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1.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131767, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399254

RESUMO

The efficiency of microalgae harvesting on the removal of Giardia spp. cysts, Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts, total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp. and Clostridium spp. was assessed in lab-scale experiments (Jartest and Flotatest) using effluent from a flat panel photobioreactor used for Chlorella sorokiniana cultivation. Three harvesting methods were evaluated: (1) flocculation induced by pH modulation followed by sedimentation (pH-SED), (2) flocculation induced by pH modulation followed by dissolved air flotation (pH-DAF), and (3) coagulation using an organic coagulant (Tanfloc SG) followed by dissolved air flotation (Coag-DAF). The results indicated that the three harvesting methods were efficient in removing protozoan (oo)cysts and bacteria, achieving percentages of removal higher than 97% for all the analyzed pathogens. Among the three methods, pH-SED showed the best removal performance: 99.60% (2.5 log) for Giardia spp. cysts, 100% (>6.3 log) for total coliforms, 100% (>4.6 log) for Escherichia coli, 100% (>5.8 log) for Enterococcus spp. and 99.96% (3.6 log) for Clostridium spp. Clostridium spp. seemed to be more tolerant to the harvesting methods than the other groups of bacteria analyzed in the study, and its presence was positively correlated to the presence of Giardia spp. cysts.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Cistos , Microalgas , Animais , Bactérias , Giardia , Oocistos
2.
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102478, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626806

RESUMO

Madura cattle, which are native to Indonesia and mainly kept on Madura Island, East Java, are expected to contribute to improving the regional meat self-sufficiency. Eimeria spp. are the most pathogenic protozoans among gastrointestinal parasites in livestock but no molecular surveys of Eimeria spp. in Madura cattle have been conducted to date. In this study, a total of 183 fecal samples were collected from Madura cattle and 60 (32.8%) were positive for parasites of protozoans and nematodes by the sugar floatation method. Among the samples with parasites, Eimeria spp. oocysts were detected in 50 samples (27.3%) with an average OPG value of 1686.1. Eimeria spp. were successfully identified to the species level in 26 samples with Eimeria bovis being the most prevalent, followed by E. zuernii and E. aubrunensis. A total of 21 samples showed mixed infection of more than two species of Eimeria. E. bovis and E. zuernii have been recognized as having high virulency and, thus, these parasites are potential sources of severe coccidiosis and the cause of infections in other cattle. Although additional studies are warranted, these results can be helpful for improving the management and productivity of Madura cattle.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Eimeria/classificação , Eimeria/genética , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Oocistos/isolamento & purificação , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária
3.
Parasite ; 28: 68, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617883

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii oocysts are responsible for food- and water-borne infections in humans worldwide. They are resistant to common chemical disinfectants, including chlorinated products, presumably due to the structure and molecular nature of the oocyst wall but also the sporocyst wall. In this study, we used fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy to characterise the structure of both the oocyst and sporocyst walls, exposed to household bleach. Bleach removed the outer layer of the oocyst wall and the outer layer of the wall of sporocysts exposed due to rupture of the oocyst wall. The loss of the outer sporocyst wall layer was associated with a decrease in its autofluorescence, which can be linked to the degradation of dityrosine cross-link proteins, and loss of Maclura pomifera lectin-reactive glycoproteins. This study suggests that the inner layers of the oocyst and sporocyst walls are the main structures responsible for the resistance of the parasite to household bleach.


Assuntos
Oocistos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Toxoplasma , Glicoproteínas , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Toxoplasma/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Water Res ; 205: 117675, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600226

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium parvum is waterborne parasite that can cause potentially life-threatening gastrointestinal disease and is resistant to conventional water treatment processes, including chlorine disinfection. The current Environmental Protection Agency-approved method for oocyst detection and quantification is expensive, limiting the ability of water utilities to monitor complex watersheds thoroughly to understand the fate and transport of C. parvum oocysts. In this work, whole cell imprinting was used to create selective and sensitive surfaces for the capture of C. parvum oocysts in water. Cell-imprinted Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was manufactured using a modified stamping approach, and sensitivity and selectivity were analyzed using different water chemistries and different surrogate biological and non-biological particles. The overall binding affinity was determined to be less than that of highly specific antibodies, but on par with standard antibodies and immune-enabled technologies. These initial results demonstrate the potential for developing devices using cell-imprinting for use in waterborne pathogen analysis.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium parvum , Cryptosporidium , Animais , Oocistos , Polímeros
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 680020, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484178

RESUMO

Lipid-derived signaling molecules known as eicosanoids have integral roles in mediating immune and inflammatory processes across metazoans. This includes the function of prostaglandins and their cognate G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to employ their immunological actions. In insects, prostaglandins have been implicated in the regulation of both cellular and humoral immune responses, yet in arthropods of medical importance, studies have been limited. Here, we describe a prostaglandin E2 receptor (AgPGE2R) in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae and demonstrate that its expression is most abundant in oenocytoid immune cell populations. Through the administration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and AgPGE2R-silencing, we demonstrate that prostaglandin E2 signaling regulates a subset of prophenoloxidases (PPOs) and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that are strongly expressed in populations of oenocytoids. We demonstrate that PGE2 signaling via the AgPGE2R significantly limits both bacterial replication and Plasmodium oocyst survival. Additional experiments establish that PGE2 treatment increases phenoloxidase (PO) activity through the increased expression of PPO1 and PPO3, genes essential to anti-Plasmodium immune responses that promote oocyst killing. We also provide evidence that the mechanisms of PGE2 signaling are concentration-dependent, where high concentrations of PGE2 promote oenocytoid lysis, negating the protective effects of lower concentrations of PGE2 on anti-Plasmodium immunity. Taken together, our results provide new insights into the role of PGE2 signaling on immune cell function and its contributions to mosquito innate immunity that promote pathogen killing.


Assuntos
Anopheles/imunologia , Anopheles/microbiologia , Anopheles/parasitologia , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Oocistos/imunologia , Plasmodium/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Anopheles/classificação , Hemócitos/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Viabilidade Microbiana , Mosquitos Vetores/imunologia , Mosquitos Vetores/microbiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Filogenia , Plasmodium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/metabolismo , Receptores de Prostaglandina E/genética , Receptores de Prostaglandina E/metabolismo
6.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 292, 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Specific studies on the epidemiology of necrotic enteritis in turkeys are absent in the literature. Necrotic enteritis is common in turkeys and a leading cause of use of therapeutic antibiotics. This study describes the incidence of necrotic enteritis in turkey farms, and the association between incidence and bird age, season, faecal oocyst counts, grow-out size and feed mill. RESULTS: Necrotic enteritis was diagnosed post mortem in 20.2 % of 545 grow-outs of commercial female and male B.U.T. 10 turkeys started during the years 2010-2016. 80 % of all cases occurred at four to seven weeks of age. Median (minimum-maximum) age at disease detection was 37 (18-115) days. Turkey age at detection was influenced by season, and varied from 33 days among grow-outs hatched in February to 42 days among those hatched in July-August. The incidence also varied with season, showing peak occurrence among grow-outs hatched during February-March and the lowest incidence in turkeys hatched in July-August. 59 % of all cases were detected in 25 % of the farms. The incidence per farm varied from below 4 to 59 %. A multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression model indicated clear impacts of farm and season on incidence, and border-line impacts of grow-out size and feed mill. Grow-outs diagnosed with necrotic enteritis had higher counts of faecal Eimeria oocysts than grow-outs without a diagnosis. This difference was particularly clear during the high-risk period at five to seven weeks of age. Necrotic enteritis was the cause of treatment with therapeutic antibiotics in 88.2 % of all cases of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that necrotic enteritis incidence in turkeys can be substantially influenced by risk factors at farm level. The incidence showed two seasonal peaks; a moderate peak in turkeys hatched in October/November and a marked peak in turkeys hatched during February/March. Mitigation measures at the farm may therefore be of particular importance during these months in farms located in the Northern temperate zone. Measures which effectively reduce counts of faecal Eimeria oocyst are likely to be among the more promising actions to take both at the farm and at population level.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Enterite/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Animais , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Enterite/tratamento farmacológico , Enterite/epidemiologia , Fazendas , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Incidência , Masculino , Necrose/veterinária , Noruega/epidemiologia , Oocistos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Perus
7.
Parasitol Res ; 120(10): 3569-3580, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476584

RESUMO

Columbiformes have a worldwide distribution, of which 166 species occur in Eurasia. They have been reported parasitized by coccidians recurrently in recent years; however, Eimeria labbeana (Labbé, 1896) Pinto, 1928, which is first Eimeria sp. from Columbiformes described in the late nineteenth century, is not taxonomically identified by its oocysts since the 1930s. In this context, the current study aimed to supplement the morphology of E. labbeana from Eurasian collared doves Streptopelia decaocto Frivaldszky, 1838 and from a common woodpigeon Columba palumbus Linnaeus, 1758 in Portugal, providing a preliminary genotypic characterization. Three of the four columbiforms were positive for oocysts identified as E. labbeana, which were morphologically revised as having micropyles, in addition to other minor adjustments. Oocysts from S. decaocto and C. palumbus were morphologically identical and equivalent in all morphometric aspects, besides having genotypic similarity of 99.5%. Phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene resulted in a large clade with Eimeria spp. and Isospora spp. from different vertebrates and low similarity between Eimeria spp. from Columbiformes, whereas the phylogenetic analysis based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene resulted in well-supported monophyletic groups, including one with the coccidians of columbiform birds.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Eimeria , Isospora , Animais , Coccidiose/veterinária , Columbidae , Eimeria/genética , Oocistos , Filogenia , Portugal
8.
Avian Dis ; 65(1): 149-158, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339134

RESUMO

With growing cross-disciplinary collaboration among researchers, it is increasingly important to record detailed methodology to prevent the repetition of preliminary experiments. The purpose of this paper is to explain the development of a coccidiosis challenge model for the investigation of dietary interventions to coccidiosis in broiler chickens. The objectives are to select a dose of mixed species coccidial vaccine and evaluate the suitability (ability to produce a consistent, marked change) of selected response variables important to nutritional studies at different times postinfection (PI). Coccivac-B and Coccivac-B52 (Merck Animal Health) were evaluated as the source of coccidia in three trials. Trials 1 and 2 were randomized complete block designs with four doses (0, 10, 20, or 30 times (×) label dose) of Coccivac-B administered to 12 replicate cages of six birds by repeater pipette (Trial 1) or gavaging needle (Trial 2). Trial 3 used a completely randomized design with 0× or 30× label dose of Coccivac-B52 administered by gavaging needle to six replicate cages of six birds. Birds were gavaged at 15 days of age, and response criteria were evaluated 7 days PI in all trials and again at 10 days PI in Trials 1 and 2. All means are reported in order of increasing coccidia dose with significance accepted at P ≤ 0.05. Broiler performance was not affected by coccidia in Trials 1 or 3 but grew poorer with increasing dose from 0 to 7 days PI in Trial 2 (body weight gain, 465, 421, 388, 365 g; feed to gain, 1.37, 1.47, 1.52, 1.58). As coccidia dose increased, nitrogen corrected apparent metabolizable energy decreased (Trial 1, 3387, 3318, 3267, 3170 kcal kg-1; Trial 2, 3358, 2535, 2422, 2309 kcal kg-1; Trial 3, not measured), while relative weight, length, and content for intestinal sections increased (Trials 1through 3). Gross lesion (duodenum, jejunum/ileum, ceca) and oocyst count scores (jejunum/ileum, ceca) increased with dose; however, gross scoring often suggested infection in unchallenged birds, a finding unsupported by oocyst count scores. At 7 days PI there was no correlation between midgut gross lesion score and midgut oocyst count score (r = 0.06, P = 0.705), but cecal scores were weakly correlated (r = 0.55, P < 0.001). Administering coccidia via repeater pipette (Trial 1) resulted in respiratory distress in some birds, while use of the gavaging needle (Trials 2 and 3) successfully induced intestinal damage in chickens without resulting in coccidia related mortality. Thirty times the label dose at 7 days PI resulted in the greatest number of response variables that produced a consistent, marked change. Therefore, consideration should be given to these conditions when designing future coccidiosis challenge models using vaccines as a source of coccidia.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Protozoárias/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/prevenção & controle , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Masculino , Oocistos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem
9.
Water Res ; 203: 117553, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425437

RESUMO

Waterborne pathogens, such as Cryptosporidium parvum, pose a major threat to public health globally, and this requires screening of drinking and environmental water for low number of contaminating microbes. However, current detection approaches generally require trained experts with sophisticated instruments, and are not suitable for large-scale screening and rapid outbreak response. Recent advances in ultrasensitive CRISPR/Cas-based biosensing continue to expand the range of detectable molecular targets, however single microbes could not be directly detected so far, especially in environmental samples. Here, we report an ultrasensitive CRISPR/Cas12a-powered immunosensing method suitable for microbial detection which links antibody-based recognition with CRISPR/Cas12a-based fluorescent signal amplification through an antibody-DNA conjugate. This approach is shown here to detect whole 4 µm size Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts with a linear range from 6.25 - 1600 oocysts/mL, at a maximum sensitivity of single oocyst per sample. Its potential to apply to various complex sample matrices has also been demonstrated. After sample dilution by factor of 10, we were able to detect 10 oocysts from a back-wash mud samples from water treatment plate. This method uses the same experimental setup (plate reader) as a conventional ELISA assay thus reducing the need for microscopy-based identification of Cryptosporidium, which represents the gold-standard but requires high level expertise and time-consuming manual counting. This work highlights the potential of CRISPR/Cas-based biosensing for water quality assessment and ultrasensitive whole pathogen detection.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Cryptosporidium/genética , Imunoensaio , Oocistos
10.
Prev Vet Med ; 194: 105447, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333412

RESUMO

Eimeria spp. infections cause mortality, reduced well-being, and substantial economic losses implications for cattle production worldwide. The present work followed up the excretion of Eimeria spp. oocysts in two naturally infected beef herds, from two different properties, to investigate the dynamics of oocyst excretion and the prevalence of Eimeria spp. in different animal categories and seasons of the year (rainy season - October to April; dry season - May to September). Even that, the species of Eimeria were identified and the parasitological techniques of Gordon and Whitlock modified and Mini-FLOTAC were used. In both herds, animals up to 14 months had a mean total OPG counts higher than older animals (after 15-16 months of age), and the species E. zuernii and E. bovis were more frequently identified, the first species being more frequent in animals from 1 to 2 months of age, while E. bovis prevailed from three months old. On property 1, the highest mean OPG counts (P ≤ 0.05) were obtained between October 2017 and September 2018, with the highest mean OPG counts in October 2017, when the animals were aged between 4-5 months. The prevalence of the pathogen on property 1 was 59.16 % and 43.62 % in the rainy and dry season, respectively, a higher parasitic load (P ≤ 0.05) was verified in the rainy season. On property 2, the mean OPG counts of Eimeria spp. was higher (P ≤ 0.05) in animals between 8-16 months, with the highest peak in November 2019, when they were one year old. The on-site prevalence during the rainy season on property 2 was 53.09 % and 49.79 % on dry season, and no difference (P = 0.92) in the mean OPG counts of Eimeria spp. during the seasons. There was a difference (P ≤ 0.05) in the count of oocysts in females after 18 months of age than males, which was probably due to the increase in animal density. Both tested techniques can be used for quantification of the excretion of oocysts of Eimeria spp. in cattle feces showing the same OPG mean count (r = 0.9287; p = 0.0025; R² = 0.8625). Mini-FLOTAC showed higher prevalence for Eimeria spp., however, can be an obstacle depending on the number of fecal samples that need to be processed.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Coccidiose , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Oocistos/isolamento & purificação , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Prevalência
11.
Parasitol Int ; 85: 102438, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400350

RESUMO

Parasites of the genus Eimeria are involved in the neonatal diarrhea complex of alpaca (Vicugna pacos) crias, and infection by Eimeria is commonly known as coccidiosis. There are limited reports of these protozoa in clinically asymptomatic crias. In this study, fecal samples from 78 clinically asymptomatic alpaca crias were analyzed to evaluate the prevalence, parasitological load, and diversity of Eimeria species. This study was conducted in the Quenamari community located in the Peruvian Andes (Marangani, Cuzco) at 4500 m above sea level. All fecal samples were examined for parasites using the quantitative McMaster and modified Stoll techniques. Microscopic examination showed the presence of Eimeria oocysts in 68 out of the 78 samples (87.18%). Among the 78 samples we found E. lamae in 67 (85.90%), E. punoensis in 49 (62.82%), E. alpacae in 42 (53.85%), E. macusaniensis in 32 (41.03%), and E. ivitaensis in four (5.13%). Regarding parasitized crias, overall there was a mean parasitological load of 43,920 oocysts per gram of feces (OPG). Eimeria lamae had the highest parasitological load (mean 206,600 OPG). These findings could be due to environmental contamination with oocysts of different Eimeria species. Additional research is needed to determine if this burden of coccidiosis could produce subclinical impacts to the health of alpaca crias.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos , Coccidiose/veterinária , Diarreia/veterinária , Animais , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/parasitologia , Eimeria , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Oocistos/isolamento & purificação , Peru/epidemiologia , Prevalência
12.
Life Sci ; 283: 119872, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352261

RESUMO

The interaction of Toxoplasma gondii with the gastrointestinal tract of its host is highly regulated. Once ingested, the parasite crosses the epithelium without altering the permeability of the intestinal barrier. Nevertheless, many studies report alterations ranging from structural to functional damage in cells and tissues that make up the wall of the small and large intestine. Although the immune response to the parasite has been extensively studied, the role of serotonin (5-HT) in toxoplasmosis is poorly understood. Here we investigate the distribution of cells expressing 5-HT and its effects on cells and tissues of the jejunal wall of rats after 2, 3, or 7 days of T. gondii infection. KEY RESULTS: Our results show that transposition of the jejunal epithelium by T. gondii leads to ruptures in the basement membrane and activation of the immune system, as confirmed by the decrease in laminin immunostaining and the increase in the number of mast cells, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND INFERENCES: We showed an increase in the number of enterochromaffin cells and mast cells expressing 5-HT in the jejunal wall. We also observed that the percentage of serotonergic mast cells increased in the total population. Thus, we can suggest that oral infection by T. gondii oocysts preferentially activates non-neuronal cells expressing 5-HT. Together, these results may explain both the changes in the extracellular matrix and the morphology of the enteric ganglia.


Assuntos
Células Enterocromafins , Jejuno , Oocistos/metabolismo , Serotonina/biossíntese , Toxoplasma/metabolismo , Toxoplasmose/metabolismo , Doença Aguda , Animais , Células Enterocromafins/metabolismo , Células Enterocromafins/parasitologia , Jejuno/metabolismo , Jejuno/parasitologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
13.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 373, 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium sp., which causes malaria, must first develop in mosquitoes before being transmitted. Upon ingesting infected blood, gametes form in the mosquito lumen, followed by fertilization and differentiation of the resulting zygotes into motile ookinetes. Within 24 h of blood ingestion, these ookinetes traverse mosquito epithelial cells and lodge below the midgut basal lamina, where they differentiate into sessile oocysts that are protected by a capsule. METHODS: We identified an ookinete surface and oocyst capsule protein (OSCP) that is involved in ookinete motility as well as oocyst capsule formation. RESULTS: We found that knockout of OSCP in parasite decreases ookinete gliding motility and gradually reduces the number of oocysts. On day 15 after blood ingestion, the oocyst wall was significantly thinner. Moreover, adding anti-OSCP antibodies decreased the gliding speed of wild-type ookinetes in vitro. Adding anti-OSCP antibodies to an infected blood meal also resulted in decreased oocyst formation. CONCLUSION: These findings may be useful for the development of a transmission-blocking tool for malaria.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Culicidae/parasitologia , Malária/parasitologia , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Plasmodium berghei/fisiologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Malária/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Oocistos , Plasmodium berghei/genética , Plasmodium berghei/imunologia , Plasmodium berghei/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética
14.
Ann Parasitol ; 67(2): 137-149, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331850

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii occurred in terrestrial and marine environments. Many people still do not realize that how important are the role of prevention, especially hygiene and proper food processing as well as diagnostics for pregnant women. Humans become infected with T. gondii primarily by eating raw or undercooked meat containing tissue cysts, or by ingesting oocysts with contaminated water or food (e.g. vegetables), very rarely by blood transfusion or organ transplantation. The new risk is consumption raw mussels in this oyster or blue mussels. Other invertebrates, such as some of crustaceans, are also capable of bioaccumulation of oocysts in their body. Invertebrates are mainly responsible for the spread of toxoplasmosis among marine animals, but if eaten raw, they can also be a risk factor for humans. This indicate the need to monitor also other species of invertebrates, especially those consumed by humans, due to possibility of being vector of T. gondii. Most adults do not have clinical symptoms. However, primary infection is dangerous in pregnant women due to the possibility of intrauterine infection of the fetus and the occurrence of congenital toxoplasmosis. The group of people who may develop clinical symptoms also include immunocompromised persons, especially those suffering from AIDS and treated with immunosuppressive drugs. Especially this group of people should receive actual information about all potential sources of infection due to the still low public awareness of threats. This paper presents a life cycle and transmission routes of T. gondii in terrestrial and marine environments with an indication of the importance for public health.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Oocistos , Gravidez , Saúde Pública , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(8): 496, 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282498

RESUMO

The objectives of this research are to evaluate Giardia and Cryptosporidium contamination in surface water supply in Rio Grande do Sul (RS) State in South Brazil in the years 2016 to 2020, assess seasonality, and to infer the population that may have been exposed to these protozoa through drinking water based on drinking water treatment efficiency. Data were obtained through the drinking water surveillance national information system. From 204 DWT plants in the state, 66 have been analyzed for protozoa. A total of 2304 analyses of protozoa in raw water were evaluated, of which 223 had both Giardia spp. cysts and/or Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in concentrations that varied from 0.1 to 21.5/L. A total of 2,712,125 people from 48 cities were at risk of having the presence of pathogenic protozoa in their drinking water. The probability of finding these protozoa was higher in winter. Giardia cysts were more likely to be found in a period without rain, suggesting that sewage was the main source of contamination. It is concluded that the springs of Rio Grande do Sul are impacted and the circulation of pathogenic protozoa through the territory is endemic with a probable source of contamination to sewage and livestock activity.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , Brasil , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Giardia , Humanos , Oocistos , Abastecimento de Água
16.
Res Vet Sci ; 139: 59-66, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252703

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the disease severity and local immune responses in macrophage-depleted chicks with Eimeria tenella. Macrophages were reduced by intraperitoneal injection of a carrageenan solution at 12, 13, and 16 days old, whereas the control group received intraperitoneal phosphate-buffered saline. Both chick groups were orally inoculated with E. tenella sporulated oocysts at 14 days old. Feces were collected daily, which were then quantified for oocysts. The chicks were sacrificed on day 5, and the ceca were collected for histopathological observation. The gene expression levels were measured using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Macrophage-depleted chicks have been observed to shed a significantly reduced number of fecal oocysts compared to the infected control group. The parasite burden score in cecum specimens of macrophage-depleted chicks was significantly lower than those of infected control on day 5 after infection. Furthermore, macrophage reduction yielded significantly lower cecum histopathological scores and CD4 expression than those of the infected control group. The expression of interleukin (IL)-18, IL-22, interferon-γ, and inducible nitric oxide synthase was also noted to be significantly upregulated in both infected control and macrophage-depleted chicks compared to uninfected chicks. IL-4, IL-13, IL-17, and perforin expressions were also higher with macrophage depletion than in both control groups. These results suggest that macrophages serve as an invasive gate or a transporting vehicle to the site of first merogony. Furthermore, mononuclear phagocytes may play an important role in local immune responses, thus contributing to parasite development during early E. tenella infection.


Assuntos
Carragenina , Coccidiose , Eimeria tenella , Macrófagos , Oocistos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Ceco , Galinhas , Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia
17.
Parasitol Res ; 120(8): 2973-2979, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236530

RESUMO

We detected Eimeria oocysts from Japanese green pheasants (Phasianus versicolor) at a zoo in Osaka, Japan. The oocyst isolates were subspherical or ovoidal shaped and measured 17.2 (range 14.7-20.0) µm in length and 14.8 (13.3-16.7) µm in width with a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.2 (1.0-1.4) and each had one polar granule. The oocysts lacked a residuum and micropyle. Sporocysts measured 9.8 (6.7-13.3) µm in length and 5.9 (4.7-7.3) µm in width, with a L/W ratio of 1.2 (1.1-1.4). Compared to previously published values, this strain shows morphological similarities with an isolate of E. teetartooimia from ring-necked pheasants from other countries. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rRNA and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I genes places the isolate in a clade related to chicken Eimeria spp., such as E. acervulina or E. brunetti. Although further analysis is needed, this information can be helpful for the diagnosis and determination of virulence of Eimeria spp. in pheasants.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Eimeria , Galliformes , Oocistos , Animais , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/citologia , Eimeria/genética , Fezes , Galliformes/parasitologia , Japão , Oocistos/citologia , Oocistos/genética , Filogenia
18.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 308, 2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coccidiosis caused by Eimeria stiedae is a widespread and economically significant disease of rabbits. The lack of studies on the life-cycle development and host interactions of E. stiedae at the molecular level has hampered our understanding of its pathogenesis. METHODS: In this study, we present a comprehensive transcriptome landscape of E. stiedae to illustrate its dynamic development from unsporulated oocysts to sporulated oocysts, merozoites, and gametocytes, and to identify genes related to parasite-host interactions during parasitism using combined PacBio single-molecule real-time and Illumina RNA sequencing followed by bioinformatics analysis and qRT-PCR validation. RESULTS: In total, 12,582 non-redundant full-length transcripts were generated with an average length of 1808 bp from the life-cycle stages of E. stiedae. Pairwise comparisons between stages revealed 8775 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) showing highly significant description changes, which compiled a snapshot of the mechanisms underlining asexual and sexual biology of E. stiedae including oocyst sporulation between unsporulated and sporulated oocysts; merozoite replication between sporulated oocysts and merozoites; and gametophyte development and gamete generation between merozoites and gametocytes. Further, 248 DEGs were grouped into nine series clusters and five groups by expression patterns, and showed that parasite-host interaction-related genes predominated in merozoites and gametocytes and were mostly involved in steroid biosynthesis and lipid metabolism and carboxylic acid. Additionally, co-expression analyses identified genes associated with development and host invasion in unsporulated and sporulated oocysts and immune interactions during gametocyte parasitism. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study, to our knowledge, to use the global transcriptome profiles to decipher molecular changes across the E. stiedae life cycle, and these results not only provide important information for the molecular characterization of E. stiedae, but also offer valuable resources to study other apicomplexan parasites with veterinary and public significance.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/genética , Coelhos/parasitologia , Transcriptoma , Animais , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Eimeria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Eimeria/metabolismo , Merozoítos/genética , Merozoítos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Merozoítos/metabolismo , Oocistos/genética , Oocistos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oocistos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA
19.
Trop Med Int Health ; 26(9): 1029-1035, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089555

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our previous transcriptome analysis of Anopheles dirus revealed upregulation of the An. dirus yellow-g gene upon ingestion of Plasmodium vivax-infected blood. This gene belongs to the yellow gene family, but its role regarding P. vivax infection is not known and remains to be validated. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the An. dirus yellow-g gene in P. vivax infection. METHODS: The qRT-PCR was used to detect the expression of the yellow-g gene in many organs of both male and female mosquitos. The yellow-g gene silencing was performed by dsRNA membrane feeding to An. dirus. These mosquitoes were later challenged by P. vivax-infected blood. The oocyst numbers were determined. RESULTS: The yellow-g transcript was detected in several organs of both male and female An. dirus mosquitoes. Successful knockdown of yellow-g was achieved and resulted in reduced P. vivax infection in the mosquitoes. The decrease in yellow-g expression had no effect on the life span of the mosquitoes. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the yellow-g gene as having an important function in Plasmodium development in Anopheles mosquitoes.


Assuntos
Anopheles/genética , Malária Vivax/genética , Plasmodium vivax/genética , Animais , Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Genes de Insetos , Oocistos/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários
20.
Food Microbiol ; 99: 103798, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119093

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii infection can result in toxoplasmosis and potential psychological effects. Research commonly focuses on infection through contact with cat fecal matter or consumption of contaminated meat. However, T. gondii oocysts can persist in the environment for years and may be present in soils and on soil-grown produce. Rates of oocyst DNA recovery from produce were high, with 18% of vegetable samples testing positive for T. gondii via PCR test and melt curve analysis. Radishes had significantly higher oocyst counts than arugula, collard greens, kale, lettuce, and spinach. There were no significant differences in oocyst detection rates between samples taken from organic farmer's markets and conventional grocery stores. This study demonstrates that these oocysts can transfer to produce grown both conventionally and using organic techniques.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Verduras/parasitologia , Alimentos Orgânicos/parasitologia , Oocistos/classificação , Oocistos/genética , Oocistos/isolamento & purificação , Agricultura Orgânica/métodos , Solo/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/classificação , Toxoplasma/genética , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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