Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.608
Filtrar
1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 136, 2020 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919353

RESUMO

Targeted manipulations of neural activity are essential approaches in neuroscience and neurology, but monitoring such procedures in the living brain remains a significant challenge. Here we introduce a paramagnetic analog of the drug muscimol that enables targeted neural inactivation to be performed with feedback from magnetic resonance imaging. We validate pharmacological properties of the compound in vitro, and show that its distribution in vivo reliably predicts perturbations to brain activity.


Assuntos
Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Muscimol/farmacologia , Animais , Meios de Contraste/farmacologia , Agonistas GABAérgicos/química , Masculino , Muscimol/análogos & derivados , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/química
2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4242, 2019 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31534123

RESUMO

Transiently storing information and mentally manipulating it is known as working memory. These operations are implemented by a distributed, fronto-parietal cognitive control network in the brain. The neural mechanisms controlling interactions within this network are yet to be determined. Here, we show that during a working memory task the brain uses an oscillatory mechanism for regulating access to prefrontal cognitive resources, dynamically controlling interactions between prefrontal cortex and remote neocortical areas. Combining EEG with non-invasive brain stimulation we show that fast rhythmical brain activity at posterior sites are nested into prefrontal slow brain waves. Depending on cognitive demand this high frequency activity is nested into different phases of the slow wave enabling dynamic coupling or de-coupling of the fronto-parietal control network adjusted to cognitive effort. This mechanism constitutes a basic principle of coordinating higher cognitive functions in the human brain.


Assuntos
Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Neocórtex/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/métodos , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino
3.
J Behav Addict ; 8(3): 463-470, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A single nucleotide polymorphism of A118G (SNP; rs1799971) in the opioid receptor µ-1 (OPRM1) gene is a missense variant that influences the affinity of µ-opioid receptors. This study aimed to investigate the associations among the A118G polymorphism in the OPRM1 gene, psychiatric symptoms, and quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) findings in patients with gambling disorder. METHODS: Fifty-five male patients with gambling disorder aged between 18 and 65 years old participated in the study. The A118G polymorphism was genotyped into the AA, GA, and GG groups by the polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Resting-state qEEG was recorded with the eyes closed, and the absolute power of the delta (1-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), and beta (12-30 Hz) frequency bands was analyzed. Psychiatric symptoms, including depression, anxiety, impulsivity and severity of gambling, were assessed by a self-rating scale. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in psychiatric symptoms among the three genotype groups (AA, GA, and GG). However, the frequency band power of qEEG showed significant differences among the three genotype groups. The absolute power of the beta and theta bands in the frontal lobe was higher in G allele carriers. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Based on the findings of this study, the polymorphism in the OPRM1 gene might affect the neurophysiological process in patients with gambling disorder.


Assuntos
Sintomas Comportamentais/fisiopatologia , Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Jogo de Azar/genética , Jogo de Azar/fisiopatologia , Receptores Opioides mu/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , República da Coreia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
4.
Science ; 365(6454)2019 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416934

RESUMO

Hippocampal sharp-wave ripples (SWRs) constitute one of the most synchronized activation events in the brain and play a critical role in offline memory consolidation. Yet their cognitive content and function during awake, conscious behavior remains unclear. We directly examined this question using intracranial recordings in human patients engaged in episodic free recall of previously viewed photographs. Our results reveal a content-selective increase in hippocampal ripple rate emerging 1 to 2 seconds prior to recall events. During recollection, high-order visual areas showed pronounced SWR-coupled reemergence of activation patterns associated with recalled content. Finally, the SWR rate during encoding predicted subsequent free-recall performance. These results point to a role for hippocampal SWRs in triggering spontaneous recollections and orchestrating the reinstatement of cortical representations during free episodic memory retrieval.


Assuntos
Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Memória Episódica , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Percepção Visual , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigília , Adulto Jovem
5.
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi ; 36(4): 541-547, 2019 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441253

RESUMO

Stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) is widely used to record the electrical activity of patients' brain in clinical. The SEEG-based epileptogenic network can better describe the origin and the spreading of seizures, which makes it an important measure to localize epileptogenic zone (EZ). SEEG data from six patients with refractory epilepsy are used in this study. Five of them are with temporal lobe epilepsy, and the other is with extratemporal lobe epilepsy. The node outflow (out-degree) and inflow (in-degree) of information are calculated in each node of epileptic network, and the overlay between selected nodes and resected nodes is analyzed. In this study, SEEG data is transformed to bipolar montage, and then the epileptic network is established by using independent effective coherence (iCoh) method. The SEEG segments at onset, middle and termination of seizures in Delta, Theta, Alpha, Beta, and Gamma rhythms are used respectively. Finally, the K-means clustering algorithm is applied on the node values of out-degree and in-degree respectively. The nodes in the cluster with high value are compared with the resected regions. The final results show that the accuracy of selected nodes in resected region in the Delta, Alpha and Beta rhythm are 0.90, 0.88 and 0.89 based on out-degree values in temporal lobe epilepsy patients respectively, while the in-degree values cannot differentiate them. In contrast, the out-degree values are higher outside the temporal lobe in the patient with extratemporal lobe epilepsy. Based on the out-degree feature in low-frequency epileptic network, this study provides a potential quantitative measure for identifying patients with temporal lobe epilepsy in clinical.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico , Ondas Encefálicas , Humanos
6.
Med Hypotheses ; 131: 109307, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443755

RESUMO

The function of sleep in mammal and other vertebrates is one of the great mysteries of biology. Many hypotheses have been proposed, but few of these have made even the slightest attempt to explain the essence of sleep - the uncompromising need for reversible unconsciousness. During sleep, epiphenomena - often of a somatic character - occur, but these cannot explain the core function of sleep. One answer could be hidden in the observations made for long periods of time of the function of the central nervous system (CNS). The CNS is faced with conflicting requirements on stability and excitability. A high level of excitability is desirable, and is also a prerequisite for sensitivity and quick reaction times; however, it can also lead to instability and the risk of feedback, with life-threatening epileptic seizures. Activity-dependent negative feedback in neuronal excitability improves stability in the short term, but not to the degree that is required. A hypothesis is presented here demonstrating how calibration of individual neurons - an activity which occurs only during sleep - can establish the balanced and highest possible excitability while also preserving stability in the CNS. One example of a possible mechanism is the observation of slow oscillations in EEGs made on birds and mammals during slow wave sleep. Calibration to a genetically determined level of excitability could take place in individual neurons during the slow oscillation. This is only possible offline, which explains the need for sleep. The hypothesis can explain phenomena such as the need for unconsciousness during sleep, with the disconnection of sensory stimuli, slow EEG oscillations, the relationship of sleep and epilepsy, age, the effects of sleep on neuronal firing rate and the effects of sleep deprivation and sleep homeostasis. This is with regard primarily to mammals, including humans, but also all other vertebrates.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/fisiologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Memória/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal , Sinapses/fisiologia , Vertebrados/fisiologia
7.
Brain Struct Funct ; 224(8): 2907-2924, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456067

RESUMO

Empirical evidence suggests that, in the auditory cortex (AC), the phase relationship between spikes and local-field potentials (LFPs) plays an important role in the processing of auditory stimuli. Nevertheless, unlike the case of other sensory systems, it remains largely unexplored in the auditory modality whether the properties of the cortical columnar microcircuit shape the dynamics of spike-LFP coherence in a layer-specific manner. In this study, we directly tackle this issue by addressing whether spike-LFP and LFP-stimulus phase synchronization are spatially distributed in the AC during sensory processing, by performing laminar recordings in the cortex of awake short-tailed bats (Carollia perspicillata) while animals listened to conspecific distress vocalizations. We show that, in the AC, spike-LFP and LFP-stimulus synchrony depend significantly on cortical depth, and that sensory stimulation alters the spatial and spectral patterns of spike-LFP phase-locking. We argue that such laminar distribution of coherence could have functional implications for the representation of naturalistic auditory stimuli at a cortical level.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Ondas Encefálicas , Quirópteros/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Potenciais de Ação , Animais , Sincronização Cortical , Ritmo Delta , Masculino , Ritmo Teta , Vocalização Animal
8.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 128(6): 610-621, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318241

RESUMO

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a complex and debilitating psychiatric illness. Prior research in adults has shown that neurophysiological deficits in feedback processing and learning from rewards may be central to the development of BPD; however, little research has examined these markers in adolescents and young adults with BPD. The present study used event-related potentials and time-frequency decomposition analysis to probe neural responses to wins and losses in a guessing task among 68 females (13 to 23 years old) either with BPD (n = 35) or no history of mental disorders (healthy control [HC]; n = 33). Participants completed a guessing task wherein they won and lost money at equal frequencies while electroencephalogram (EEG) data were acquired. Adolescents and young adults with BPD showed a smaller differentiation between wins and losses in the reward positivity (RewP) relative to HCs. Using time-frequency decomposition, we isolated distinct frequency bands sensitive to wins (delta = < 3Hz) and losses (theta = 4 Hz to 7 Hz). Compared with BPD participants, HCs showed significantly larger delta power to wins, specifically. The groups did not differ in delta power to losses, nor theta power to wins or losses. Collectively, findings implicate altered reward processing in the pathophysiology of BPD and may inform early identification and targeted intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/fisiopatologia , Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Recompensa , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Clin EEG Neurosci ; 50(6): 404-412, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322000

RESUMO

Studies have shown that specific networks (default mode network [DMN] and task positive network [TPN]) activate in an anticorrelated manner when sustaining attention. Related EEG studies are scarce and often lack behavioral validation. We performed independent component analysis (ICA) across different frequencies (source-level), using eLORETA-ICA, to extract brain-network activity during resting-state and sustained attention. We applied ICA to the voxel domain, similar to functional magnetic resonance imaging methods of analyses. The obtained components were contrasted and correlated to attentional performance (omission errors) in a large sample of healthy subjects (N = 1397). We identified one component that robustly correlated with inattention and reflected an anticorrelation of delta activity in the anterior cingulate and precuneus, and delta and theta activity in the medial prefrontal cortex and with alpha and gamma activity in medial frontal regions. We then compared this component between optimal and suboptimal attentional performers. For the latter group, we observed a greater change in component loading between resting-state and sustained attention than for the optimal performers. Following the National Institute of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) approach, we prospectively replicated and validated these findings in subjects with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Our results provide further support for the "default mode interference hypothesis."


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Ondas Encefálicas , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador
10.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 160: 143-160, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277844

RESUMO

Understanding common variations of normal EEG and benign variants of uncertain significance is essential to discern the boundary between normal and abnormal EEG. Wide variation and fluctuation can occur with normal signals generated by the brain, and these can be a pitfall for less-experienced electroencephalographers in accurately interpreting the EEG. Normal EEG variants are benign and do not portend specific pathological conditions. They can show predilection for the temporal lobes and mimic epileptiform discharges. These factors, along with the "spiky" appearance of these patterns, can often lead to erroneous interpretation of the recording and result in misdiagnosis. This chapter reviews the normal EEG variants that may confound the clinician and lead to misinterpretation that can result in suboptimal patient management.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/normas , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Humanos
11.
J Clin Neurosci ; 67: 258-260, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227404

RESUMO

Occipital lobe epilepsies can present with complex or elementary visual hallucinations and oculomotor symptoms like contraversive tonic or clonic deviation of eyes and head. Brief occipital seizures can be difficult to diagnose. We report a child with occipital plus epilepsy who was investigated with stereo-EEG.


Assuntos
Ondas Encefálicas , Epilepsias Parciais/diagnóstico , Alucinações/diagnóstico , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Epilepsias Parciais/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Alucinações/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Lobo Occipital/fisiopatologia , Convulsões/fisiopatologia
12.
Int J Neurosci ; 129(11): 1085-1093, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215829

RESUMO

The neuroimaging research field has been revolutionized with the development of human cognitive functions without the use of brain pathways. To assist such systems, electroencephalography (EEG) based measures play an important role. In this study, the publicly available database of emotion analysis using physiological signals, has been used to identify the human emotions such as valence (positive/negative) from the given recorded EEG signals. With the identification of such emotion, the feeling of goodness or badness related individual experiences with the situation can be identified from his/her brain signals. The different machine learning classifiers such as random forest, decisions trees, K-nearest neighbor, support vector machines, naive Bayes and neural network have been used to identify and evaluate such emotions. The previous work done by the other authors on the same dataset using various quantitative approaches are compared with the approaches used in this study yields higher accuracy rates with the random forest and decision tree. The effectiveness of each classifier in terms of statistical measures such as accuracy, F-score, etc. has been evaluated. The random forest classifier was found to outperform with an accuracy of 98%, closely followed by the Decision tree at 94% are the most effective classifiers in classifying the valence emotions of the EEG data for 6 subjects.


Assuntos
Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Emoções/fisiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Adulto , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218675, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233542

RESUMO

The subcortical mechanisms subtending the sensorimotor processes related to the peripersonal space (PPS) have been well characterized, whereas less evidence is available concerning the cortical mechanisms. We investigated the theta, alpha and beta event-related spectral perturbations (ERSP) while holding the forearm in different positions into the PPS of the face. Fifty healthy individuals were subjected to EEG recording while being provided with median nerve electric stimulation at the wrist of the right hand held at different hand-to-face distances. Theta and beta rhythms were significantly perturbed depending on the hand-to-face distance, whereas alpha oscillations reflected a more general, non-specific oscillatory response to the motor task. The perturbation of theta and beta frequency bands may reflect the processes of top-down modulation overseeing the conscious spatiotemporal encoding of sensory-motor information within the PPS. In other words, such perturbation reflects the continuous update of the conscious internal representations of the PPS to build up a purposeful and reflexive motor response.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Espaço Pessoal , Adulto , Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Estimulação Elétrica , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenômenos Fisiológicos do Sistema Nervoso , Córtex Sensório-Motor/fisiologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Punho , Adulto Jovem
14.
Neural Plast ; 2019: 2057308, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31223307

RESUMO

Our previous studies have confirmed that electroacupuncture (EA) can effectively intervene in pain memory, but the neural mechanism involved remains unclear. In this study, we observed the effects of EA in regulating pain memory-related behaviors and synchronous neural oscillations in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC). During nociceptive behavioral testing, pain memory induced a nonpain stimulus that spurred a neural oscillatory reaction similar to that caused by pain stimuli in the rACC. After EA, nonpain stimuli did not induce decreased neural oscillatory activity in the rACC until the presentation of pain stimuli. During aversive behavioral testing, EA, through the downregulation of theta power, inhibited the retrieval of aversive memory and relieved pain memory-induced aversive behaviors. These changes of oscillatory activity may be the hallmarks of EA therapy for pain memory.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Eletroacupuntura , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Memória/fisiologia , Dor/fisiopatologia , Animais , Masculino , Nociceptividade/fisiologia , Limiar da Dor , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
15.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 128(5): 442-452, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180690

RESUMO

Myriad studies have found group differences in neural dynamics between people with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the extent to which variation in neural dynamics is related to variation in the autism phenotype across the population is not known. Here we measured behavioral characteristics of autism alongside intertrial phase coherence (ITC) and multiscale entropy (MSE) computed from EEG in order to address this question. Data were obtained from 99 adults, 38 of whom had an ASD diagnosis. Phenotypic information was obtained from the Social Responsiveness Scale (Revised), the Repetitive Behavior Questionnaire, the WHO Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Screener, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (Trait version). ITC and MSE were computed from EEG recorded during visual stimulation and eyes-closed rest. We found no evidence to suggest that population variance in autistic traits is underpinned by variance in neural dynamics, despite finding that ITC and MSE are more likely to be reduced in people with ASD than in those without. We conclude that there are likely to be multiple neural profiles underpinning ASD, and suggest that while individual differences in the autism phenotype exist across the population, their distribution is not underpinned by individual differences in neural dynamics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Sincronização de Fases em Eletroencefalografia/fisiologia , Adulto , Entropia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2573, 2019 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189931

RESUMO

Neural oscillations play a crucial role in communication between remote brain areas. Transcranial electric stimulation with alternating currents (TACS) can manipulate these brain oscillations in a non-invasive manner. Recently, TACS using multiple electrodes with phase shifted stimulation currents were developed to alter long-range connectivity. Typically, an increase in coordination between two areas is assumed when they experience an in-phase stimulation and a disorganization through an anti-phase stimulation. However, the underlying biophysics of multi-electrode TACS has not been studied in detail. Here, we leverage direct invasive recordings from two non-human primates during multi-electrode TACS to characterize electric field magnitude and phase as a function of the phase of stimulation currents. Further, we report a novel "traveling wave" stimulation where the location of the electric field maximum changes over the stimulation cycle. Our results provide a mechanistic understanding of the biophysics of multi-electrode TACS and enable future developments of novel stimulation protocols.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Biofísicos/fisiologia , Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos , Animais , Cebus , Eletrodos , Feminino , Macaca mulatta , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/instrumentação
17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2478, 2019 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171779

RESUMO

During non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, neuronal populations in the mammalian forebrain alternate between periods of spiking and inactivity. Termed the slow oscillation in the neocortex and sharp wave-ripples in the hippocampus, these alternations are often considered separately but are both crucial for NREM functions. By directly comparing experimental observations of naturally-sleeping rats with a mean field model of an adapting, recurrent neuronal population, we find that the neocortical alternations reflect a dynamical regime in which a stable active state is interrupted by transient inactive states (slow waves) while the hippocampal alternations reflect a stable inactive state interrupted by transient active states (sharp waves). We propose that during NREM sleep in the rodent, hippocampal and neocortical populations are excitable: each in a stable state from which internal fluctuations or external perturbation can evoke the stereotyped population events that mediate NREM functions.


Assuntos
Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Neocórtex/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Sono de Ondas Lentas/fisiologia , Animais , Eletroencefalografia , Masculino , Modelos Neurológicos , Ratos , Sono/fisiologia , Fases do Sono/fisiologia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152641

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Brain rate is parameter correlated to brain electric and metabolic activity. AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze the results obtained for brain rate parameter as an indicator for general mental arousal in anxious patients and to compare them with results of healthy young people matched in age and gender, as well as with anorectic and hyperactive children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The diagnosis for all examinees was made according two statistic manuals (DMSIV- R and ICD-10), medical history, neuropsychological assessment, biochemical analysis and QEEG. In this study we examined the spectra power of the brain waves through quantified EEG (QEEG). The obtained results were exported to brain rate software and then calculated for each region separately. The QEEG spectra power data and the brain rate data were analyzed using Statistica software. RESULTS: According to sagittal and lateral topography maximal values of brain rate parameter were obtained in group of healthy individuals and in group of anorectic patients. The lowest results were obtained in group of hyperactive children for all three regions. CONCLUSIONS: The general conclusion will be that pathological conditions in childhood, analyzed in this research, can be defined as conditions of hypoarausal and this can be specific sign of brain dysfunction.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Criança , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Neuroimage ; 199: 313-324, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170458

RESUMO

The human brain is functionally organized into large-scale neural networks that are dynamically interconnected. Multiple short-lived states of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) identified transiently synchronized networks and cross-network integration. However, little is known about the way brain couplings covary as rsFC states wax and wane. In this magnetoencephalography study, we explore the synchronization structure among the spontaneous interactions of well-known resting-state networks (RSNs). To do so, we extracted modes of dynamic coupling that reflect rsFC synchrony and analyzed their spatio-temporal features. These modes identified transient, sporadic rsFC changes characterized by the widespread integration of RSNs across the brain, most prominently in the ß band. This is in line with the metastable rsFC state model of resting-state dynamics, wherein our modes fit as state transition processes. Furthermore, the default-mode network (DMN) stood out as being structured into competitive cross-network couplings with widespread DMN-RSN interactions, especially among the ß-band modes. These results substantiate the theory that the DMN is a core network enabling dynamic global brain integration in the ß band.


Assuntos
Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Conectoma/métodos , Sincronização Cortical/fisiologia , Magnetoencefalografia/métodos , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
20.
Neuroimage ; 199: 342-350, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170459

RESUMO

Epidemiological research reveals that insufficient sleep in children has negative cognitive and emotional consequences; however, the physiological underpinnings of these observations remain understudied. We tested the hypothesis that the topographical distribution of deep sleep slow wave activity during the childhood predicts brain white matter microstructure (myelin) 3.5 y later. Healthy children underwent sleep high-density EEG at baseline (n = 13; ages 2.4-8.0 y) and follow-up (n = 14; ages 5.5-12.2 y). At follow-up, myelin (myelin water fraction) and cortical morphology were also quantified. Our investigation revealed 3 main findings. (1) The Frontal/Occipital (F/O)-ratio at baseline strongly predicted whole brain myelin at follow-up. (2) At follow-up, the F/O-ratio was only minimally (negatively) linked to brain myelin. (3) Cortical morphology was not related to the F/O-ratio, neither at baseline nor at follow-up. Our results support the hypothesis that during child development EEG markers during sleep longitudinally predict brain myelin content. Data extend previous findings reporting a link between EEG markers of sleep need and cortical morphology, by supporting the hypothesis that sleep is a necessary component to underlying processes of brain, and specifically myelin, maturation. In line with the overarching theory that sleep contributes to neurodevelopmental processes, it remains to be investigated whether chronic sleep loss negatively affects white matter myelin microstructure growth during sensitive periods of development.


Assuntos
Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Bainha de Mielina , Sono de Ondas Lentas/fisiologia , Biomarcadores , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA