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1.
Zootaxa ; 4728(4): zootaxa.4728.4.9, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229889

RESUMO

Microcurgus samedensis is described from Northern Oman by a single female. It represents the first record of the genus from the Arabian Peninsula. A key to females from the Palearctic region is given.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Animais , Feminino , Omã
2.
Zootaxa ; 4750(1): zootaxa.4750.1.3, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230052

RESUMO

Silhouettea ghazalae sp. nov. is described from Qeshm Island, Persian Gulf. Silhouettea ghazalae sp. nov. is distinguished from congeners by having: small mental fold present on chin, head length 31.4-32.4% of standard length, head width 24.5% of standard length, second dorsal fin I/11, anal fin I/13, breast with large cycloid scales, predorsal area naked, suborbital row b anteriorly beginning below anterior edge of pupil, posteriorly ending below pore ß, suborbital row c anteriorly extending more than row b and posteriorly extending less than row b, suborbital row cp oblique with four papillae, body with four ill-defined midlateral blotches and the fifth a triangular mark on the caudal fin base, no clearly defined pale saddles on back, and the first dorsal fin pigmented with dots and with dark blotch present anteriorly. A key to Silhouettea species is provided. A dataset including novel and publicly available mtDNA COI sequences of 12 species from the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea gobies belonging to eight genera have been assembled in order to provide a reference dataset for DNA barcoding studies. The new species is further characterised by a minimum K2P distance of 21% to its closest relatives in our dataset, Cabillus tongarevae in the mtDNA COI barcode region.


Assuntos
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Perciformes , Animais , Oceano Índico , Irã (Geográfico) , Ilhas , Omã , Perciformes/genética
3.
Zootaxa ; 4748(3): zootaxa.4748.3.1, 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230060

RESUMO

A recent study (Simon et al. 2019) confirmed that Spirobranchus kraussii is neither a widely distributed tropical species of Indo-Pacific origin nor a Lessepsian migrant to the Mediterranean, but a large complex of species, some of which might be indeed invasive. Thus, a common intertidal gregarious serpulid, previously attributed to S. kraussii in the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman, is described herein as Spirobranchus sinuspersicus sp. nov., using a combination of morphological and molecular data. The new species differs from S. kraussii by smaller size, fewer abdominal chaetigers, arrangement of abdominal chaetae and shape of opercular endplate talon. Results of phylogenetic analyses of a dataset combining 18S nucleotide and Cyt-b amino-acid sequences of S. sinuspersicus sp. nov. and Spirobranchus spp. available from GenBank supported monophyly of S. kraussii complex (including S. cariniferus) nested within Spirobranchus and thus, provided molecular support for synonymy of Pomatoleios with Spirobranchus proposed based on morphological criteria. The new species forms a well-supported clade with (S. kraussii (sp. 2 Hawaii + sp. 3 Australia)) clade, which in turn forms a clade with Spirobranchus sp.1 from temperate Japan, while S. cariniferus from New Zealand forms a basal grade. Evidence of substitution saturation of Cyt-b nucleotide sequences suggests that using translated amino-acid sequences to exclude non-informative substitutions should provide a better phylogenetic resolution for the genus Spirobranchus. Further studies are required to determine the invasive status of S. sinuspersicus sp. nov. as well as taxonomic and invasive status of S. cf. kraussii populations from the Mediterranean Sea, Suez Bay, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Philippines, Singapore, and Panama.


Assuntos
Anelídeos , Animais , Oceano Índico , Omã , Filogenia
4.
Zootaxa ; 4747(3): zootaxa.4747.3.6, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230100

RESUMO

The material of the present checklist has been collected from the Iranian intertidal and shallow subtidal shores of the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman from 2015 to 2019, in addition to re-examining all the materials deposited in the Zoological Museum of the University of Tehran. This checklist providing 16 new records for the Persian Gulf and 15 for the Gulf of Oman raised the number of recorded caridean shrimps to 109 and 49 for these gulfs, respectively. However, the actual number of these shrimps are higher than these numbers due to two facts. Firstly, most of the subtidal diverse ecosystems, e.g. coral reefs and seagrass bed have not been seriously investigated taxonomically. Secondly, there are some members of species complexes and probably some new species in the study which need to be carefully treated.


Assuntos
Decápodes , Animais , Ecossistema , Oceano Índico , Omã
5.
Zootaxa ; 4742(2): zootaxa.4742.2.10, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230384

RESUMO

Validation of species using independent lines of evidence is sometimes desirable when their identification using only one approach is difficult or questionable. The identification of anchovies (Engraulidae) are often challenging based on morphology because closely related species exhibit only slight morphological differentiation. This study utilized morphological characteristics and DNA barcodes for identification and validation of anchovies in the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. Based on morphology, we identified eight species: Thryssa hamiltonii, T. setirostris, T. vitrirostris, T. whiteheadi, T. dussumieri, Encrasicholina punctifer, E. pseudoheteroloba and Stolephorus indicus. A 658 bp region of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) was generated for 53 specimens from these eight species. From these sequences, we built a Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic tree. In this tree, each species forms a monophyletic group confirming our initial morphological identification. In addition, we provided (and registered in GenBank) the first barcode sequences for T. whiteheadi, an endemic species of this region. Interspecies genetic distances were comprised between 0.168 to 0.275. The largest genetic distance was found between T. vitrirostris and S. indicus and the smallest between T. dussumieri and T. whiteheadi. This study successfully identified eight species of anchovies in the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea based on both morphological and molecular characters.


Assuntos
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Peixes , Animais , Oceano Índico , Omã , Filogenia
6.
Zootaxa ; 4751(3): zootaxa.4751.3.6, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230408

RESUMO

The Garra species inhabiting the Hajar Mountains are revised and five species are recognised, two of which are newly species described herein. Garra barreimiae, from the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Northern Oman, is distinguished from other Garra species in the Hajar Mountains by a strongly mottled flank pattern with individual or series of midlateral orange scales, a white dorsal-fin tip, an orange spot at the upper operculum, and more gill rakers on the lower limb of the first gill arch. Garra barreimiae shawkahensis is a synonym of G. barreimiae. Garra gallagheri, from the Wadi Bani Khalid drainage in Oman, is distinguished by flank-scale margins the same colour or slightly darker than the centre of the scales. Garra longipinnis, from the interior wadis in the Central Hajar Mountains in Oman, is distinguished by flank-scale margins being clearly darker than the centre of scales. The original description of G. longipinnis was based on a few individuals with very large fins, which are here considered aberrant. Garra shamal, new species, from the coastal drainages around Muscat in Oman, is distinguished by a strongly mottled flank pattern usually without orange midlateral scales, a white dorsal-fin tip, no orange spot at the upper operculum, and middle caudal-fin rays and membranes the same colour or slightly darker than the rest of the fins in colouration. Garra sharq, new species, from the Wadi Kabbah drainage and a few interior springs in Oman, is distinguished by a strongly mottled flank pattern with individual or series of orange midlateral scales, no orange spot at the upper opercle, and dorsal-fin tip and membranes between central caudal-fin rays the same colour as the rest of the fins. All five species are well differentiated genetically and form distinct mitochondrial clades with between 2.1 and 9.2% differences (p-distances) in the mitochondrial COI.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Nadadeiras de Animais , Animais , Brânquias , Omã , Rios , Emirados Árabes Unidos
7.
Adv Neurobiol ; 24: 505-523, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by core deficits in social interactions, verbal/nonverbal communication, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped behaviors. Children with ASD are known to have several feeding problems that are believed to affect their nutritional and health status. AIM: The present study was designed to assess the food preferences in Omani children diagnosed with ASD compared with controls. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted in which 375 children (males and females) aged between 4 and 13 years were recruited. The sample consisted of 163 children with ASD and a control group of 212 typically developing (TD) children. For each participant, demographic, anthropometric, and medical information and information regarding dietary intakes were gathered using the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess their food preferences. RESULTS: The sociodemographic characteristics of caregivers were similar in the two groups, while their perceptions based on several nutritional parameters were different. Children's age and body mass index (BMI) were similar in both groups, while the number of male children was higher in ASD group (P < 0.001). Problematic behaviors including food refusal and selectivity were significantly higher in ASD children than in TD children. Despite that, the children with ASD were found to consume mostly traditional Omani dishes. CONCLUSION: This is the first study that provides information on the eating habits and nutritional intake of Omani children diagnosed with ASD. The overall findings are promising and may contribute to further understanding of food preferences in children with ASD in Oman. Such information is highly valuable for the prevention and management of nutritional deficiencies among Omani children with autism by improving their diet quality.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Preferências Alimentares , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Omã/epidemiologia
8.
Geneva; World Health Organization; 2020-02-25.
em Inglês | WHO IRIS | ID: who-331222
9.
Br J Nurs ; 29(1): 28-34, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917951

RESUMO

A study was conducted to explore whether fatigue, workload, burnout and the work environment can predict the perceptions of patient safety among critical care nurses in Oman. A cross-sectional predictive design was used. A sample of 270 critical care nurses from the two main hospitals in the country's capital participated, with a response rate of 90%. The negative correlation between fatigue and patient safety culture (r= -0.240) indicates that fatigue has a detrimental effect on nurses' perceptions of safety. There was also a significant relationship between work environment, emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, personal accomplishment and organisational patient safety culture. Regression analysis showed that fatigue, work environment, emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and personal accomplishment were predictors for overall patient safety among critical care nurses (R2=0.322, F=6.117, P<0.0001). Working to correct these predictors and identifying other factors that affect the patient safety culture are important for improving and upgrading the patient safety culture in Omani hospitals.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Enfermagem de Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Cultura Organizacional , Segurança do Paciente , Adulto , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Omã/epidemiologia , Carga de Trabalho , Local de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 90: 97-103, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In December 2018, routine surveillance identified an autochthonous outbreak of dengue fever in Muscat Governorate, Oman, a region previously free of dengue fever. METHODS: Routine surveillance confirmed locally acquired cases in the second week of December, leading to a rapid public health response including case management guidance and epidemiological investigations. The main activity was the vector survey using systematic sampling to assess extent of previously unreported Aedes aegypti presence followed by a campaign aimed to eliminate breeding sites of A. aegypti". RESULTS: During a 5-month period, 343 suspected cases were reported from Muscat Governorate with 122 from the outbreak affected area. Out of 207 probable cases eligible for laboratory testing as per guidelines issued, 59 cases were confirmed. The vector elimination campaign started on January 8, 2019 after a media advocacy using television and social media and concluded on January 23. By the end of campaign, the case load had decreased significantly in the affected area with no reports of locally acquired cases from adjoining areas of Muscat Governorate, indicating no further spread. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid notification and early community-wide, extensive vector control activities effectively contained the autochthonous dengue fever virus outbreak.


Assuntos
Dengue/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Omã , Vigilância em Saúde Pública
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(1): 42, 2019 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834540

RESUMO

Algal bloom as a common phenomenon in the Persian Gulf and the Sea of Oman had catastrophic effects on environmental, social, economic, and human health aspects from 2008 to 2009. Since 2008, the Persian Gulf and the Sea of Oman Ecological Research Institute (PGSOERI) has monitored and managed algal blooms in the Hormuzgan coast along the northern Persian Gulf and the Sea of Oman. Management strategies have included regular monitoring of chlorophyll, water quality, and remote sensing. In this regard, relevant departments and the Regional Organization for Protection of Marine Environment (ROPME) collaborated with each other to prevent and forecast algal blooms. We reviewed historical and current monitoring, mitigation, and management systems of algal blooms in the Hormuzgan coast. In addition, complications and challenges of algal bloom monitoring and management were also discussed. Documenting algal bloom monitoring and research, improving forecasting and modeling of blooms, educating the public and fishermen, developing a cooperative monitoring framework, and controlling pollution input entering the ROPME region are the main challenges of algal bloom management in the Hormuzgan coast.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Poluição da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Previsões , Oceano Índico , Omã
12.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226441, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841565

RESUMO

In high-income countries of the Arabian Peninsula, including the Sultanate of Oman, motorization has been extremely rapid. As a result, road traffic crashes are by far the highest cause of premature mortality, and speeding is an acknowledged key risk factor. Theory-based interventions are needed to target prevention of this unsafe practice. This study sheds light on determinants of speeding among new generations of Omani drivers applying the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). A questionnaire covering all five main constructs of the TPB was first contextualized and administered to two target groups: male drivers of all ages (n = 1107) approached in person when renewing their driving license and university students drivers (men and women) reached through internet contact (n = 655). Multiple, stepwise linear regression analyses were used to explore factors associated with speeding. Results indicate that driving fast and not respecting the posted speed limits was common in both groups of drivers, although rates were higher among students; 41.8% reported driving a bit faster than other drivers and 24.1% faster than the posted speed limit compared with 31.4% and 14.2% in male drivers of all ages. In both groups the TPB model predicted to a limited extent the determinants of speeding behaviour. However, the intention to speed was associated with a negative attitude towards the respect of rules for men of all ages (ß = -0.30 (p<0.001)) and for students (ß = -0.26 (p<0.001)); a positive view regarding subjective norms (ß = 0.25 (p<0.001) and ß = 0.28 (p<0.001) respectively), and behavioural control (ß = 0.15 (p<0.001) and ß = 0.20 (p<0.001) respectively). Intention was the only significant predictor of speeding behaviour (ß = 0.48 (p<0.001); and ß = 0.64 (p<0.001)). To conclude, speeding is widespread among Omani drivers of all ages and the intention to respect posted speed limits meets a range of barriers that need greater consideration in order to achieve a better safety culture in the country.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Assunção de Riscos , Aceleração , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise do Comportamento Aplicada , Atitude , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Omã/epidemiologia , Teoria Psicológica , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 20(12): 3655-3666, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870107

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Raising cancer awareness among adolescents should lead to early diagnosis and improve their survival rate into adulthood. This study aims to identify knowledge of cancer risk factors, symptoms and barriers to seek medical help among Omani adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with Omani adolescents (aged 15-17 years) has been conducted in six schools in Muscat, the capital of Oman. The general Cancer Awareness Measure questionnaire was used to collect the data. RESULTS: A total of 481 adolescents participated. The average recognition of cancer risk factors and symptoms was low (36.8% and 39.6%, respectively). Cancer risk factors and/or symptoms significantly recognised more in girls compared to boys (χ2 = 10.136; Odds ratio [OR] = 2.13 ; 95% confidence interval [CI]= 0.33-3.41; P = 0.001); older (age 17 year) versus younger (aged 15 and 16 years) (χ2 = 6.075; OR = 11.68; 95% CI: 1.11-2.53; P = 0.014); those with existing co-morbidities compared to those without (χ2 = 4.955; OR = 0.41; 95% CI: 0.18-0.92; P = 0.026); and those who knew someone with cancer compared to those who did not (χ2 = 15.285; OR 2.70; 95% CI: 1.62-4.49; P <0.001). The majority of adolescents (88.8%) would seek medical help within the first two weeks of noting cancer symptoms. The most notable barriers to seek medical help were "emotional". Girls were experienced "emotional barriers" significantly more than the boys (χ2 = 11.617; OR = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.31-2.72; P = <0.001). CONCLUSION: Adolescents in Oman showed poor cancer awareness with several "emotional" barriers. There is a need to establish and integrate effective cancer educational programs in school curriculums to raise the cancer awareness, address emotional barriers and encourage seeking early medical help. The program could potentially have a life-long impact on encouraging early cancer diagnosis and improving the cancer survival rate.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Neoplasias/psicologia , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Omã , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Zootaxa ; 4658(1): zootaxa.4658.1.1, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716755

RESUMO

The onthophagine fauna of the Arabian Peninsula is reviewed. New data from public and private collections are given. The total number of Onthophagini known from the Peninsula now stands at 30 species, without taking into account dubious records, belonging to seven genera. Of these 30 species, three (Onthophagus aethiopicus d'Orbigny, 1902, O. falsus Gillet, 1925 and O. frontalis Raffray, 1877) are reported for the first time from the Arabian Peninsula, six species (Digitonthophagus eucatta Génier in Génier Moretto, 2017, Onthophagus aethiopicus d'Orbigny, 1902, O. brittoni Paulian, 1948, O. falsus Gillet, 1925, O. rugulipennis Fairmaire, 1887, and O. trapezicornis d'Orbigny, 1902) are new records from Saudi Arabia, three (D. eucatta, O. aethiopicus and O. frontalis) are new from Yemen and five (O. bicolor Raffray, 1877, O. latipennis d'Orbigny, 1898, O. nitidulus Klug, 1856, O. quadriarmatus Fairmaire 1892 and O. sellatus Klug, 1845) are new from Oman. Furthermore, Onthophagus infuscatus Klug, 1845 is recorded from Djibouti for the first time. For all the treated species a general distribution, literature citations and eventual unpublished records are provided. A new synonymy (Onthophagus saudiensis Frey, 1962 under O. sticticus Harold, 1867) is proposed. Most of the species were recorded from locations in southern Saudi Arabia, Oman and Yemen, south Tropic of Cancer. Yemen and Saudi Arabia have the highest species numbers, hosting the richest fauna with 24 and 23 species, respectively. The majority of the Onthophagini fauna (73.33 %) has Afrotropical and Afrotropical-Palaearctic affinities, while the Palaearctic and Oriental-Palaearctic species are both represented by 6.66 %. The four Arabian endemisms represent the 13.33 % of the whole fauna. Lastly, a dichotomous key for the identification of Arabian onthophagine species is provided and a redescription of Onthophagus brittoni is supplied.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Arábia , Omã , Arábia Saudita , Iêmen
15.
Zootaxa ; 4651(1): zootaxa.4651.1.3, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716921

RESUMO

Three species of the alpheid shrimp genus Salmoneus Holthuis, 1955 associated with burrows of other decapod crustaceans are reported from various Indo-West Pacific localities. Salmoneus venustus sp. nov. is described based on material collected at two distant localities, Nha Trang Bay, southern Vietnam, the type locality of the new species, and the Yiti-Sifah region east of Muscat, northern Oman. Both specimens were collected with the aid of a suction pump applied to burrow entrances or mounds in muddy sand; the holotype was possibly associated with burrows of the callianassid ghost shrimp, Glypturus sp. Salmoneus venustus sp. nov. shares many characteristics with S. latirostris (Coutière, 1897), including the red banding of the pleon, but can be distinguished from S. latirostris and all other species of the genus by a unique combination of morphological characters. The large-sized Salmoneus brucei Komai, 2009 is reported from Sumba, central Indonesia, representing a significant southward extension of the species' previously known distribution range and the first record since its original description. The callianassid ghost shrimp Lepidophthalmus cf. rosae (Nobili, 1904) is recorded as a new host of S. brucei. Finally, Salmoneus colinorum De Grave, 2004, associated with burrows of larger snapping shrimps from the Alpheus malabaricus Fabricius, 1798 species complex, is reported for the first time from Madang, Papua New Guinea, representing an eastward extension of the species' previously known distribution range.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Indonésia , Omã , Papua Nova Guiné , Vietnã
16.
Zootaxa ; 4651(1): zootaxa.4651.1.4, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716922

RESUMO

A new species of the alpheid shrimp genus Salmoneus Holthuis, 1955, probably an obligate associate of ghost shrimp burrows, is described based on material from Oman (type locality: Darsait near Muscat), Iran and the Philippines. Salmoneus durisi sp. nov. is characterised principally by both chelipeds enlarged, robust, with ventral and dorsal margins of chelae carrying long fine setae, and with minor chela fingers armed with a few large teeth on cutting edges. All specimens of Salmoneus durisi sp. nov. were collected either directly from burrows of larger decapod crustaceans with the aid of a suction pump, or by exposing burrows dug under large subtidal rocks. The Iranian specimen was found together with its presumed host, Neocallichirus calmani (Nobili, 1904). Two additional specimens from Indonesia and the Solomon Islands are tentatively assigned to S. cf. durisi sp. nov., awaiting further studies.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Indonésia , Irã (Geográfico) , Melanesia , Omã , Tamanho do Órgão , Filipinas
17.
Zootaxa ; 4648(3): zootaxa.4648.3.11, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716943

RESUMO

Acmaeodera (Acmaeodera) strumiai sp. nov. from Oman, Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Mauritania, and A. (Acmaeotethya) dhofarica sp. nov. from Oman and Yemen are described, illustrated and compared with related species.


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Arábia , Mauritânia , Omã , Arábia Saudita , Iêmen
18.
Zootaxa ; 4609(2): zootaxa.4609.2.5, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717108

RESUMO

Five new species of Acanthobothrium Blanchard, 1848 are described from Gymnura cf. poecilura from the Gulf of Oman and Persian Gulf. They all belong to the Category 1 and can be differentiated from all congeners by a combination of characters, including marginal lappets on the bothridial rim, the lack of spinitrich microtriches on the proximal bothridial surfaces, the position of the genital pore in the posterior one fifth of the proglottid, the direction of the cirrus sac parallel and clinging to the ovarian lobe, the lack of post-vaginal testes, and the interruption of the vitelline follicles by the ovary. The five new species are morphologically similar to each other but differ among each other in their cephalic peduncle length, proglottid and testes number, and the apolysis status. The most similar species to this new group is Acanthobothrium fogeli Gloldstein, 1964 from the Gulf of Mexico. The new species differ from A. fogeli by the muscular pad size, cephalic peduncle length and having marginal lappets on the bothridial rim. the species of Acanthobothrium occurs in three families of elasmobranchs in the Gulf of Oman and Persian Gulf (Dasyatidae, Rhynchobatidae and Gymnuridae). The true identity of many hosts in the region is ambiguous. Therefore, we designated the sampled elasmobranch as G cf. poecilura in accordance to the previously molecular study on a few individuals from the region.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Cestoides , Infecções por Cestoides , Elasmobrânquios , Doenças dos Peixes , Animais , Feminino , Golfo do México , Oceano Índico , Omã
19.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 830, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evaluating hospital efficiency is a process to optimize resource utilization and allocation. This is vital due to hospitals being the largest financial cost in a health system. To limit avoidable uses of hospital resources, it is important to identify the sources of hospital inefficiencies and to put in place measures towards their reduction and elimination. Thus, the purpose of this research is to examine the sources of hospital inefficiency in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, and existing strategies tackling this issue. METHODS: In this study, the electronic databases MEDLINE (via PubMed), Web of Science, Embase, Google, Google Scholar, and reference lists of selected articles, were explored. Studies on inefficiency, sources of inefficiency, and strategies for inefficiency reduction in the Eastern Mediterranean region hospitals, published between January 1999 and May 2018, were identified. A total of 1466 articles were selected using the initial criteria. After further reviews based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 56 studies were eligible for this study. The chosen studies were conducted in Iran (n = 35), Saudi Arabia (n = 5), Tunisia (n = 5), Jordan (n = 4), Pakistan (n = 2), the United Arab Emirates, Palestine, Iraq, Oman, and Afghanistan (n = 1 each). These studies were analyzed using content analysis in MAXQDA 10. RESULTS: The analysis showed that approximately 41% of studies used data envelopment analysis (DEA) to measure hospital efficiency. Sources of hospital inefficiency were divided into four categories for analysis: Hospital products and services, hospital workforce, hospital services delivery, and hospital system leakages. CONCLUSION: This study has revealed some sources of inefficiency in the Eastern Mediterranean Region hospitals. Inefficiencies are thought to originate from excess workforce, excess beds, inappropriate hospital sizes, inappropriate workforce composition, lack of workforce motivation, and inefficient use of health system inputs. It is suggested that health policymakers and managers use this evidence to develop appropriate strategies towards the reduction of hospital inefficiency.


Assuntos
Eficiência Organizacional , Administração Hospitalar , Feminino , Humanos , Região do Mediterrâneo , Oriente Médio , Omã , Paquistão , Gravidez , Tunísia
20.
Zootaxa ; 4683(4): zootaxa.4683.4.5, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715911

RESUMO

We describe a new species of Stenasellus Dollfus, 1897 (Isopoda: Asellota: Stenasellidae) from stagnant freshwater habitats in a cave on Socotra Island, Yemen. S. taitii n. sp. is the first endemic stenasellid found in Socotra, showing relatively closer morphological affinities to species from the Middle East (Oman, Iran) than from the African mainland, corresponding to the known paleogeographical connection of the archipelago to Southern Arabia. With notes on the protection of Socotran groundwaters.


Assuntos
Isópodes , Animais , Arábia , Irã (Geográfico) , Ilhas , Oriente Médio , Omã , Iêmen
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