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1.
Carbohydr Polym ; 219: 269-279, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151525

RESUMO

The protective mechanism of chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) against lipopolysaccharides (LPS) -induced inflammatory responses in IPEC-J2 and in mice with DSS dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) -induced colitis is reported. Upon exposure to LPS, the proliferation rate of IPEC-J2 cells markedly decreased, and epithelial cell integrity was compromised. However, COS pretreatment significantly reduced these changes. Low-concentration (200 µg/mL) COS up-regulated Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear p65 expression, but inhibited LPS-induced expression of nuclear p65, IL-6, and IL-8. Addition of the TLR4 inhibitor reduced nuclear p65, IL-6, and IL-8 expression in IPEC-J2 cells exposed to COS or LPS alone, and a slight up-regulation in nuclear p65 was observed in COS and LPS co-treated cells. Medium-dose COS (600 mg/kg/d) protected against DSS-induced colitis, in which TLR4 and nuclear p65 expression levels were decreased. We postulate that the prevention of both LPS- and DSS -induced inflammatory responses in IPEC-J2 cells and mice by COS are related to the inhibition of the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Quitosana/farmacologia , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Sulfato de Dextrana/química , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/química , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 180(1): 10-16, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shrimp-derived allergen has a serious impact on people's health. Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) has anti-allergic action but its function on shrimp allergen-induced allergy and related molecular mechanisms remain unclear. METHODS: COS and its degrees of polymerization (DP) were selected to interact with shrimp tropomyosin (TM) and IgE was measured. A mouse model of food allergy was established by receiving shrimp TM intraperitoneally. The models were treated with different concentrations of COS. Fecal and serum histamine, serum IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a, and inflammatory cytokines were measured. RESULTS: The main products for COS were DP2-6 with the contents of 6, 40, 26, 16, and 4%, respectively, and reacted with shrimp TM increasingly when COS DP was increased. Severe symptoms of food allergy were observed in the TM group (diarrhea, anaphylactic response, and rectal temperature). In contrast, COS treatment improved these symptoms significantly (p < 0.05). The sensitized mice were desensitized after they were treated with 1 mg/kg COS. COS treatment significantly reduced serum IgE and IgG1 levels, and increased IgG2a levels (p < 0.05). COS consumption decreased fecal and serum histamine. COS treatment reduced Th2 cytokine (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) levels and increased the Th1 cytokine (IFN-γ) level (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: COS showed anti-allergy properties by regulating the levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Antialérgicos/farmacologia , Quitosana , Crustáceos , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Tropomiosina/imunologia , Animais , Antialérgicos/química , Quitosana/química , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/tratamento farmacológico , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/metabolismo , Liberação de Histamina/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Camundongos , Oligossacarídeos/química , Fenótipo , Células Th1/metabolismo , Células Th2/metabolismo
3.
Life Sci ; 231: 116589, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226416

RESUMO

AIMS: Despite the protective effect of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) on human colon has been widely-reported, the mechanism of its beneficial effect is still unclear. This paper aims to reveal the internal mechanism underlined the anti-colitis effect of GOS by studying its regulatory effect on miRNAs. MAIN METHODS: An in vitro model of colitis was constructed by using human colon epithelial FHC cells and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). An in vivo colitis model was established as well, by injecting Rag2-/- Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with helicobacter hepaticus. The effects of GOS pre-treatment on these two models were tested, and the miRNAs involved in these effects were studied. KEY FINDINGS: The expression of miR-19b, miR-590-5p and miR-495 was up-regulated, and the expression of miR-29a, miR-31 and miR-142-5p was down-regulated by GOS treatment in both normal and LPS-stimulated FHC cells. Among which, miR-19b was the most varied miRNA. GOS pre-treatment significantly attenuated LPS-induced cell injury, as evidenced by the increase of cell viability, the decrease of apoptosis, as well as the suppressed release of TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-1ß. GOS pre-treatment could also prevent Rag2-/- rats against helicobacter hepaticus injection induced diarrhea and inflammation, as the body weight and colon organ weight were recovered, diarrhea score was declined, and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines was inhibited. The in vitro and in vivo effects of GOS abovementioned were all impeded when miR-19b was silenced. SIGNIFICANCE: In vitro and in vivo experiments showed that GOS have certain anti-colitis effect, and this effect may be achieved by up-regulating miR-19b.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/genética , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colite/genética , Colite/fisiopatologia , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ativação Transcricional/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(26): 7297-7303, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31244198

RESUMO

3,6-Anhydro-l-galactose (AHG) produced from agarose in red macroalgae was recently suggested as an anticariogenic sugar to replace widely used xylitol. However, the multi-step process for obtaining monomeric sugar AHG from agarose may be expensive. Generally, it is easier to obtain oligosaccharides than monosaccharides from polysaccharides. Therefore, a one-step process to obtain agarobiose (AB) from agarose was recently developed, and here, we suggest AB as a new anticariogenic agent, owing to its anticariogenic activity against Streptococcus mutans. Among AHG-containing oligosaccharides, AB, neoagarobiose (NAB), agarooligosaccharides (AOSs), and neoagarooligosaccharides (NAOSs), AB showed higher inhibitory activity than AOSs against the growth and lactic acid production of S. mutans; no such inhibitory activity was observed for NAB and NAOSs. This inhibitory effect of AB was comparable to the previously reported inhibitory activity of AHG against S. mutans. These results suggest that AB, which can be more economically and simply produced than AHG, may serve as an anticariogenic sugar.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Dissacarídeos/farmacologia , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rodófitas/química , Alga Marinha/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Dissacarídeos/química , Dissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Oligossacarídeos/química , Oligossacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus mutans/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
Carbohydr Polym ; 216: 97-106, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31047086

RESUMO

Here, we identified inulin-type oligosaccharides with 3-13 degrees of polymerization from Morinda officinalis. Radical-scavenging assays showed that Inulins 4-7 had modest anti-oxidative effects. Inulins 4 and 5 dose-dependently increased human umbilical vein endothelial cell survival during hypoxia/re-oxygenation (H/R)-induced injury, and Inulin 5 promoted angiogenesis. Triplicate assays with the Affymetrix Human Transcriptome Array 2.0 showed that Inulin 5 exposure up-regulated genes associated with cell cycle progression, apoptosis, DNA replication and repair, ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)-signaling pathway. Flow cytometry, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and western blot experiments verified the microarray results and demonstrated that Inulin 5 influenced cell cycle progression and the PI3K-protein kinase B (PKB)-endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) pathway. Thus, inulin-type oligosaccharides from M. officinalis roots may protect against H/R-induced injury, primarily through an anti-oxidative effect, and promote angiogenesis by activating the PI3K-PKB-eNOS-signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Hipóxia/tratamento farmacológico , Inulina/farmacologia , Morinda/química , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Indutores da Angiogênese/isolamento & purificação , Indutores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Sequência de Carboidratos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/isolamento & purificação , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Inulina/isolamento & purificação , Peso Molecular , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(6): e1900192, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107589

RESUMO

Five new trans-2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene 2-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside (TSG)-based stilbene glycoside oligomers (1-5) were isolated from the roots of Polygonum multiflorum. Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses and chemical evidences. The absolute configurations of 1, 2, 4, and 5 were established by quantum-chemical electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Putative biosynthetic pathways of 1-5 were proposed using TSG as the key precursor. In addition, compounds 1 (multiflorumiside H) and 3 (multiflorumiside J) exhibited moderate inhibitory activities against NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells.


Assuntos
Fallopia multiflora/química , Glicosídeos/química , Oligossacarídeos/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Estilbenos/química , Animais , Dicroísmo Circular , Fallopia multiflora/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Conformação Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7
7.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 89: 564-573, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991148

RESUMO

Prebiotics has been known to be growth promoter and immunostimulant in aquatic animals. In this study, we investigated the effects of prebiotics on growth performance, intestinal microbiota, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production and immune response of the marine fish, juvenile chu's croaker (Nibea coibor). The fish were fed IG (including 0.5% inulin and 0.5% GOS), GS (0.5% GOS and 0.5% D-sorbitol), IGS (0.33% inulin, 0.33% GOS and 0.33% D-sorbitol) or control diets for 8 weeks. The results showed that the growth performance of the fish was promoted by IG and GS, but not by IGS. The intestinal microbiota in NDC (non-digestible carbohydrates, NDC)-supplemented groups was clearly separated from that of the control, and the highest Shannon and Simpson diversity indices were observed in the IGS group. In the intestine of the croaker, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes were dominant; among them, 24 taxa revealed a significant difference among groups. Most of these bacteria are able to produce SCFAs, which were significantly increased in all NDC-supplemented groups. Moreover, NDCs were found to activate the immune system of the fish by modulating the serum complements, cytokine levels, lysozyme activities and antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, the results of this study revealed correlations among intestinal microbiota, SCFAs production, innate immunity, antioxidant capacity and digestive enzymes in the croaker fed NDCs. Taken together, our results demonstrated that NDC mixtures might promote growth performance, antioxidant capacity and immune responses of the croaker through modulating the composition of intestinal microbiota and the subsequent SCFAs production, which suggest that NDCs were efficient feed additives for marine fish.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Perciformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perciformes/imunologia , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Inulina/administração & dosagem , Inulina/farmacologia , Oligossacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Perciformes/microbiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Sorbitol/administração & dosagem , Sorbitol/farmacologia
8.
Mar Drugs ; 17(4)2019 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934713

RESUMO

Apostichopus japonicus is one of the most economically important species in sea cucumber aquaculture in China. Fucosylated glycosaminoglycan from A. japonicus (AjFG) has shown multiple pharmacological activities. However, results from studies on the structure of AjFG are still controversial. In this study, the deaminative depolymerization method that is glycosidic bond-selective was used to prepare the depolymerized products from AjFG (dAjFG), and then a series of purified oligosaccharide fragments such as tri-, hexa-, nona-, and dodecasaccharides were obtained from dAjFG by gel permeation chromatography. The 1D/2D NMR and ESI-MS spectrometry analyses showed that these oligosaccharides had the structural formula of l-FucS-α1,3-d-GlcA-ß1,3-{d-GalNAc4S6S-ß1,4-[l-FucS-α1,3-]d-GlcA-ß1,3-}n-d-anTal-diol4S6S (n = 0, 1, 2, 3; FucS represents Fuc2S4S, Fuc3S4S, or Fuc4S). Thus, the unambiguous structure of native AjFG can be rationally deduced: it had the backbone of {-4-d-GlcA-ß1,3-d-GalNAc4S6S-ß1-}n, which is similar to chondroitin sulfate E, and each d-GlcA residue in the backbone was branched with a l-FucS monosaccharide at O-3. Bioactivity assays confirmed that dAjFG and nonasaccharides and dodecasaccharides from AjFG had potent anticoagulant activity by intrinsic FXase inhibition while avoiding side effects such as FXII activation and platelet aggregation.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Glicosaminoglicanos/química , Glicosaminoglicanos/farmacologia , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Stichopus/química , Animais , Anticoagulantes/química , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Sequência de Carboidratos , Fator XII/metabolismo , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Oligossacarídeos/química , Tempo de Tromboplastina Parcial , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
9.
Vet Med Sci ; 5(3): 435-441, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30969029

RESUMO

Different supplements or strategies have been proposed as alternatives to the use of antibiotics at sub-therapeutic levels in chickens. Mannan oligosaccharides and ß-glucans, yeast cell wall fractions (YCW), have been reported to beneficially influence broiler performance and health. Two differently produced yeast cell wall fractions derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae were evaluated in this study using two different supplementation strategies offered to full-term broilers. The birds were placed in floor pens on used pine-shaving litter to increase potential microbial stress and mimic industry practice. The study utilized a three-phase feeding program with a 1- to 21-day starter, 21- to 35-day grower and 35- to 42-day finisher phases. Five dietary treatments were compared in this study. The experimental diets consisted of a control basal broiler diet; or the basal diet supplemented with the two differently produced fractions of YCW. The YCW products were supplemented at a constant 250 ppm or a decreasing concentration program (500, 250, 125 ppm) throughout the three feeding phases. Birds fed diets supplemented with either YCW products at any inclusion regimen demonstrated higher (P < 0.05) body weight (BW) in all three phases than control birds. The difference in final 42-day BW of the YCW treatments (3041 g) averaged 165 g higher (P < 0.05) than the control group. For all YCW treatments, productivity index was higher (P < 0.05) in the grower (418) and finisher phase (441) versus control birds (389 grower and 415 finisher). These results suggested that both YCW fractions prepared from Saccharomyces cerevisiae can improve broiler performance when added at either a constant rate (250 ppm) or at a decreasing rate from 500 ppm for the starter to 125 ppm for the finisher phase.


Assuntos
Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Mananas/farmacologia , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Prebióticos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/química , Dieta/veterinária , Distribuição Aleatória
10.
Mar Drugs ; 17(4)2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974812

RESUMO

Chitosanase has attracted great attention due to its potential applications in medicine, agriculture, and nutraceuticals. In this study, P. mucilaginosus TKU032, a bacterial strain isolated from Taiwanese soil, exhibited the highest chitosanase activity (0.53 U/mL) on medium containing shrimp heads as the sole carbon and nitrogen (C/N) source. Using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis, a chitosanase isolated from P. mucilaginosus TKU032 cultured on shrimp head medium was determined at approximately 59 kDa. The characterized chitosanase showed interesting properties with optimal temperature and thermal stability up to 70 °C. Three chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) fractions were isolated from hydrolyzed colloidal chitosan that was catalyzed by TKU032 chitosanase. Of these, fraction I showed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitor (aGI) activity (65.86% at 20 mg/mL); its inhibitory mechanism followed the mixed noncompetitive inhibition model. Fractions II and III exhibited strong 2,2-diphenyl1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (79.00% at 12 mg/mL and 73.29% at 16 mg/mL, respectively). In summary, the COS fractions obtained by hydrolyzing colloidal chitosan with TKU032 chitosanase may have potential use in medical or nutraceutical fields due to their aGI and antioxidant activities.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Biológicos/biossíntese , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Oligossacarídeos/biossíntese , Paenibacillus/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Biocatálise , Fatores Biológicos/farmacologia , Quitosana/metabolismo , Crustáceos/química , Ensaios Enzimáticos/métodos , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Paenibacillus/isolamento & purificação , Estabilidade Proteica , Microbiologia do Solo , Especificidade por Substrato , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
11.
Food Funct ; 10(4): 1856-1869, 2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950465

RESUMO

Grape pomace (GP) is a major byproduct worldwide, and it is well known for its bioactive compounds, such as fibers and phenolic compounds, that are popular for their impact upon human health, including gastrointestinal health. The objective of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition and biological activities of an enzymatic GP extract, as well as to investigate how gastrointestinal digestion (GID) modulates these properties. GP extract was previously produced using an enzymatic cocktail with xylanase activity and was then exposed to simulated conditions of GID, characterized for its chemical composition, and screened for antimicrobial, prebiotic, and antioxidant activities. The safety of this ingredient after GID was also assessed. GP extract presented high contents of dietary fiber and other carbohydrates, including xylooligosaccharides, in addition to minerals and phenolic compounds. In vitro simulated GID revealed that xylobiose was resistant to gastric conditions, unlike phenolic compounds. The use of 2% (w/v) of this ingredient proved to be a potential carbon source that could be fermented by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium spp, even after digestion. The extract also exhibited strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; however, after GID, the antioxidant capacity decreased, and the antimicrobial capacity was strongly reduced or lost. Furthermore, the extract safety was also guaranteed on Caco-2 intestinal cells. This novel and green GP extract proved to be composed of relevant bioactive molecules, including xylooligosaccharides, polyphenols, organic acids, and minerals, which provided different biological properties; it has potential applications in the food industry such that it can be used as an ingredient in the development of new functional foods.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Vitis/química , Resíduos/análise , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bifidobacterium/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Digestão , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Fermentação , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Glucuronatos/química , Glucuronatos/metabolismo , Glucuronatos/farmacologia , Humanos , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/química , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitis/metabolismo
12.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 114: 108821, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951951

RESUMO

Dragon fruit oligosaccharide (DFO) has a prebiotic property which improves gut health by selectively stimulating the colonic microbiota. Altering microbiota composition may affect intestinal motility. However, no study has been done to understand the DFO effects on gut motor functions. This research thus aimed to investigate the DFO effects on mice colons compared to the prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) and probiotic bifidobacteria. The mice in this study received distilled water; 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg DFO; 1000 mg/kg FOS; or 109 CFU Bifidobacterium animalis daily for 1 week and some treatments for 2 weeks. Gastrointestinal transits were analysed and motility patterns, smooth muscle (SM) contractions and morphological structures of the colons were assessed. Administration of FOS, 500 and 1000 mg/kg DFO significantly increased fecal output when compared to the control group. In mice treated with FOS and bifidobacteria, gut transit time was reduced, while upper gut transit was increased in comparison to DFO groups. Spatiotemporal maps of colonic wall motions showed that DFO increased the number of colonic non-propagation contractions and fecal pellet velocity, consistent with the results from groups treated with FOS and bifidobacteria. DFO also increased the amplitude and duration of colonic SM contractions. Histological stains showed normal epithelia, crypts, goblet cells, and SM thickness in all groups. In conclusion, DFO increased colonic SM contractions without morphological change and acted as a bulk-forming and stimulant laxative to increase fecal output and intestinal motility. Thus, DFO as a dietary supplement may promote gut health and correct gastrointestinal motility disorders.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Bifidobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/administração & dosagem
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(16): 16274-16278, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977003

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces boulardii, oregano, and calcium montmorillonite on the physical growth, intestinal histomorphology, and blood metabolites in Salmonella-challenged birds during the finisher phase. In this study, a total of 600 chicks (Ross 308) were randomly distributed into the following dietary treatments: basal diet with no treatment; infected with Salmonella; T1, infected + avilamycin; T2, infected + Bacillus subtilis; T3, Saccharomyces boulardii; T4, infected + oregano; T5, infected + calcium montmorillonite. Our results indicated that feed consumption, body weight gain, total body weight, and feed conversion ratio increased significantly (P < 0.01) in T1 and T2. Villus width increased significantly (P < 0.01) in T1 while the total area was significantly (P < 0.01) higher in T1 and T2 among the treatment groups. Blood protein was significantly (P < 0.01) high in T3 and T4; however, the glucose concentration was significantly (P < 0.01) high in T2, T3, and T4. The treatments increased significantly (P< 0.01) in the treatment groups compared to the negative control. Aspirate aminotransferase (AST) was significantly (P < 0.05) low in T3 compared to the positive control. In conclusion, the results indicated that supplementation of Bacillus subtilis and calcium montmorillonite improved the production performance compared to other feed additives in broiler chicks infected with Salmonella during the finisher phase.


Assuntos
Bentonita/farmacologia , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Origanum , Salmonelose Animal/dietoterapia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bacillus subtilis , Sangue/metabolismo , Sangue/microbiologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio/farmacologia , Galinhas/metabolismo , Galinhas/microbiologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/patologia , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Saccharomyces boulardii , Salmonelose Animal/metabolismo , Salmonella enterica/patogenicidade , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue
14.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 83(7): 1227-1238, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021705

RESUMO

Here we have explored the effect of neoagarotetraose (NAT) on liver injury caused by intense exercise. Our results showed that NAT treatment obviously decreased liver weight (p < 0.01), improved the liver morphological structure, decreased ALT level (p < 0.05) and endotoxin (LPS) (p < 0.01). In addition, NAT could regulate bile acid profiles in feces and serum of mice, which indicated the potential of liver function, suggesting that NAT was effective to relieve intense exercise-induced liver injury. NAT could regulate the expression of colon genes. NAT tended to alter the microbial composition of mice under intense exercise. We uncovered the network interactions between liver traits and microbial communities in NAT treatment mice. Interestingly, our data indicated that intense exercise-induced liver injury may be related to Clostridiales. In summary, these results demonstrated that NAT relieved liver injury induced by intense exercise may be related to gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Galactosídeos/farmacologia , Fígado/lesões , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Administração Oral , Animais , Colo/metabolismo , Galactosídeos/administração & dosagem , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Oligossacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Transcriptoma
15.
Carbohydr Polym ; 214: 303-310, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926001

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate the anti-obesity effects of chondroitin sulfate (CS) oligosaccharides obtained from cartilage of the skate Raja pulchra and to compare them with those of CSs of other molecular weights (MWts) (skate CS polysaccharides) and origins (shark CS, bovine CS). CSs suppressed pancreatic lipase activity as well as proliferation and lipid accumulation in mature adipocytes. Higher MWt CS had a greater lipase inhibitory activity than lower MWt CS. CSs of different origin show differing potencies for lipase inhibition and effects on adipocytes. Also, dietary intake of skate CS oligosaccharides could ameliorate obesity in high-fat diet mice model: it prevented gaining in body weight, liver weight and adipose tissue weight, maintained lower food consumption, inhibited intestinal absorption of triglyceride, and adjusted the serum endotoxin level. In conclusion, skate CS oligosaccharides have an anti-obesity activity, and the MWt and origin of the CSs may affect this activity.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Sulfatos de Condroitina/uso terapêutico , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Oligossacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/química , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Bovinos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfatos de Condroitina/química , Sulfatos de Condroitina/farmacologia , Endotoxinas/análise , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Lipase/antagonistas & inibidores , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Oligossacarídeos/química , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Tubarões , Raias , Suínos
16.
Carbohydr Res ; 475: 56-64, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30836261

RESUMO

The activity of eukaryote hydrolase-type of hyaluronidases was studied using a miniaturized capillary electrophoresis (CE) assay developed in our laboratory. Few nanoliters of reagents are sufficient and no labeling is required for this assay. The effect of natural and original synthetic effectors of hyaluronidase was evaluated. These di- and trisaccharides from linkage region of proteoglycans were synthesized in 30-40 steps from monomeric units using classical protection, deprotection, glycosylation and deoxygenation reactions. The influence of the chain length (di/trisaccharide), the modification type (methoxy/deoxy) and its position (2/4/6) was studied. The inhibition and/or activation percentages were determined at two concentrations of effectors; 0.2 mM and 2 mM. The half maximal effective concentration (EC50) values were evaluated (n = 2) for the most effective inhibitors (∼1 mM) and activators (∼0.2 mM). Results showed that hyaluronidase was mostly inhibited in a concentration-dependent fashion by a deoxy modification and activated by a methoxy modification. Trisaccharides were found to be more effective on hyaluronidase activity than disaccharides. Position 4 was found to be more favorable for hyaluronidase activity than position 6 and the activity in position 2 was negligible. For a better understanding of the enzyme function mode, the inhibition constant (Ki) was also evaluated by CE (Ki ∼ 2 mM). These results are of great interest especially as few activators of hyaluronidase are presented in the literature.


Assuntos
Eletroforese Capilar , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Configuração de Carboidratos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Humanos , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
17.
Microb Pathog ; 129: 277-283, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825501

RESUMO

To investigate the temperature requirements of chitosanase activity, as well as the degradation patterns generated by enzyme-induced chitosan oligomer hydrolysis, Pedobacter sp. PR-M6 was inoculated onto 0.5% colloidal chitosan medium agar plates. Cell growth was higher at 30 °C than at 20 °C during the initial 2 days of incubation. The protein content rapidly increased on day 1 at both temperatures and then it slowly increased at 20 °C and slowly decreased at 30 °C during the following 5 days of incubation. In order to characterize the electrophoretic pattern, Pedobacter sp. PR-M6 was cultured in 1% powder chitosan medium at 20 °C and 30 °C for 5 days after incubation and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Four bands were visible, corresponding to ct1 (25 kDa), ct2 (17 kDa), ct3 (15 kDa), and ct4 (14 kDa), at both 20 °C and 30 °C. The optimal conditions for the activity of chitosanase produced from Pedobacter sp. PR-M6 were 60 °C and 1.81 enzyme units/mg protein. Two major isozyme bands (ct3 and ct4) exhibited their strongest chitosanase activity at 50 °C in SDS-PAGE gel. The reaction products generated from (GlcN)2-(GlcN)5 substrates at 60 °C after a 1 h incubation were investigated by thin-layer chromatography. Low-molecular weight chitosan and oligochitosan (LCOC) and soluble chitosan showed antifungal activity against A. brassicicola, B. cinerea, F. solani, and R. solani. LCOC exhibited higher antifungal activity than soluble chitosan. Moreover, LCOC treatments (500 ppm and 1000 ppm) inhibited conidia germination in A. brassicicola.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Oligossacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Pedobacter/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Bactérias/análise , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Quitosana/metabolismo , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Meios de Cultura/química , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Peso Molecular , Pedobacter/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteoma/análise , Temperatura Ambiente , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Mar Drugs ; 17(3)2019 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30818840

RESUMO

In tumor development, the degradation of heparan sulfate (HS) by heparanase (HPSE) is associated with cell-surface and extracellular matrix remodeling as well as the release of HS-bound signaling molecules, allowing cancer cell migration, invasion and angiogenesis. Because of their structural similarity with HS, sulfated polysaccharides are considered a promising source of molecules to control these activities. In this study, we used a depolymerisation method for producing λ-carrageenan oligosaccharides (λ-CO), with progressive desulfation over time. These were then used to investigate the influence of polymeric chain length and degree of sulfation (DS) on their anti-HPSE activity. The effects of these two features on λ-CO anticoagulant properties were also investigated to eliminate a potential limitation on the use of a candidate λ-CO as a chemotherapeutic agent. HPSE inhibition was mainly related to the DS of λ-CO, however this correlation was not complete. On the other hand, both chain length and DS modulated λ-CO activity for factor Xa and thrombin IIa inhibition, two enzymes that are involved in the coagulation cascade, and different mechanisms of inhibition were observed. A λ-carrageenan oligosaccharide of 5.9 KDa was identified as a suitable anticancer candidate because it displayed one of the lowest anticoagulant properties among the λ-CO produced, while showing a remarkable inhibitory effect on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell migration.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carragenina/farmacologia , Glucuronidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Anticoagulantes/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carragenina/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Feminino , Glucuronidase/metabolismo , Heparitina Sulfato/metabolismo , Humanos , Oligossacarídeos/química
19.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 103(3): 935-946, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30801843

RESUMO

A 42-day trial was conducted to investigate the effect of pectin oligosaccharides (POS) and zinc chelate (Zn-POS) on growth performance, antioxidant ability, zinc status, intestinal morphology and short-chain fatty acids in broilers. A total of 324 1-day-old Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to three treatments with six cages of 18 chicks. Treatments were: (a) Control, 80 mg/kg Zn from ZnSO4 ; (b) POS, 80 mg/kg Zn from ZnSO4 + 482 mg/kg POS (the same amount of POS as treatment 3); and (c) Zn-POS, 80 mg/kg zinc from Zn-POS. Compared to the Control, both POS and Zn-POS supplementation increased average daily gain and reduced the mortality during day 22-42, and only Zn-POS supplementation decreased the ratio of feed to gain during day 22-42 and 1-42. Moreover, both POS and Zn-POS supplementation improved Zn status and gut function as evidenced by increased metallothionein concentrations in the pancreas, villus height in the duodenum and isobutyrate concentrations in the caecal digesta. Additionally, Zn-POS supplementation increased gene expressions of metallothionein, Zn transporter 1, Zn transporter 2 in the pancreas, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 in the liver, the concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate and total SCFA in the caecal digesta and the villus height to crypt depth ratio in the duodenum and jejunum, whereas decreased the crypt depth in these two tissues. Altogether, our results revealed that dietary POS or Zn-POS supplementation benefited growth performance, Zn status, antioxidant ability and gut function of broilers. Supplementing Zn-POS in the form of chelate was more effective than feeding POS or ZnSO4 separately.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Pectinas/farmacologia , Compostos de Zinco/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/sangue , Feminino , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Oligossacarídeos/química , Pectinas/química , Distribuição Aleatória , Compostos de Zinco/química
20.
Benef Microbes ; 10(3): 279-291, 2019 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773928

RESUMO

Beneficial modulation of the gut microbiota is an attractive therapeutic approach to improve the efficacy of vaccine-induced immunity. In this study, mice were supplemented with the prebiotic milk oligosaccharide 2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL) as well as a complex mixture of immune modulatory prebiotic short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS) from different stages in early life. Adult mice were vaccinated with trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) and both development of the gut microbiota and antibody-mediated vaccine responses were followed over time. Within the control group, female mice demonstrated a larger antibody response to TIV vaccination than male mice, which was accompanied by enhanced cytokine production by splenocytes and a higher percentage of plasma cells in skin draining lymph nodes. In addition, the prebiotic diet improved vaccine-specific antibody responses in male mice. Introduction of prebiotics into the diet modulated the gut microbiota composition and at the genus level several bacterial groups showed a significant interaction effect which potentially contributed to the immunological effects observed. This study provides insight in the effect of scGOS/lcFOS/2'FL in influenza vaccination antibody production.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Prebióticos , Animais , Anticorpos/sangue , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Biodiversidade , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Oligossacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Fatores Sexuais
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