluate the shift of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the earthworm gut-feeding on cow manure (CM)-by metagenomic analysis. The effects of copper (Cu) as a food addictive were also evaluated. CM substantially enriched the antibiotic resistome in the foregut and midgut, while it decreased in the hindgut. A similar trend was observed for metal resistance genes (MRGs). Notably, Cu in the CM had little effect on composition of ARGs and MRGs in earthworm gut. The earthworm gut microbiome altered by CM was responsible for the shift of ARGs and MRGs. In wormcast, Cu (100 and 300 mg/kg) significantly increased the abundance of ARGs and MRGs. Our study provides valuable insight into the response of ARGs and MRGs to CM in earthworm gut, and underscores the need for the judicious use of heavy metals as feed additives in livestock and poultry farming.


Assuntos
Esterco , Oligoquetos , Animais , Feminino , Bovinos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Genes Bacterianos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Gado , Metais
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158934, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152865

RESUMO

As a class of persistent organic pollutant, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their hydroxylated and methoxylated derivatives (OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs) have been widely detected in soil environments. However, studies on the bioavailability and transformation of PBDEs and their derivatives in soil organisms remain scarce. In this study, a detailed kinetic investigation on the accumulation and biotransformations of BDE-47, 6-MeO-BDE-47 and 6-OH-BDE-47 in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to artificially contaminated soils was conducted. The uptake and elimination kinetics of BDE-47, 6-MeO-BDE-47 and 6-OH-BDE-47 by earthworms were in accordance with a one-compartment first-order kinetic model. The bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) followed the order 6-MeO-BDE-47 > 6-OH-BDE-47 > BDE-47. All three compounds could undergo step-by-step debromination to produce lower brominated analogs in earthworms. Both BDE-47 and 6-OH-BDE-47 could be transformed to MeO-PBDEs, whereas no transformation from 6-OH-BDE-47 or 6-MeO-BDE-47 to PBDEs or from BDE-47 and 6-MeO-BDE-47 to OH-PBDEs took place in the earthworms. Methoxylation was proposed as a potential metabolic pathway to form MeO-PBDEs in earthworms, with the metabolic rates for the methoxylation of BDE-47 and 6-OH-BDE-47 being 27.7 and 5.1 times greater, respectively, than that of the debromination metabolism. The isomers of 6-MeO-BDE-47 and 6-OH-BDE-47 were formed via the addition of methoxy/hydroxy groups or via bromine shifts on benzene ring in the earthworms. This study provides comprehensive information for a better understanding of the accumulation and biotransformation of PBDEs and their derivatives in earthworms.


Assuntos
Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Oligoquetos , Animais , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Éter , Hidroxilação , Biotransformação , Etil-Éteres , Solo
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36220545

RESUMO

Atrazine has been widely used in the world and caused environmental pollution, especially soil pollution. When assessing the toxicity of atrazine in soil, most studies used standardized artificial soils, while few studies focused on the real soil environments. In the present study, three natural soils and artificial soil were selected as test soils to study and compare the toxicities of atrazine to Eisenia fetida. Acute toxicity of atrazine was determined by filter paper and soil tests. In chronic toxicity study, after atrazine exposure, the content of reactive oxygen species in Eisenia fetida significantly increased and showed a dose-response relationship. The activity changes of three antioxidant enzymes and glutathione transferase showed that atrazine had obvious oxidative stress effect on earthworms. The contents of malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxy deoxyguanosine in 0.1 and 1 mg/kg atrazine treatment groups were significantly higher than the control, indicating that medium and high concentrations of atrazine could cause lipid and DNA damage in Eisenia fetida. The acute toxicity results and the integrated biomarker response index for chronic toxicity indicated that the toxicity order of atrazine was: red clay > fluvo-aquic soil > artificial soil > black soil, and that the toxicity of atrazine in artificial soil was not representative of its toxicity in real soil environment. The results of correlation analysis showed that three soil property parameters of organic carbon, organic matter and sand were most related to the toxicity of atrazine.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Oligoquetos/fisiologia , Solo , Atrazina/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Malondialdeído , Estresse Oxidativo
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 1): 159311, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36216047

RESUMO

Composting is an effective alternative for recycling faecal sludge into organic fertilisers. A microflora-earthworm (Eisenia fetida) synergistic cooperation system was constructed to enhance the composting efficiency of faecal sludge. The impact of earthworms and carbon-rich wastes (rice straw (RS) and sawdust (S)) on compost properties, greenhouse gas emissions, and key microbial species of composting were evaluated. The addition of RS or S promoted earthworm growth and reproduction. The earthworm-based system reduced the volatile solid of the final substrate by 13.19-16.24 % and faecal Escherichia coli concentrations by 1.89-3.66 log10 cfu/g dry mass compared with the earthworm-free system. The earthworm-based system increased electrical conductivity by 0.322-1.402 mS/cm and reduced C/N by 56.16-64.73 %. The NH4+:NO3- ratio of the final faecal sludge and carbon-rich waste was <0.16. The seed germination index was higher than 80 %. These results indicate that earthworms contribute to faecal sludge maturation. Earthworm addition reduced CO2 production. The simultaneous addition of earthworms and RS system (FRS2) resulted in the lowest global warming potential (GWP). The microbial diversity increased significantly over time in the RS-only system, whereas it initially increased and later decreased in the FRS2 system. Cluster analysis revealed that earthworms had a more significant impact on the microbial community than the addition of carbon-rich waste. Co-occurrence networks for earthworm-based systems were simple than those for earthworm-free systems, but the major bacterial genera were more complicated. Highly abundant key species (norank_f_Chitinophagaceae and norank_f_Gemmatimonadaceae) are closely related. Microbes may be more cooperative than competitive, facilitating the conversion of carbon and nitrogen in earthworm-based systems. This work has demonstrated that using earthworms is an effective approach for promoting the efficiency of faecal sludge composting and reducing GWP.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Microbiota , Oligoquetos , Oryza , Animais , Esgotos/química , Carbono/análise , Aquecimento Global , Solo/química
15.
J Hazard Mater ; 443(Pt B): 130145, 2023 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368070

RESUMO

Vermicomposting is an economical and environmentally friendly process. However, related knowledge of vermicomposting aquatic plant residues (APRs), earthworm quality, and mechanisms for metal removal from water is still lacking. Nelumbo and Oenanthe javanica residues and their mixture were treated with Eisenia foetida and cattle manure for 45 days. Compared with the control comprising only cattle manure, addition of the APR mixture improved earthworm quality, mainly for low crude ash, high alkaloid compounds and different fat compositions in the Nelumbo residue and the balanced protein proportion of the APR mixture. All the vermicompost especial O. javanica residue added (VO) played efficient roles in removing metals from water initially containing 2.0 mg Cu L-1 and 8.0 mg Zn L-1. There were higher removal efficiencies (Ers) at the dosage of 4 g L-1 with a small microbial contribution. VO significantly increased Ers, which could be from the decrease of phylum Firmicutes (especial Bacteroides) abundance, stronger CH2, C = O, and CH, the addition of COOH groups, and higher organic matter and total phosphorus contents. The combination of VO and Hippuris vulgaris was optimized as an ecological and economical method for treating complex-metal polluted water. Moreover, our study widened the route for APR reuse.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Bovinos , Animais , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Esterco , Água , Solo/química , Metais/metabolismo
16.
Waste Manag ; 155: 146-152, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36371848

RESUMO

Composting is a common waste management strategy for recycling nutrients from organic household or agricultural wastes. However, thermophilic (e.g. windrow) composting and vermicomposting (using earthworms) produce different nutrient and enzyme profiles. Vermicompost is purported to have greater fertility benefits, but is also more expensive than thermophilic compost. The objective of this study was to examine a novel approach to designing organic fertility amendments by blending mature vermicompost and thermophilic compost. To examine the effect of blending, vermicompost was admixed to thermophilic compost at 20, 50 and 70 % by mass, with and without the addition of coir (cocopeat). Electric conductivity, water-extractable, immediately available N, P and K were measured. Vermicompost and coir synergistically affected the availability of these nutrients. Synergistic effects were between 15 and 40 % for total inorganic N in blends with coir. Without coir, synergism occurred only at vermicompost additions ≥50 %. Synergism for available P and K was present in all blends and ranged from 10% to 35%. Electrical conductivity measurements suggest that blending affected compost within three days of starting the incubation. The activity of five of seven measured enzymes were linearly and positively related to the fraction of vermicompost in the blend. Blending mature composts with differing properties may be another tool, in addition to adjusting feedstock and process parameters, to affect positively the fertility properties of composts.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Oligoquetos , Animais , Solo , Nutrientes , Reciclagem
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 2): 159226, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36202358

RESUMO

Both earthworms and nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) have been recently regarded as important approaches for in-situ remediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil. However, the combined action of earthworms and nZVI toward PCBs, and the biological responses of earthworm-microbiota symbionts to nZVI-PCBs co-exposure in soil remediation systems remain unclear. In this study, a 28-d exposure with different levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and nZVI was applied to earthworm Eisenia fetida in an agricultural soil. Both physiological responses of earthworms and their surrounding microbiota in gut and soil were examined. Kinetic modelling parameters showed a doubled PCB accumulation in earthworms with the presence of nZVI. Meanwhile, nZVI-PCBs coexposure synergistically stimulated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), along with the elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) in earthworms. Based on integrated metabolomic and 16S rRNA analysis, it was found that earthworms provided certain metabolites, e.g., S-(2-hydroxyethyl)glutathione, 16-hydroxypalmitic acid, and formamide, beneficial to PCB-degrading microbiota (Novosphingobium and Achromobacter) in the intestine. Our findings of nZVI-enhanced PCB bioaccumulation and the defense mechanism afforded by the earthworm-microbiota symbionts toward PCB-nZVI exposure show the promise of combining earthworms with nZVI for the remediation of PCBs-contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Oligoquetos , Bifenilos Policlorados , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Oligoquetos/fisiologia , Solo , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Ferro/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S
19.
J Hazard Mater ; 443(Pt B): 130330, 2023 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36372018

RESUMO

Biochar and earthworms can accelerate di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) degradation in soils. However, little is known regarding the effect of biochar-assisted vermicomposting on soil DEHP degradation and the underlying mechanisms. Therefore, the present study investigated DEHP degradation performance and bacterial community changes in farmland soils using earthworms, biochar, or their combination. Biochar-assisted vermicomposting significantly improved DEHP degradation through initial physical adsorption on biochar and subsequent rapid biodegradation in the soil, earthworm gut, and charosphere. Burkholderiaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Flavobacteriaceae were the potential DEHP degraders and were enriched in biochar-assisted vermicomposting. In particularly, Burkholderiaceae and Sphingomonadaceae were enriched in the earthworm gut and charosphere, possibly explaining the mechanism of accelerated DEHP degradation in biochar-assisted vermicomposting. Soil pH, soil organic matter, and humus (humic acid, fulvic acid, and humin) increased by earthworms or biochar enhanced DEHP degradation. These findings imply that biochar-assisted vermicomposting enhances DEHP removal not only through rapid physical sorption but also through the improvement of soil physicochemical characteristics and promotion of degraders in the soil, earthworm gut, and charosphere. Overall, biochar-assisted vermicomposting is a suitable method for the remediation of organic-contaminated farmland soils.


Assuntos
Dietilexilftalato , Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Solo , Dietilexilftalato/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Fazendas , Biodegradação Ambiental , Oligoquetos/metabolismo
20.
J Hazard Mater ; 442: 130034, 2023 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36206716

RESUMO

The toxicity of nanoplastics (NPs) at relatively low concentrations to soil fauna at different organismal levels is poorly understood. We investigated the responses of earthworm (Eisenia fetida) to polystyrene NPs (90-110 nm) contaminated soil at a relatively low concentration (0.02 % w:w) based on multi-omics, morphological, and intestinal microorganism analyses. Results showed that NPs accumulated in earthworms' intestinal tissues. The NPs damaged earthworms' digestive and immune systems based on injuries of the intestinal epithelium and chloragogenous tissues (tissue level) and increased the number of changed genes in the digestive and immune systems (transcriptome level). The NPs reduced gut microorganisms' diversity (Shannon index) and species richness (Chao 1 index). Proteomic, transcriptome, and histopathological analyses showed that earthworms suffered from oxidative and inflammatory stresses. Moreover, NPs influenced the osmoregulatory metabolism of earthworms as NPs damaged intestinal epithelium (tissue level), increased aldosterone-regulated sodium reabsorption (transcriptome level), inositol phosphate metabolism (proteomic level) and 2-hexyl-5-ethyl-furan-3-sulfonic acid, and decreased betaine and myo-inositol concentrations (metabolic level). Transcriptional-metabolic and transcriptional-proteomic analyses revealed that NPs disrupted earthworm carbohydrate and arachidonic acid metabolisms. Our multi-level investigation indicates that NPs at a relatively low concentration induced toxicity to earthworms and suggests that NPs pollution has significant environmental toxicity risks for soil fauna.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Proteômica , Betaína/metabolismo , Aldosterona/análise , Aldosterona/metabolismo , Ácido Araquidônico/metabolismo , Solo , Sódio , Ácidos Sulfônicos , Furanos , Carboidratos , Fosfatos de Inositol/metabolismo
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