Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 5.805
Filtrar
1.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 109: 171-180, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607666

RESUMO

Polymyxin B (PMB) is considered as the last line of antibiotic defense available to humans. The environmental effects of the combined pollution with PMB and heavy metals and their interaction mechanisms are unclear. We explored the effects of the combined pollution with PMB and arsenic (As) on the microbial composition of the soil and in the earthworm gut, as well as the spread and transmission of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The results showed that, compared with As alone, the combined addition of PMB and As could significantly increase the bioaccumulation factor and toxicity of As in earthworm tissues by 12.1% and 16.0%, respectively. PMB treatment could significantly increase the abundance of Actinobacteria in the earthworm gut (from 35.6% to 45.2%), and As stress could significantly increase the abundance of Proteobacteria (from 19.8% to 56.9%). PMB and As stress both could significantly increase the abundance of ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs), which were positively correlated, indicating that ARGs might be horizontally transferred. The inactivation of antibiotics was the main resistance mechanism that microbes use to resist PMB and As stress. Network analysis showed that PMB and As might have antagonistic effects through competition with multi-drug resistant ARGs. The combined pollution by PMB and As significantly promoted the relative abundance of microbes carrying multi-drug resistant ARGs and MGEs, thereby increasing the risk of transmission of ARGs. This research advances the understanding of the interaction mechanism between antibiotics and heavy metals and provides new theoretical guidance for the environmental risk assessment and combined pollution management.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Oligoquetos , Animais , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Arsênio/toxicidade , Genes Bacterianos , Polimixina B/toxicidade , Solo
2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247016, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495153

RESUMO

Pheretima posthuma (Vaillant, 1868), a native earthworm of Pakistan and Southeast Asia, has wide utilization in vermicomposting and bioremediation process. In this study, P. posthuma coelomic fluid (PCF) and body paste (PBP) was evaluated as antibacterial agent against ampicillin (AMP) resistant five Gram positive and four Gram negative clinical isolates. The antibacterial effect of different doses (i.e. 25-100 µg/ml) of PCF and PBP along with AMP and azithromycin (AZM) (negative and positive controls, respectively) were observed through disc diffusion and micro-dilution methods. All nine clinical isolates were noticed as AMP resistant and AZM sensitive. Antibacterial effects of PCF and PBP were dose dependent and zone of inhibitions (ZI) against all clinical isolates were between 23.4 ± 0.92 to 0 ± 00 mm. The sensitivity profile of PCF and PBP against clinical isolates was noticed as 44.44 and 55.56%, respectively. Both PCF and PBP showed bacteriostatic (BTS) action against S. aureus, S. pyogenes, K. pneumonia, N. gonorrhoeae. Moreover, the cumulative BTS potential of PCF and PBP against all isolates was 66.67 and 55.56%, respectively. The MICs of PCF and PBP were ranged from 50-200 µg/ml against selected isolates. The bacterial growth curves indicated that PCF and PBP inhibited the growth of all isolates at their specific MIC concentrations. However, PBP has better antibacterial potential compared to PCF against selected isolates. Therefore, it is concluded that both PCF and PBP of P. posthuma possess antibacterial and BTS potential against ampicillin resistant clinical isolates. This organism might be considered as a second choice of antibacterial agents and can further be utilized in pharmaceutical industries for novel drug manufacturing by prospecting bioactive potential agents.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Staphylococcus aureus , Ampicilina/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
3.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247562, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495155

RESUMO

To investigate the role of cow dung in soil reclamation and bio assimilation along with bio accumulation of heavy metals in earthworm (P. posthuma) (N=900) earthworms were used and treatment groups of CD-soil mixture of different proportion of cow dung were designed. Nonlethal doses of lead acetate and cadmium chloride were added in treatment groups. Mature P. posthuma were released in each experimental pot maintaining the favorable conditions. The pH, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, exchangeable cations, and heavy metal level of each mixture was evaluated. The results indicated that bio-assimilation of Pb and Cd by P. posthuma were significantly (P ˂ 0.01) higher in different soil-CD treatments compared to control. Highest bio-assimilation of both metals was observed in T1 of both groups (Pb = 563.8 mg/kg and Cd = 42.95 mg/kg). The contents of both metals were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) lowered in casting. The nutrient concentration in the final castings of all soil-CD treatments were also equally transformed from less or insoluble to more soluble and available for plants, except for carbon level which increased with CD proportion. It is concluded that cow dung as organic matter has a positive effect on soil reclamation and bio-assimilation of metals by P. posthuma.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Bioacumulação , Cádmio , Bovinos , Feminino , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo
4.
J Environ Manage ; 300: 113702, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517230

RESUMO

Composting and vermicomposting have attracted attention in relation to both waste management and the potential to produce organic amendments that could improve soil quality. The main differences between compost depend on the feedstock, the production process, and the degree of maturity. In the present study, samples of compost of different origin (food and green waste, livestock waste, algae waste, urban waste or sewage sludge) or subjected to different composting methods (traditional or using earthworms) were collected for analysis. Additionally, samples collected at various stages of the composting process were compared (raw material, 15 and 30 days of composting, and final compost). Different analysis and techniques were used to establish the chemical composition, physicochemical and acid-base properties of compost samples and the organic matter extracts. The correlations obtained (between the abundance of acid groups in different extracts of the compost or between the cation exchange capacity and the C/N atomic ratio) would allow for predicting the compost behaviour based on certain characteristics, and a reduction in the number of parameters determined experimentally, thus facilitating comparisons between different compost. In addition, the potential value of the compost as amendment was tested with a Haplic Cambisol from a mining area. The application of compost increased the pH, the organic matter and nutrient content, and promoted seed germination and root growth.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Oligoquetos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Animais , Esgotos , Solo
5.
Lab Anim (NY) ; 50(10): 285-294, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489599

RESUMO

Enchytraeids (Annelida) are soil invertebrates with worldwide distribution that have served as ecotoxicology models for over 20 years. We present the first high-quality reference genome of Enchytraeus crypticus, assembled from a combination of Pacific Bioscience single-molecule real-time and Illumina sequencing platforms as a 525.2 Mbp genome (910 gapless scaffolds and 18,452 genes). We highlight isopenicillin, acquired by horizontal gene transfer and conferring antibiotic function. Significant gene family expansions associated with regeneration (long interspersed nuclear elements), the innate immune system (tripartite motif-containing protein) and response to stress (cytochrome P450) were identified. The ACE (Angiotensin-converting enzyme) - a homolog of ACE2, which is involved in the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 cell entry - is also present in E. crypticus. There is an obvious potential of using E. crypticus as a model to study interactions between regeneration, the innate immune system and aging-dependent decline.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Oligoquetos , Animais , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário , Oligoquetos/genética , SARS-CoV-2 , Solo
6.
Aquat Toxicol ; 239: 105955, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500378

RESUMO

Oligochaetes feed on bulk sediment and penetrate the sediment through the construction of burrows, making them especially vulnerable to sediment metal contamination. However, the few oligochaete species that have been tested to date are almost exclusively temperate test species. Although the warmwater adapted species Branchiura sowerbyi has been indicated as a promising candidate for tropical sediment toxicity testing, few (especially chronic) studies have been conducted so far to confirm this. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the bioaccumulation and chronic 28d lethal and sublethal toxicity of arsenic (As) and zinc (Zn) to both the warmwater-adapted B. sowerbyi and the coldwater-adapted oligochaete Tubifex tubifex for comparison. Arsenic was more toxic to both oligochaete species than Zn. Inter- and intra-species variability in toxicity values of the two test species and other benthic invertebrates was within an order of magnitude. However, B. sowerbyi was the most sensitive species to As even for sediment concentration (EC50: 36.6 ± 2.1 µg/g and 147.1 ± 21.7 µg/g, for B. sowerbyi and T. tubifex, respectively) and for tissue concentration (ER50: 9.2 ± 0.9 µg/g and 887.0 ± 35.0 µg/g, for B. sowerbyi and T. tubifex, respectively). Finally, the Tissue Residue-effects Approach (TRA) using Effective Tissue Residues appears to be a promising way forward in advancing in this since it considers internal body concentrations.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Oligoquetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Arsênio/toxicidade , Bioacumulação , Sedimentos Geológicos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Zinco/toxicidade
7.
Nanoscale ; 13(35): 14666-14678, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533558

RESUMO

Assessing the risks of nanomaterials/nanoparticles (NMs/NPs) under various environmental conditions requires a more systematic approach, including the comparison of effects across many NMs with identified different but related characters/descriptors. Hence, there is an urgent need to provide coherent (eco)toxicological datasets containing comprehensive toxicity information relating to a diverse spectra of NPs characters. These datasets are test benches for developing holistic methodologies with broader applicability. In the present study we assessed the effects of a custom design Fe-doped TiO2 NPs library, using the soil invertebrate Enchytraeus crypticus (Oligochaeta), via a 5-day pulse via aqueous exposure followed by a 21-days recovery period in soil (survival, reproduction assessment). Obviously, when testing TiO2, realistic conditions should include UV exposure. The 11 Fe-TiO2 library contains NPs of size range between 5-27 nm with varying %Fe (enabling the photoactivation of TiO2 at energy wavelengths in the visible-light range). The NPs were each described by 122 descriptors, being a mixture of measured and atomistic model descriptors. The data were explored using single and univariate statistical methods, combined with machine learning and multiscale modelling techniques. An iterative pruning process was adopted for identifying automatically the most significant descriptors. TiO2 NPs toxicity decreased when combined with UV. Notably, the short-term water exposure induced lasting biological responses even after longer-term recovery in clean exposure. The correspondence with Fe-content correlated with the band-gap hence the reduction of UV oxidative stress. The inclusion of both measured and modelled materials data benefitted the explanation of the results, when combined with machine learning.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanopartículas , Oligoquetos , Animais , Aprendizado de Máquina , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Titânio/toxicidade
8.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125847, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492800

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are two classes of emerging and prevalent contaminants in terrestrial environments. To date, effects of MPs on the occurrence of ARGs in terrestrial invertebrates remain uncertain. Here we exposed earthworms to a soil amended with polystyrene MPs at two environmentally relevant concentrations to elucidate the occurrence and mechanisms of ARGs in earthworms impacted by MPs with different sizes. Nano-size and 10 mg/kg of 100 µm MPs slightly affected the occurrence of ARGs in earthworms. Highest abundance of ARGs was found in the presence of 10 mg/kg of 10 µm MPs, whereas 100 mg/kg of 10 µm MPs significantly changed the profile of ARGs. Metagenomics sequencing and toxicity tests indicated that MPs caused toxicity and influenced the abundance of microbial community in earthworms, resulting in the changes of ARGs. Results of proteomics and metabolomics demonstrated that 100 mg/kg of 10 µm MPs changed the microenvironment of earthworm gut, built a new homeostatic process, and thus increased the abundance of key bacterial that carried a variety of ARGs. This study highlights the size-dependent toxic effects of MPs and their impacts on the transfer of ARGs in terrestrial environments.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Oligoquetos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Genes Bacterianos , Oligoquetos/genética , Plásticos , Poliestirenos , Solo
9.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 126110, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492908

RESUMO

Antimony (Sb) contamination has brought great environmental problems to the surrounding soils. However, few studies focused on the response of bacterial communities in earthworm gut to Sb. Eisenia fetida was cultured in four soils with Sb contents (5,25,50,100 mg•kg-1) to investigate the distribution of Sb species in earthworm gut and the response mechanism of bacterial communities to Sb contamination. The results showed that Sb accumulated in the gut and tissues of earthworms, and the mortality of earthworms showed a dose-response relationship with the increase of Sb content. Sb(III) and Sbexe were the major species in gut, whereas Sb(V) and Sbsrp were predominant in surrounding soil. There were significant differences in bacterial diversity between earthworm gut and soil, but there was no significant between the two with different Sb content. The network constructed by gut bacterial community of earthworm was less stable and more sensitive to Sb species than that in soil. Sb(III) had the greatest influence on the gut bacterial community of earthworm, which not only directly affected the community through Xanthomonadaceae, Rhodomicrobiaceae and Anaerolineaceae, but also indirectly influenced through Chthoniobacteraceae. This study fills a research gap on the effect of Sb contamination on the gut bacterial community of earthworm.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Antimônio/toxicidade , Bioacumulação , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
10.
J Environ Manage ; 297: 113127, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346400

RESUMO

This study evaluated the combination of bioprocesses to increase the utilization of agro-industrial poultry wastes. Composting piles were submitted to hydration and fraction separation (FS) and then, the solid fraction was vermicomposted and the liquid fraction was anaerobically digested. Composting followed by hydration and FS prior to vermicomposting enhanced earthworm adaptation and survival by reducing salt levels (50%), total organic carbon, and total nitrogen which may be limiting to vermicomposting at high concentrations. These strategies providing the production of up to 300 new cocoons and 360 young earthworms more than the control treatment. In addition to providing a favorable environment for earthworm growth, the combination of bioprocesses resulted in a high-quality organic fertilizer free of phytotoxic compounds and with phytostimulant properties (germination index higher than 100%). Energy recovery was greater in the treatment without the precomposting step (T0) (461.8 L CH4 kg-1. Volatile Solidsadded). The results show that combining the bioprocesses is a sustainable alternative for managing poultry wastes not only in terms of the recycling of nutrients but also by providing a clean source of energy.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Oligoquetos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Anaerobiose , Animais , Resíduos Industriais , Aves Domésticas , Solo
11.
Waste Manag ; 134: 57-66, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416671

RESUMO

A mesocosm fermentation experiment was undertaken to investigate interactions between Eisenia fetida and Collembola affecting composting processes. Earthworms, Collembola, respiration, water soluble nutrients and compost characteristics (near infrared spectra - NIRS) were monitored on four occasions over 136 days. Earthworms were the main drivers of early changes in composts, increasing the general abundance of Collembola, although responses varied with species. Earthworms accelerated substrate mineralisation and release of soluble nutrients whilst also changing compost characteristics. Collembola alone had little direct effect on soluble nutrient concentrations or respiration; they did however alter compost characteristics (NIR spectra). Earthworm-Collembola interactions affecting respiration and soluble nutrients were mainly antagonistic in the early stages of composting but synergistic in later stages. In the later stages of composting, the higher abundance of Collembola when combined with earthworms resulted in greater concentrations of soluble nitrate and phosphate. These findings emphasise the importance in vermicomposting practice of different invertebrate groups having access to feedstock at appropriate stages of the process. The high concentrations of soluble nutrients released during vermicomposting indicate the need for control measures to avoid off-site pollution and loss of this resource.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Oligoquetos , Animais , Esterco , Nutrientes , Solo , Água
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112559, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333384

RESUMO

Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are a group of widespread persistent organic pollutants in the environment. Though the harmful effect of PAEs including activity inhibition of superoxide dismutase (SOD) to arouse oxidative stress were well documented, the deep insights into mechanisms that are relevant with SOD activity are still lacking. By 7d-cultivation of Eisenia fetida in artificially-polluted soil, the different active responses of SOD in earthworm were shown to PAE congeners. Despite the less bioaccumulation and bioavailability, the di-butyl phthalate (DBP) etc. structurally coupled with longer ester-chains appeared more effective to trigger the up-regulation and then the slight decline of SOD activity. Given the remarkable biotransformation especially for short-chain PAEs, the SOD activity response in earthworm should be regarded as joint effect with their metabolites, e.g. monophthalates (MAEs) and phthalic acid (PA). The in vitro SOD activity was shown with the obvious inhibition of 21.31% by DBP, 88.93% by MBP, and 58.57% by PA respectively when the concentrations were elevated up to 0.03 mM. The SOD activity inhibition confirmed the molecular binding with pollutants as an essential event besides the biological regulation for activity. The binding interaction was thermodynamically exothermic, spontaneous and strengthened primarily by Van der Waals force and hydrogen bonds, and was spectrally diagnosed with the conformational changes including diminution of α-helix content and spatial reorientation of fluorophore tryptophan. As coherently illustrated with the larger fluorescence quenching constants (3.65*104-4.47*104/mol) than DBP, the metabolites should be the priority concern due to stronger activity inhibition and toxicological risks.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Ácidos Ftálicos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Dibutilftalato/toxicidade , Ésteres , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Superóxido Dismutase
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 798: 149337, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340069

RESUMO

The continuous input of antibiotics due to frequent anthropogenic activities have increased the dissemination risk of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in forest soil. As soil engineers, it remains unclear whether earthworm intestinal microbial communities might play a role in controlling the ARG proliferation in forest soil. This study collected forest soil in the Yangtze River Delta, China, and its resident Metaphire guillelmi to investigate the interaction between tetracycline (50 µg kg-1) and the bacteria in worm gut and soil. Metagenome sequencing analysis indicated that the abundance of the total ARGs in both the soil (S2) and the worm gut (E2) was 1.3 (p < 0.001) and 1.2 (p < 0.001) times higher than the soil (S1) and (E1) without tetracycline exposure; and under tetracycline stress, the relative abundance of 36 and 20 bacterial genera in forest soil and worm gut were significantly increased respectively. However, the ARGs/ARB abundance decreased in the soil with the worm addition than that without, which may be related to the fact that earthworm intestinal bacteria harbored more tetracycline-degrading genes, i.e. dehydrogenase genes adh, ETFDH, and gpr, etc. Structural equation model analysis indicated that bacteria in worm intestinal has stronger ability to degrade tetracycline than in soil, and the main dissipate way was dehydrogenation. Together, the results contributed to understanding the promising role of worm intestinal bacteria in controlling the ARG risk caused by antibiotic disturbed forest soil.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Florestas , Solo , Resistência a Tetraciclina
14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(13): 3298-3302, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396748

RESUMO

Through literature analysis of Pheretima and its origin-related earthworm,this study summarized the progress on Pheretima in textual criticism of origin,origin identification,effective components,detection of harmful components,and pharmacological effects,which can lay a basis for further research on Pheretima. Through literature research,the authors found that Pheretima was first recorded in Secret Formulary for Traumatology and Fracture Taught by Immortal written by LIN Daoren in Tang Dynasty rather than the Taiping Holy Prescriptions for Universal Relief in Song Dynasty. The latest techniques for origin identification include microscopic trait identification,DNA barcoding,and HPLC. The main effective components of Pheretima are proteins,polypeptides,enzymes,nucleotides,amino acids,and trace elements. According to recent studies,Pheretima has anti-pulmonary and anti-renal interstitial fibrosis,respiratory syncytial virus-inhibiting,human hypertrophic scar fibroblast proliferation-suppressing,and mouse embryonic fibroblast proliferation-promoting effects. Moreover,Pheretima can prevent colitis-induced colon cancer by inhibiting the activation of COX-2/PGE2/ß-catenin signaling pathway. METHODS:: for detecting the harmful components and their residues( organic pollutant polychlorinated biphenyl,heavy metals) and bacteria in Pheretima,have been established. Pheretima,mainly derived from wild earthworms,has remarkable clinical efficacy. However,the wild resource is in short supply and artificial culture is expected to be a promising solution.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2 , DNA , Fibroblastos , Camundongos
15.
Environ Pollut ; 289: 117936, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391044

RESUMO

Pyrene (Pyr), a widely used tetracyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, enters soil in large quantities and causes environmental pollution due to its production and mining. In order to systematically study the biotoxicity of pyrene to model organisms Eisenia fetida in soil, experiments were carried out from four dimensions: animal, tissue, cell and molecule. Experimental results proved that the mortality rate increased with increasing concentration and time of exposure to pyrene, while the mean body weight and spawning rate decreased. Meanwhile, when the pyrene concentration reached 900 mg/kg, the seminal vesicle and longitudinal muscle of the earthworm showed obvious atrophy. Experimental results at the cellular level showed that pyrene induced cell membrane damage and Ca2+ influx triggered mitochondrial membrane depolarization and a surge in ROS levels. Oxidative stress causes damage to proteins and lipids and DNA inside cells. When the mortality rate was 91.67 %, the Olive Tail Movement (OTM) of the comet experiment reached 15. The results of molecular level tests showed that pyrene inhibited the activity of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) mainly by changing the microenvironment and secondary structure of amino acid Tyr 108. The weakened function of direct antioxidant enzymes may be the root cause of the excessive increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells. The systematic approach used in this study enriches the network of toxic pathways in toxicological studies, and basic data on the biological toxicity of pyrene can provide support for future soil contamination detection.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Pirenos/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
16.
Environ Pollut ; 289: 117743, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392100

RESUMO

Toxicokinetic studies appertain to the fundamental research of soil bioavailability. However, the research outcomes of aspects influencing uptake and elimination of hydrophobic organic compounds have not been summarized so far. In our review, a recapitulation of available toxicokinetic data (i.e. experimental conditions, if the steady state was reached, uptake and elimination rate constants, and bioaccumulation factors) is presented in well-arranged tables. Further, toxicokinetic models are overviewed in the schematic form. In the review, the required information could be quickly found and/or the experimental gaps easily identified. Generally a little is known about the effects of soil properties other than soil organic matter. Limited or no data are available about soil treatment, food supply during laboratory exposure, and metabolization in oligochaeta. The impact of these factors might be important especially for arable soils with typically low organic matter content but high consequences on humans. Besides these circumstances, other uncertainties between published studies have been found. Firstly, the scientific results are provided in heterogenous units: bioaccumulation factors as well as the rate constants are reported in dry or wet weight of soil and earthworms. The steady state is another critical factor because the time to reach the equilibrium is influenced not only by soil and compound characteristics but for example also by aging. Nevertheless, toxicokinetic studies bring irreplaceable information about the real situation in soil and our review help to define missing knowledge and estimate the scientific priorities.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Humanos , Compostos Orgânicos/toxicidade , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Toxicocinética
17.
Environ Pollut ; 289: 117954, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426187

RESUMO

Toxicokinetic (TK) model provides a new approach to mechanistically elucidate the natural variation of metal handling strategy by adaptive and sensitive earthworm populations. Here, TK model was applied to explore the metal handling and resistance strategy of wild Metaphire californica with different historical exposure history through a 12-day re-exposure and another 12-day elimination incubation. M. californica populations showed different kinetic strategies for non-essential metals (Cd and Pb) and essential metals (Zn and Cu), which were closely related to their exposure history. M. californica from the most serious Cd-contaminated soil showed the fastest kinetic rates of both Cd uptake (K1 = 0.78 gsoil/gworm/day) and elimination (K2 = 0.23 day-1), and also had the lowest Cd half-life (t1/2 = 3.01 day), which demonstrated the potential Cd-resistance of wild M. californica from Cd-contaminated soils. Besides, the comparative experiment showed totally different metal kinetics of laboratory Eisenia fetida from field M. californica, suggesting the impacts of distinct exposure history and species-specifical sensitivities. These findings provide a novel approach to identify and quantify resistance using TK model and also imply the risk of overlooking existing exposure background and interspecies extrapolation in eco-toxicological studies and risk assessments.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Toxicocinética
18.
Environ Pollut ; 289: 117965, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426208

RESUMO

As a novel brominated flame retardant (NBFR), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) has been poorly understood for the environmental fate and toxicity in terrestrial invertebrates. For the first time, the bioaccumulation, elimination, metabolism and detoxification of DBDPE in earthworms as well as its potential impacts on soil microbes were investigated. The results showed much higher DBDPE concentrations in casts than in earthworms. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) and elimination rate constant (ke) values were 0.028-0.213 (gdw, worm/gdw, soil) and 0.323-0.452 (day-1), respectively. The detoxifying enzymes (CYP450 and GST) could be induced by DBDPE within the range of exposure dosage, and the activities were significantly increased at 21 d (p < 0.05). The results were identified by GC-ECNI-MS, and it showed that at least eleven unknown peaks were separately observed in the earthworms, which were the biotransformation products of DBDPE in earthworms. Additionally, the damages, including skin shrinkage, setae impairment, and intercellular vacuolization, were clearly observed by SEM/TEM. Based on these data, DBDPE could accumulate in earthworms, yet, with low bioaccumulation ability. Moreover, DBDPE exposure resulted in minimal harmful impacts on microbial activities including microbial biomass C (MBC), Microbial basal respiration (MBR), Urease (US) activity and fluorescein diacetate hydrolase (FDA) activity (p < 0.05). Our findings would provide some essential information for interpreting the ecological risks of DBDPE in soil.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Bioacumulação , Bromobenzenos/toxicidade , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
19.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443534

RESUMO

Thrombosis is a disease that seriously endangers human health, with a high rate of mortality and disability. However, current treatments with thrombolytic drugs (such as recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator) and the oral anticoagulants (such as dabigatran and rivaroxaban) are reported to have a tendency of major or life-threatening bleeding, such as intracranial hemorrhage or massive gastrointestinal bleed with non-specific antidotes. In contrast, lumbrokinase is very specific to fibrin as a substrate and does not cause excessive bleeding. It can dissolve the fibrin by itself or convert plasminogen to plasmin by inducing endogenous t-PA activity to dissolve fibrin clots. Therefore, searching for potentially new therapeutic molecules from earthworms is significant. In this study, we first collected a strong fibrinolytic extract (PvQ) from the total protein of the Pheretima vulgaris with AKTA pure protein purification systems; its fibrinolytic bioactivity was verified by the fibrin plate assay and zebrafish thrombotic model of vascular damage. Furthermore, according to the cell culture model of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), the PvQ was proven to exhibit the ability to promote the secretion of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), which further illustrated that it has an indirect thrombolytic effect. Subsequently, extensive chromatographic techniques were applied to reveal the material basis of the extract. Fortunately, six novel earthworm fibrinolytic enzymes were obtained from the PvQ, and the primary sequences of those functional proteins were determined by LC-MS/MStranscriptome cross-identification and the Edman degradation assay. The secondary structures of these six fibrinolytic enzymes were determined by circular dichroism spectroscopy and the three-dimensional structures of these proteases were predicted by MODELLER 9.23 based on multi-template modelling. In addition, those six genes encoding blood clot-dissolving proteins were cloned from P. vulgaris by RT-PCR amplification, which further determined the accuracy of proteins primary sequences identifications and laid the foundation for subsequent heterologous expression.


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos/isolamento & purificação , Fibrinolíticos/farmacologia , Oligoquetos/química , Peptídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Trombose/patologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibrinólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibrinolíticos/química , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/citologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Peptídeo Hidrolases/química , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 794: 148802, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323779

RESUMO

Increasing attentions of agricultural straw-derived biochar on biological interactions in soil environment have been gained following the benefits obtained from its role of soil conditioner. However, scientific probing on its unintended effects on soil organisms remain largely understudied. In this study, an avoidance test and a 14-day of incubation experiment in earthworm Eisenia fetida were conducted in field soil amended with rice straw-derived biochar (RSB) to evaluate its eco-toxic effect. Results showed earthworms strongly avoided soil amended with RSB from 7.5% to 15% at statistically significant levels. Subsequent 14-day incubation experiment with RSB rates up to 5% without avoidance responses showed these doses did not cause statistically significant difference in relative growth rate and survival rate regardless of incubation time of 7 or 14 d. Data obtained from 5% RSB application not only led to decrease in activities of digestion-related enzymes including Na+-K+-ATPase and cellulose, but facilitated some abnormities of intestinal epithelial tissue. Meanwhile, skin structure deterioration mainly related to upper stratum corneum appeared both in 2.5% and 5% amendments application. Additionally, RSB usage rates up to 2.5% and 5% also led to significant decrease in ROS and MDA but accompanied with unaffected antioxidant enzymes of SOD and CAT. Even importantly, only 5% amendment induced coelomocyte DNA damage supported by increased values of tail DNA% and OTM. Our research identified statistical effect thresholds related to RSB application rates and suggests that lower amendment with RSB no more than 1% have no eco-toxic effect on earthworms Eisenia fetida, whereas some adverse impact mainly found in higher addition up to 5%, which provide safe supporting for usual loading of soil with lower rates of RSB as soil conditioner to soil organisms in practice production.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Carvão Vegetal/toxicidade , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...