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1.
J Sports Sci ; 39(sup1): 62-72, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092196

RESUMO

The current protocol for classifying Para swimmers with hypertonia, ataxia and athetosis involves a physical assessment where the individual's ability to coordinate their limbs is scored by subjective clinical judgment. The lack of objective measurement renders the current test unsuitable for evidence-based classification. This study evaluated a revised version of the Para swimming assessment for motor coordination, incorporating practical, objective measures of movement smoothness, rhythm error and accuracy. Nineteen Para athletes with hypertonia and 19 non-disabled participants performed 30 s trials of bilateral alternating shoulder flexion-extension at 30 bpm and 120 bpm. Accelerometry was used to quantify movement smoothness; rhythm error and accuracy were obtained from video. Para athletes presented significantly less smooth movement and higher rhythm error than the non-disabled participants (p < 0.05). Random forest algorithm successfully classified 89% of participants with hypertonia during out-of-bag predictions. The most important predictors in classifying participants were movement smoothness at both movement speeds, and rhythm error at 120 bpm. Our results suggest objective measures of movement smoothness and rhythm error included in the current motor coordination test protocols can be used to infer impairment in Para swimmers with hypertonia. Further research is merited to establish the relationship of these measures with swimming performance.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Hipertonia Muscular/fisiopatologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Acelerometria , Adulto , Algoritmos , Ataxia/fisiopatologia , Atetose/fisiopatologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Hipertonia Muscular/classificação , Paratletas/classificação , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Ombro/fisiologia , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/classificação , Natação/classificação , Gravação em Vídeo , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Orthop Sports Phys Ther ; 51(4): 174-187, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789429

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of a short (5-10 minutes) shoulder external rotation (ER) strength program, using elastic bands, in adolescent handball players. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. METHODS: The sample included 6 adolescent handball teams (3 female, 3 male) with a total of 92 players and a mean age of 16.6 years. Players were randomized within teams to an intervention group, which completed a shoulder ER strengthening program of 2 exercises performed 3 times per week after handball training for 8 weeks, or a control group of no treatment. The primary outcome was the between-group difference in shoulder ER strength change, measured as isometric strength using a handheld dynamometer from preintervention to postintervention (8 weeks). Secondary outcomes were between-group differences in internal rotation (IR) strength and the ER/IR strength ratio from preintervention to postintervention. RESULTS: The estimated between-group difference in dominant-shoulder ER strength was 0.06 N/kg (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.01, 0.14) in favor of the intervention group. The estimated between-group differences in the ER/IR ratio and IR strength were 0.03 (95% CI: -0.02, 0.08) and 0.02 (95% CI: -0.08, 0.13), respectively. CONCLUSION: The ER strength program improved neither the ER strength nor the ER:IR ratio. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2021;51(4):174-187. doi:10.2519/jospt.2021.9957.


Assuntos
Atletas , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Ombro/fisiologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Lesões do Ombro/reabilitação
3.
Hum Mov Sci ; 77: 102799, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892401

RESUMO

It is known that coordination between joint movements is crucial for the achievement of motor tasks and has been studied extensively. Especially, in sports biomechanics, researchers are interested in determining which joint movements are coordinated to achieve a motor task. However, this issue cannot be easily addressed with the methods employed in previous studies. Therefore, we aimed to propose a method for identifying joint coordination. Subsequently, we examined which joint movements were coordinated using accurate overhead throwing, which required reduction in vertical hand velocity variability. Fourteen baseball players participated by attempting throwing using a motion capture system. The index of coordination for each joint movement and the effect of deviation of one joint movement on vertical hand velocity were quantified. Our results showed that the shoulder internal/external rotation angle (θ1-IE) and the other joint movements or the shoulder horizontal flexion/extension angular velocity (ω1-FE) and the other joint movements were coordinated. These results could be explained by the fact that the effects of the deviation of the shoulder internal rotation angle (θ1-I) and shoulder horizontal flexion angular velocity (ω1-F) on vertical hand velocity were larger than those of the other joint movements. This meant that it was necessary to cancel the deviations of θ1-IE and ω1-FE by the other joint movements. These findings indicate that the method proposed in this study enables the identification of which joint movements are coordinated in multiple degrees of freedom.


Assuntos
Beisebol , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Movimento , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Articulação do Ombro/fisiologia , Ombro/fisiologia , Adulto , Atletas , Mãos , Humanos , Articulações/fisiologia , Masculino , Rotação , Esportes , Punho/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong) ; 29(1): 23094990211003347, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779394

RESUMO

We aimed to examine the relationship between hip range of motion (ROM) and abduction strength and throwing-related shoulder/elbow injuries in high school baseball pitchers. The study included 135 baseball pitchers. We asked them to fill out a questionnaire at the checkups, that included the dominant arm and the years of baseball experience. To avoid a confirmation bias, the examiners were blinded to the participants' hand dominance. All players underwent physical function measurements, such as height, weight, shoulder and hip strength, and shoulder and hip ROM. Shoulder and elbow injury was defined as shoulder and elbow pain that the patient had been aware of in the past 3 years. The results of injured and non-injured pitchers were compared. Eighty-five pitchers had experienced a shoulder or elbow injury in the past 3 years. The shoulder ROM and strength in the injured and non-injured groups did not differ to a statistically significant extent. The hip external rotation ROM on the dominant side, the hip abduction strength on the non-dominant side, and the hip abduction strength on the dominant side were significantly lower in the injured group than in the non-injured group. The results may contribute to reducing the incidence of these injuries.


Assuntos
Beisebol/lesões , Resistência à Flexão/fisiologia , Articulação do Quadril/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Extremidade Superior/lesões , Adolescente , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/etiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/fisiopatologia , Beisebol/fisiologia , Cotovelo/lesões , Cotovelo/fisiologia , Articulação do Cotovelo/lesões , Articulação do Cotovelo/fisiologia , Articulação do Cotovelo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Rotação , Instituições Acadêmicas , Ombro/fisiologia , Lesões do Ombro/epidemiologia , Lesões do Ombro/etiologia , Lesões do Ombro/fisiopatologia , Articulação do Ombro/lesões , Articulação do Ombro/fisiologia , Articulação do Ombro/fisiopatologia , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Extremidade Superior/fisiologia , Extremidade Superior/fisiopatologia
5.
J Sports Sci ; 39(sup1): 81-90, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704022

RESUMO

Conceptually, sports-specific training should not influence measures of impairment used to classify Para athletes. This study evaluated the extent to which measures of strength, range of movement and coordination developed for Para swimming classification changed in response to a performance-focused swimming programme. A five-phase multiple-baseline, single-case experimental research design was utilized. Three participants with cerebral palsy and high support needs completed the 64-week study, which included two 16-week performance-focused swimming training blocks. Swimming speed, isometric shoulder extension strength, shoulder flexion range of movement and upper limb coordination were monitored throughout.Interrupted Time-Series Simulation Method analysis demonstrated large, significant changes in swimming speed (m/s) during the first (d = 2.17; 95% CI 0.45-3.88; p = 0.01) and second (d = 2.59; 95% CI 1.66-3.52; p = 0.00) training blocks. In contrast, changes in strength, range of movement and coordination were predominantly trivial and non-significant. This was the first study to investigate training responsiveness of measures developed for Para sport classification. Results indicate that despite significantly improved swimming performance, impairment measures remained relatively stable, and therefore these measures of impairment may be valid for the purposes of Para swimming classification. Further research is required in elite athletes, different sports and different impairment types.


Assuntos
Movimento/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Adolescente , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Masculino , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Ombro/fisiologia , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/classificação , Natação/classificação , Fatores de Tempo , Extremidade Superior/fisiologia
6.
J Vis Exp ; (169)2021 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779606

RESUMO

The shoulder is one of the human body's most complex joint systems, with motion occurring through the coordinated actions of four individual joints, multiple ligaments, and approximately 20 muscles. Unfortunately, shoulder pathologies (e.g., rotator cuff tears, joint dislocations, arthritis) are common, resulting in substantial pain, disability, and decreased quality of life. The specific etiology for many of these pathologic conditions is not fully understood, but it is generally accepted that shoulder pathology is often associated with altered joint motion. Unfortunately, measuring shoulder motion with the necessary level of accuracy to investigate motion-based hypotheses is not trivial. However, radiographic-based motion measurement techniques have provided the advancement necessary to investigate motion-based hypotheses and provide a mechanistic understanding of shoulder function. Thus, the purpose of this article is to describe the approaches for measuring shoulder motion using a custom biplanar videoradiography system. The specific objectives of this article are to describe the protocols to acquire biplanar videoradiographic images of the shoulder complex, acquire CT scans, develop 3D bone models, locate anatomical landmarks, track the position and orientation of the humerus, scapula, and torso from the biplanar radiographic images, and calculate the kinematic outcome measures. In addition, the article will describe special considerations unique to the shoulder when measuring joint kinematics using this approach.


Assuntos
Movimento , Manguito Rotador/fisiologia , Articulação do Ombro/fisiologia , Ombro/fisiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Gravação de Videoteipe , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ombro/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Ombro/diagnóstico por imagem
7.
J Anat ; 239(1): 207-227, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33629406

RESUMO

Musculoskeletal computer models allow us to quantitatively relate morphological features to biomechanical performance. In non-human apes, certain morphological features have long been linked to greater arm abduction potential and increased arm-raising performance, compared to humans. Here, we present the first musculoskeletal model of a western lowland gorilla shoulder to test some of these long-standing proposals. Estimates of moment arms and moments of the glenohumeral abductors (deltoid, supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles) over arm abduction were conducted for the gorilla model and a previously published human shoulder model. Contrary to previous assumptions, we found that overall glenohumeral abduction potential is similar between Gorilla and Homo. However, gorillas differ by maintaining high abduction moment capacity with the arm raised above horizontal. This difference is linked to a disparity in soft tissue properties, indicating that scapular morphological features like a cranially oriented scapular spine and glenoid do not enhance the abductor function of the gorilla glenohumeral muscles. A functional enhancement due to differences in skeletal morphology was only demonstrated in the gorilla supraspinatus muscle. Contrary to earlier ideas linking a more obliquely oriented scapular spine to greater supraspinatus leverage, our results suggest that increased lateral projection of the greater tubercle of the humerus accounts for the greater biomechanical performance in Gorilla. This study enhances our understanding of the evolution of gorilla locomotion, as well as providing greater insight into the general interaction between anatomy, function and locomotor biomechanics.


Assuntos
Gorilla gorilla/anatomia & histologia , Modelos Biológicos , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Articulação do Ombro/anatomia & histologia , Ombro/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Feminino , Gorilla gorilla/fisiologia , Humanos , Locomoção , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Ombro/fisiologia , Articulação do Ombro/fisiologia
8.
Phys Ther Sport ; 49: 62-67, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618258

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Investigate intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of the posterior shoulder endurance test (PSET) and calculate minimal detectable change (MDC) to establish measurement properties and inform use of the PSET in practice. STUDY DESIGN: Test-retest reliability. SETTING: British Canoe Slalom National Training Centre. PARTICIPANTS: Twelve participants (7 male, 5 female; 22.5 ± 4.48 years; 73.4 ± 6.36 kg) were investigated by two physiotherapists with >10 years' experience. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for intra-rater reliability (ICC 3,1) and inter-rater reliability (ICC 2,1) and used to calculate MDC. RESULTS: Intra-rater reliability scores were 0.84 and 0.85 for rater A and B, respectively, with 95% confidence interval (CI) crossing moderate to excellent reliability for both raters (0.5-0.75 and > 0.9). Inter-rater reliability scores were 0.74 and 0.63 at baseline and follow-up, respectively, with 95% CI crossing poor to good reliability in both time points (<0.5 and >0.75). MDC95% for intra-rater scores was 6 repetitions, MDC95% for inter-rater scores was 8 repetitions at baseline and 9 repetitions at follow-up. CONCLUSION: The PSET has acceptable intra-rater reliability but further work is needed to narrow the CI to an appropriate level for inter-rater reliability. The MDC calculated helps clinicians interpret changes in tests scores.


Assuntos
Resistência Física/fisiologia , Ombro/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 824, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436944

RESUMO

The current study investigated body roll amplitude and timing of its peak in backstroke and compared them with front crawl swimming. Nineteen anatomical landmarks were digitised using 80 swimming trial videos (ten swimmers × two techniques × four intensities) recorded by two above- and four below-water cameras. One upper-limb cycle was analysed for each trial, and shoulder and hip roll, whole-body roll (WBR), and WBR due to the buoyant torque (WBRBT) were obtained. Main effects of intensity and technique on the amplitude and timing to reach the peak in those variables were assessed by two-way repeated-measures ANOVA. Swimmers decreased their WBRBT amplitude with an increase in the intensity in both techniques (p ≤ 0.005). The same result was observed for the amplitude of WBR, shoulder roll, and hip roll only in front crawl (p ≤ 0.017). Swimmers maintained the timing of peak WBRBT in both techniques, while they shifted the timing of WBR and hip roll peak toward the beginning of the cycle when increasing the intensity in front crawl (p ≤ 0.017). In conclusion, swimmers maintain the amplitude of WBR, shoulder roll, and hip roll in backstroke when the intensity increases, whereas they reduce the amplitude of all rolls in front crawl.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Quadril/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Ombro/fisiologia , Torque , Extremidade Superior/fisiologia
10.
J Electromyogr Kinesiol ; 57: 102517, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493783

RESUMO

Characterization of scapular kinematics under demanding load conditions might aid to distinguish between physiological and clinically relevant alterations. Previous investigations focused only on submaximal external load situations. How scapular movement changes with maximal load remains unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate 3D scapular kinematics during unloaded and maximal loaded shoulder flexion and extension. Twelve asymptomatic individuals performed shoulder flexion and extension movements under unloaded and maximal concentric and eccentric loaded isokinetic conditions. 3D scapular kinematics assessed with a motion capture system was analyzed for 20° intervals of humeral positions from 20° to 120° flexion. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to evaluate kinematic differences between load conditions for scapular position angles, scapulohumeral rhythm and scapular motion extent. Increased scapular upward rotation was seen during shoulder flexion and extension as well as decreased posterior tilt and external rotation during eccentric and concentric arm descents of maximal loaded compared to unloaded conditions. Load effects were further seen for the scapulohumeral rhythm with greater scapular involvement at lower humeral positions and increased scapular motion extent under maximal loaded shoulder movements. With maximal load applied to the arm physiological scapular movement pattern are induced that may imply both impingement sparing and causing mechanisms.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Escápula/fisiologia , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Ombro/fisiologia , Articulação do Ombro/fisiologia
11.
Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) ; 82: 105257, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shoulder assessment in rehabilitation is focused on kinematic properties due to the variability of symptomatology and clinical expression of shoulder injuries. AIM: To perform a receiver operating characteristic analysis of the kinematic variables involved in the functional mobility of the shoulder that allow the identification of discriminating variables between healthy and diseased shoulders during scaption motion. METHOD: Analytical cross-sectional study of diagnostic effectiveness was performed in 27 subjects suffering from shoulder damage and 14 asymptomatic controls. Scaption kinematics were evaluated using four inertial sensors placed on the humerus, scapula, forearm and sternum. Three variables (mobility, velocity and acceleration) were obtained from each sensor and the norm of the resultant vector was calculated from each axis. A discriminatory receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed, obtaining the area under the curve, sensitivity and specificity. FINDINGS: Significant differences from both the resultant vectors and the axis depended on the body segment analysed were observed. Greater movement velocity and acceleration were observed in the asymptomatic group. Receiver operating characteristic analysis, scapular protraction-retraction mobility distinguished with a diagnostic sensitivity of 83.3% and specificity of 90.9% between asymptomatic and shoulder-damaged patients. These diagnosis values were 83.3% and 72.7% for scapular anterior-posterior velocity. Scapular kinematics, in terms of mobility and velocity, are the key variables in shoulder assessment. INTERPRETATION: This study discriminated between patients suffering from shoulder damage and asymptomatic subjects based on shoulder kinematics during scaption motion. Scapular mobility and velocity were found to be key variables in shoulder assessment, along with the humerus.


Assuntos
Movimento , Lesões do Ombro/fisiopatologia , Ombro/fisiologia , Ombro/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escápula/fisiologia , Escápula/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil ; 34(1): 3-16, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32831190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Muscle synergies contribute to scapular position during arm movement. The trapezius and serratus anterior (SA) muscles are the main stabilizers and are therefore the main target muscles of therapeutic exercises. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the current literature investigating the optimal activation ratio of the scapular muscles during a range of closed kinetic chain exercises. METHODS: A systematic review search was conducted to identify studies reporting shoulder electromyography (EMG) activity during rehabilitation exercises in healthy participants. The search was conducted in PubMed, Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and ScienceDirect. The included studies reported closed kinetic chain exercises and the muscle activity as a percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC) or muscle ratios of the lower trapezius (LT), middle trapezius (MT), and SA with respect to the upper trapezius (UT). Muscle ratios were classified as optimal if they were equal to or lower than 0.6, and the adapted Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the selected studies. RESULTS: Twenty-nine studies were included in this review; 7 main exercises and 30 variations of these were reported. The average electromyographic activity of the concentric and eccentric phase was considered. Half Push Up, Push Up Plus, and Scap Protraction exercises showed optimal SA activity (UT/SA < 0.6), while Press Up, Half Push Up, and One Hand Plank exercises showed optimal LT activity (UT/LT < 0.6). According to the NOS, 15 studies were classified as moderate methodological quality. CONCLUSIONS: The exercises in higher positions (e.g. exercises with the trunk closest to the vertical line) or unstable surfaces tend to favor UT activity over the MT, LT and SA. The exercises including scapular retraction showed optimal UT/MT and UT/LT ratios, while those including scapular protraction showed optimal UT/SA ratios. This will assist therapists in the correct selection of exercises for shoulder rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Ombro/fisiologia , Músculos Superficiais do Dorso/fisiologia , Eletromiografia/métodos , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Humanos , Rotação
13.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 53(2): 351-359, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701873

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The kinematic sequence (KS) during a baseball pitch provides insight into an athlete's ability to efficiently transfer energy and develop segmental velocities, to assess the quality of body segment position and control. Study purposes were 1) to introduce the four-category Kinematic Sequence Classification System and 2) to compare elbow and shoulder torques and shoulder distraction force across the KS categories performed during the fastball pitch. METHODS: Thirty baseball pitchers (20.0 ± 3.1 yr) underwent 3D biomechanical pitch analyses of 249 fastball pitches. Seventeen distinct KS patterns were identified and assigned into four categories: 1) The proximal-to-distal (PDS) group includes the KS closest to theoretical ideal order of the five body segments (pelvis → trunk → arm → forearm → hand). The other categories were defined based on the segment where the first out-of-sequence peak angular velocity occurred: 2) distal upper extremity (DUE), 3) proximal upper extremity, and 4) pelvis/trunk. Throwing limb shoulder distraction force and shoulder and elbow torques were calculated. Linear mixed model analyses compared variables across KS categories. RESULTS: Average elbow valgus torques differed significantly across all categories, P = 0.023, and were greater for the DUE (73.99 ± 20.84 N·m) than the PDS (61.35 ± 16.79 N·m), P = 0.006. Shoulder external rotation torques were significantly different, P = 0.033, across categories. CONCLUSION: The PDS group demonstrated less mechanical stresses on the throwing shoulder and elbow but was observed in only 12% of pitches. The DUE group was the most common and generated the greatest elbow valgus and shoulder external rotation torques. The KS can inform coaches and sports medicine clinicians where the greatest torques are incurred by a pitcher. A KS classification system may serve as a screening tool or target pitching instruction for injury avoidance.


Assuntos
Beisebol/fisiologia , Extremidade Superior/fisiologia , Adolescente , Braço/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cotovelo/fisiologia , Antebraço/fisiologia , Mãos/fisiologia , Humanos , Pelve/fisiologia , Rotação , Ombro/fisiologia , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Torque , Tronco/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 53(1): 228-235, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32694373

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to document recovery after a pitching performance and determine whether prolonged postgame phase change material (PCM) cooling of the shoulder and forearm accelerates recovery. METHODS: Strength, soreness, and serum creatine kinase (CK) activity were assessed before and on the 2 d after pitching performances in 16 college pitchers. Pitchers were randomized to receive either postgame PCM cooling packs on the shoulder and forearm or no cooling (control). PCM packs were applied inside compression shirts and delivered cooling at a constant temperature of 15°C for 3 h. Strength was assessed for shoulder internal rotation (IR), external rotation (ER), empty can (EC) test, and grip. RESULTS: Total pitch count was 60 ± 16 for 23 PCM cooling games and 62 ± 17 for 24 control games (P = 0.679). On the days after pitching, IR strength (P = 0.006) and grip strength (P = 0.036) were higher in the PCM cooling group versus control. One day after pitching, IR strength was 95% ± 14% of baseline with PCM cooling versus 83% ± 13% for control (P = 0.008, effect size d = 0.91) and 107% ± 9% versus 95% ± 10% for grip strength (P = 0.022, effect size d = 1.29). There was a trend for greater ER strength with PCM cooling (P = 0.091, effect size d = 0.51). The EC strength was not impaired after pitching (P = 0.147) and was therefore unaffected by PCM cooling (P = 0.168). Elevations in soreness and CK were not different between treatments (treatment-time CK P = 0.139, shoulder soreness P = 0.885, forearm soreness P = 0.206). CONCLUSION: This is one of the first studies to document impairments in muscle function on the days after baseball pitching, and the first study showing a novel cryotherapy intervention that accelerates recovery of muscle function in baseball pitchers after a game.


Assuntos
Beisebol/fisiologia , Crioterapia/métodos , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/lesões , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Mialgia/terapia , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Antebraço/fisiologia , Força da Mão , Humanos , Masculino , Mialgia/fisiopatologia , Rotação , Ombro/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Int J Sports Med ; 42(3): 277-282, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947639

RESUMO

With the lack of pitch count regulation, youth softball pitchers are experiencing unremitting high stresses on the anterior shoulder. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of acute changes in the long head of the biceps tendon with pitching kinematics and kinetics in youth softball pitchers following an acute bout of pitching. Twenty-three softball pitchers (12.17±1.50 yrs.; 160.32±9.41 cm; 60.40±15.97 kg) participated. To investigate the association between biceps tendon changes and kinematic and kinetic changes from pre- to post-simulated game, each biceps tendon measure was split into those whose biceps tendon thickness, width, and/or area increased pre- to post-simulated game, and those whose did not. There were significant differences in biceps tendon longitudinal thickness (Z=- 2.739, p=0.006) and pitch speed; as well as a difference between groups in biceps tendon transverse thickness and the amount of change in trunk rotation at the start of the pitching motion (p=0.017) and the amount of change in trunk flexion at ball release (p=0.030). This study illustrates the association of trunk and lower extremity kinematics and shoulder kinetics with morphologic changes in the biceps tendon with an acute bout of windmill softball pitching.


Assuntos
Beisebol/fisiologia , Ombro/fisiologia , Tendões/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Cinética , Rotação , Ombro/anatomia & histologia , Ombro/diagnóstico por imagem , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Tendões/anatomia & histologia , Tendões/diagnóstico por imagem , Tronco/fisiologia , Ultrassonografia
16.
Sports Biomech ; 20(1): 86-95, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30702384

RESUMO

This study examined the effects of deceleration-focused exercises on shoulder range of motion and throwing velocity in both softball and baseball players. Volunteers included 28 Division III William Paterson University baseball and softball athletes (18 females and 10 males), who were evenly distributed across two groups both undertaking 14 sessions of either resistance band or handheld medicine ball exercises (band vs. ball group). A pre-test and post-test measured participants' best active internal/external shoulder rotation and best throwing velocity at a target 40 ft away. A two-tailed, independent t-test showed no significant differences in velocity, internal rotation or external rotation (p < 0.01) between the band and ball groups. However, the average change in velocity in the ball group was double that of the band group (1.50 ± 2.06 m/s versus 0.73 ± 2.24 m/s). For change in both internal and external rotation the band group (2.86 ± 5.27° and 3.29 ± 3.87°, respectively) was greater than the ball mean (1.93° ± 3.32° and 1.29 ± 6.52°, respectively). These findings suggest that overhead athletes aiming to increase throwing velocity can benefit from performing deceleration training with weighted balls whereas resistance bands appear to improve shoulder rotation.


Assuntos
Beisebol/fisiologia , Desaceleração , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Ombro/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Contração Muscular , Força Muscular , Treinamento de Força/instrumentação , Rotação , Equipamentos Esportivos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Sports Biomech ; 20(2): 178-189, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30412004

RESUMO

Uchi-komi Fitness Test (UFT) is a specific judo test that evaluates physiological fitness of judo athletes in similar conditions to judo matches. Neuromuscular parameters obtained by generic and judo-specific tests would aid to get more information about its criterion validity. This study aimed to analyse the relationship between UFT and shoulder external (PTEX) and internal (PTINT) rotation torque, handgrip strength (HGS) and vertical jumps (VJs) performance. The relationship between UFT and Judogi grip strength test (JGST) was also investigated. Eighteen male judo athletes participated in this study. Athletes performed neuromuscular tests (VJ, PTEX, PTINT and HGS) and judo-specific tests (JGST and UFT). Pearson's correlation was used with the level set at p < 0.05. Significant correlation was found between UFT and all VJ variables (r = 0.50-0.72, p < 0.004), UFT a + b (two first series of UFT) and PTEX (r = 0.49, p = 0.033), UFT and PTINT (r = 0.47, p = 0.044). Also, UFT was correlated to JGST (r = 0.50-0.72, p < 0.044, respectively). We conclude that muscle power of lower limbs, PTEX and PTINT was related to UFT. Strength-endurance in the upper limbs (JGST) was also related to the UFT performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Artes Marciais/fisiologia , Força Muscular , Ombro/fisiologia , Extremidade Superior/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Força da Mão , Humanos , Masculino , Contração Muscular , Exercício Pliométrico , Rotação , Adulto Jovem
18.
Phys Ther Sport ; 47: 59-65, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197874

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the concurrent validity of a sphygmomanometer for assessing shoulder strength in the I, Y and T positions during the athletic shoulder test (ASH test). Force platforms were used as the gold standard measurement tool for this purpose. DESIGN: Shoulder strength was assessed using force platforms and a sphygmomanometer, both placed on the floor and the participant positioned prone. One rater assessed strength, taking three measurements in each of the I, Y and T positions, using the sphygmomanometer and force platforms. Concurrent validity was calculated using the force platforms as the gold standard device. SETTING: Data was collected within the treatment room of an amateur rugby club. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty male amateur rugby players (25.15 years old ± 3.27 years) were recruited for this study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Peak force across the shoulder girdle was assessed using the force platforms and sphygmomanometer which provided values in Newtons (N) and millimetres of mercury (mmHg) respectively. RESULTS: Results showed high concurrent validity (Pearsons r = 0.76-0.81) between the sphygmomanometer and the force platform. Coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.59-0.67) showed the sphygmomanometer to have a valid predictive model in the I, Y and T positions. CONCLUSIONS: The sphygmomanometer is suitable for monitoring force transfer across the shoulder during the ASH test, and is able to quantify peak force in mmHg. The sphygmomanometer enables coaches and clinicians to accurately quantify force production across the shoulder girdle in order to screen and monitor players at a low cost.


Assuntos
Atletas , Futebol Americano , Força Muscular , Ombro/fisiologia , Esfigmomanômetros/normas , Adulto , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Volta ao Esporte , Lesões do Ombro/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Sports Health ; 13(1): 85-90, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suspension training systems, which use body weight resistance under unstable conditions, may be effective for muscle strengthening in persons with scapular dyskinesis or subacromial impingement syndrome. HYPOTHESIS: Greater arm, scapular, and trunk muscle recruitment will occur during horizontal abduction row exercises. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 5. METHODS: Surface electromyography data were collected from 28 participants (14 men, 14 women). A total of 13 right-sided muscles were studied at a sampling frequency of 1000 Hz. Maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs) were established. Participants completed 3 repetitions per exercise in random order. We compared muscle recruitment during 3 rowing exercises: low row, high row, and horizontal abduction row. Data were compared with repeated-measures analyses of variance and post hoc Bonferroni corrections. RESULTS: For high row and horizontal abduction row conditions, the upper, middle, and lower trapezius and posterior deltoid demonstrated >60% MVIC magnitudes of recruitment, and the upper erector spinae demonstrated 40% to 60% MVIC magnitudes of recruitment, respectively. In contrast, in the low row exercise, 40% to 60% MVIC magnitudes of recruitment were observed only in the middle trapezius, latissimus dorsi, and posterior deltoid. CONCLUSION: With the suspension system, high row and horizontal abduction row exercises promote muscle strengthening (>50% MVIC) in the upper, middle, and lower fibers of the trapezius, posterior deltoid, and upper erector spinae. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Rowing exercises performed with suspension straps may be recommended for muscle strengthening in patients with scapular dyskinesis and subacromial impingement syndrome as well as for healthy persons in need of enhanced scapular muscle performance.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Ombro/fisiologia , Esportes Aquáticos/fisiologia , Braço/fisiologia , Cotovelo/fisiologia , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Contração Isométrica , Masculino , Treinamento de Força/instrumentação , Escápula/fisiologia , Escápula/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Colisão do Ombro/fisiopatologia , Tronco/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Phys Ther Sport ; 48: 1-11, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341516

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the validity, intra- and inter-rater, and absolute reliability of a return to sport testing battery for the shoulder in a healthy cohort. DESIGN: Cross-sectional design. All participants completed a battery of strength (isokinetic, isometric, and repetition to failure) and functional assessments on two occasions. Concurrent validity to isokinetic testing was assessed, and intra-rater, inter-rater, and absolute reliability were established for all assessments. SETTING: Controlled clinical environment. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty healthy adults active in recreational sports participated, mean age 24.0 ± 1.6 years; MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Correlations (Pearson's r), reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient), Standard error of the measurement, Minimal detectable change. RESULTS: Correlations to isokinetic assessments at 60° & 180°/second were moderate to strong for isometric (r: 0.68-0.80) and functional testing (r: 0.55-0.83) and weak for repetition to failure testing (r: 0.37-0.74). All isokinetic (ICC: 0.88-0.94), isometric (ICC: 0.83-0.94), and functional assessments (ICC: 0.80-0.92) had good to excellent intra-rater reliability, while repetition to failure testing had poor to moderate reliability (ICC: 0.48-0.57). The inter-rater reliability of the isometric assessments was moderate to excellent (ICC: 0.71-0.92) across movements. Expressed as a percentage of the mean, the standard error of the measurement ranged from 7% to 25% and the minimal detectable change ranged from 20% to 69% across all assessment methods. CONCLUSION: The isokinetic, isometric, and functional assessments used in this return to sports testing battery demonstrates acceptable validity and reliability. Further refinement to the methods used to assess muscular endurance is needed to improve reliability. This study offers clinicians information that can be utilized in clinical decision-making as it relates the testing battery's psychometric properties.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço/métodos , Força Muscular , Volta ao Esporte , Ombro/fisiologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Contração Isométrica , Masculino , Dinamômetro de Força Muscular , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Esportes , Adulto Jovem
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