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2.
Trials ; 21(1): 765, 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891161

RESUMO

Whilst the issues around early termination of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are well documented in the literature, trials can also be temporarily suspended with the real prospect that they may subsequently restart. There is little guidance in the literature as to how to manage such a temporary suspension. In this paper, we describe the temporary suspension of a trial within our clinical trials unit because of concerns over the safety of transvaginal synthetic mesh implants. We also describe the challenges, considerations, and lessons learnt during the suspension that we are now applying in the current COVID-19 pandemic which has led to activities in many RCTs across the world undergoing a temporary suspension.There were three key phases within the temporary suspension: the decision to suspend, implementation of the suspension, and restarting. Each of these phases presented individual challenges which are discussed within this paper, along with the lessons learnt. There were obvious challenges around recruitment, delivery of the intervention, and follow-up. Additional challenges included communication between stakeholders, evolving risk assessment, updates to trial protocol and associated paperwork, maintaining site engagement, data-analysis, and workload within the trial team and Sponsor organisation.Based on our experience of managing a temporary suspension, we developed an action plan and guidance (see Additional File 1) for managing a significant trial event, such as a temporary suspension. We have used this document to help us manage the suspension of activities within our portfolio of trials during the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Término Precoce de Ensaios Clínicos , Humanos , Pandemias , Segurança do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Opinião Pública , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
3.
J Law Med ; 27(4): 937-951, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880411

RESUMO

In November of 2019, New Zealand's Parliament enacted the End of Life Choice Act 2019 (NZ) to authorise the administration of a lethal dose of medication to competent adults suffering from a terminal illness likely to end his or her life within six months, should they directly and voluntarily request it. However, before this legislation can enter into force, it must be approved by a majority of voters at a referendum held at the next general election. This article traces how the End of Life Choice Act 2019 came to be enacted and examines the existing data on public opinion in order to provide a cautious prediction as to that referendum vote's likely result.


Assuntos
Suicídio Assistido , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Opinião Pública
4.
Sci Adv ; 6(28): eabc2717, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923600

RESUMO

Cues sent by political elites are known to influence public attitudes and behavior. Polarization in elite rhetoric may hinder effective responses to public health crises, when accurate information and rapid behavioral change can save lives. We examine polarization in cues sent to the public by current members of the U.S. House and Senate during the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, measuring polarization as the ability to correctly classify the partisanship of tweets' authors based solely on the text and the dates they were sent. We find that Democrats discussed the crisis more frequently-emphasizing threats to public health and American workers-while Republicans placed greater emphasis on China and businesses. Polarization in elite discussion of the COVID-19 pandemic peaked in mid-February-weeks after the first confirmed case in the United States-and continued into March. These divergent cues correspond with a partisan divide in the public's early reaction to the crisis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Consenso , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Política , Saúde Pública , Opinião Pública , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Neuron ; 106(6): 884-889, 2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883486

RESUMO

In a candid interview with Neuron, Nikos K. Logothetis shares memories about his rich scientific past and argues about the importance of animal research and the role of science in society. He also talks about his new job and future plans as co-director of the International Center for Primate Brain Research in Shanghai.


Assuntos
Experimentação Animal , Encéfalo , Neurociências , Direitos dos Animais , Animais , Humanos , Primatas , Opinião Pública , Pesquisa
6.
Lancet ; 396(10255): 898-908, 2020 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence of vaccine delays or refusals due to a lack of trust in the importance, safety, or effectiveness of vaccines, alongside persisting access issues. Although immunisation coverage is reported administratively across the world, no similarly robust monitoring system exists for vaccine confidence. In this study, vaccine confidence was mapped across 149 countries between 2015 and 2019. METHODS: In this large-scale retrospective data-driven analysis, we examined global trends in vaccine confidence using data from 290 surveys done between September, 2015, and December, 2019, across 149 countries, and including 284 381 individuals. We used a Bayesian multinomial logit Gaussian process model to produce estimates of public perceptions towards the safety, importance, and effectiveness of vaccines. Associations between vaccine uptake and a large range of putative drivers of uptake, including vaccine confidence, socioeconomic status, and sources of trust, were determined using univariate Bayesian logistic regressions. Gibbs sampling was used for Bayesian model inference, with 95% Bayesian highest posterior density intervals used to capture uncertainty. FINDINGS: Between November, 2015, and December, 2019, we estimate that confidence in the importance, safety, and effectiveness of vaccines fell in Afghanistan, Indonesia, Pakistan, the Philippines, and South Korea. We found significant increases in respondents strongly disagreeing that vaccines are safe between 2015 and 2019 in six countries: Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Indonesia, Nigeria, Pakistan, and Serbia. We find signs that confidence has improved between 2018 and 2019 in some EU member states, including Finland, France, Ireland, and Italy, with recent losses detected in Poland. Confidence in the importance of vaccines (rather than in their safety or effectiveness) had the strongest univariate association with vaccine uptake compared with other determinants considered. When a link was found between individuals' religious beliefs and uptake, findings indicated that minority religious groups tended to have lower probabilities of uptake. INTERPRETATION: To our knowledge, this is the largest study of global vaccine confidence to date, allowing for cross-country comparisons and changes over time. Our findings highlight the importance of regular monitoring to detect emerging trends to prompt interventions to build and sustain vaccine confidence. FUNDING: European Commission, Wellcome, and Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Vacinação em Massa/psicologia , Opinião Pública , Confiança , Vacinas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Vacinação em Massa/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vacinas/efeitos adversos
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239693, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970761

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine perceptions, behaviors, and impacts surrounding COVID-19 early in the pandemic response. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 1,030 U.S. adults was administered on March 31st, 2020. This survey examined attitudes toward media, government, and community responses to COVID-19 by political ideology and sociodemographic factors. Knowledge, anxieties, and impacts of COVID-19 were also assessed. RESULTS: Conservatives were more likely to report that COVID-19 was receiving too much media coverage and people were generally overreacting; liberals were more likely to report the government had not done enough in response to the pandemic. Females and those with lower income experienced more COVID-19 related economic anxieties. Those working and with children at home reported higher social, home, and work disruption. Social distancing behaviors were more common among liberals and were associated with increases in depressive symptoms. General knowledge about COVID-19 was widely exhibited across the sample, however, Black and Hispanic respondents were less likely to correctly answer questions about the availability of a vaccine and modes of transmission. CONCLUSIONS: Public health experts should consider the political climate in crafting messaging that appeals to the values of those across the political spectrum. Research on the COVID-19 pandemic should continue to monitor the effects of social distancing on mental health and among vulnerable populations.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Política , Opinião Pública , Isolamento Social , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Depressão , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987914

RESUMO

Italy was the first European country to be affected by COVID-19, facing an unprecedented situation. The reaction required drastic solutions and highly restrictive measures, which severely tested the trust of the Italian people. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of the introduced measures was not only linked to political decisions, but also to the choice of the Italian people to trust and rely on institutions, accepting such necessary measures. In this context, the role of information sources was fundamental, since they strongly influence public opinion. The central focus of this research was to assess the information seeking behavior (ISB) of the Italian citizens, to understand how they related to information and how their specific use of information influenced public opinion. By making use of a survey addressed to 4260 Italian citizens, we identified extraordinarily virtuous behavior in the population: people strongly modified their ISB in order to address the most reliable sources. In particular, we found a very high reliance on scientists, which is particularly striking, if compared to the past. Moreover, starting from the survey results, we used social simulation to estimate the evolution of public opinion. Comparing the ISB during and before COVID-19, we discovered that the shift in the ISB, during the pandemic, may have actually positively influenced public opinion, facilitating the acceptance of the costly restrictions introduced.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Opinião Pública , Betacoronavirus , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Itália
12.
S Afr Med J ; 110(9): 894-902, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak is in an accelerating phase, and South Africa (SA) has had the highest number of documented cases during the early phase of the pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVES: To assess South Africans' understanding of and response to COVID-19 during the first week of the country's lockdown period. METHODS: An online survey was conducted in SA from 27 March to 2 April 2020. The survey was distributed widely among several websites and social media networks, including on a data-free platform. Descriptive statistics of knowledge, risk perception, access to and trust in information sources, and public and media opinions were calculated. Estimates were benchmarked to the 2019 national adult population estimates. RESULTS: Of the 55 823 participants, the majority (83.4%) correctly identified the main symptoms of COVID-19. Over 90% had correct knowledge of the incubation period, with lower rates for 18 - 29-year-olds. Knowledge of symptoms and the incubation period varied significantly by population group (p<0.001), dwelling type (p<0.001) and sex (p<0.001). A quarter (24.9%) perceived themselves as at high risk of contracting COVID-19. Risk perception varied by age, population group, employment status and dwelling type (p<0.001). The most prevalent COVID-19 information sources were government sources (72.9%), news websites/apps (56.3%), satellite television (51.6%) and local television (51.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Understanding knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of people facing the COVID-19 pandemic is crucial for guiding strategic policy. These findings provide public understanding of COVID-19 as the phases of the country-level epidemic progress, and also directly inform communication needs and gaps.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Acesso à Informação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Opinião Pública , África do Sul , Inquéritos e Questionários , Confiança , Adulto Jovem
14.
N Z Med J ; 133(1522): 18-29, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994613

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate how New Zealand newsprint media shapes discourse about dementia through its framing of the causes, effects and solutions, and who bears responsibility for the disease. METHODS: Using New Zealand's three largest daily newspapers, we examined i) the coverage of dementia between 2012-2016, ii) the framing of causes and effects of dementia, and iii) the most frequent associations of causes and effects of dementia. We integrated the findings to assess the moral evaluation of dementia in New Zealand newsprint media. RESULTS: Of the 361 articles extracted all presented effects of dementia, 35% discussed causes and 7% mentioned solutions for dementia. Medical causes dominated over health behavioural and societal causes, and effects were mostly the negative impact on the individual, family and society. Modifiable medical causes were more likely to be associated with adverse outcomes for society whereas non-modifiable medical causes were more likely to be associated with adverse outcomes for the individual and/or their family. CONCLUSIONS: Between 2012-16 New Zealand newsprint media largely portrayed dementia from a 'powerless victim' frame. Further research is required to assess whether, since 2016, there has been a shift towards media framing of dementia as potentially preventable and a social justice issue.


Assuntos
Demência/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Opinião Pública , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Nova Zelândia , Estigma Social
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927793

RESUMO

Public health has been under continuous threat worldwide in recent years. This study examined the impact of social support and social trust on the activities and efficacy of the public's risk response in the case of COVID-19. We conducted an online survey over eight days with 620 Korean adult participants. Data were analyzed using structural equation modelling and K-means cluster analysis. Our results showed that public support had a positive impact on response efficacy, while response efficacy had a positive impact on sanitation, distancing, and purchasing activities. In addition, social support positively moderated the impact of public and individual support on response efficacy, while response efficacy negatively moderated the impact on sanitation activities. These results suggest that, first, amid viral risk, governments should proactively supply tools and information for infection-prevention, and deliver messages that encourage and support infection-prevention activities among the public. Second, when viral risk occurs, governments, along with all other members of society, must engage in aggressive risk response measures. Third, there is a need for risk communication that further emphasizes the importance of personal sanitation activities in the face of viral risk.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Opinião Pública , Confiança , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Humanos , República da Coreia , Saneamento , Isolamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e19788, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: South Korea is among the best-performing countries in tackling the coronavirus pandemic by using mass drive-through testing, face mask use, and extensive social distancing. However, understanding the patterns of risk perception could also facilitate effective risk communication to minimize the impacts of disease spread during this crisis. OBJECTIVE: We attempt to explore patterns of community health risk perceptions of COVID-19 in South Korea using internet search data. METHODS: Google Trends (GT) and NAVER relative search volumes (RSVs) data were collected using COVID-19-related terms in the Korean language and were retrieved according to time, gender, age groups, types of device, and location. Online queries were compared to the number of daily new COVID-19 cases and tests reported in the Kaggle open-access data set for the time period of December 5, 2019, to May 31, 2020. Time-lag correlations calculated by Spearman rank correlation coefficients were employed to assess whether correlations between new COVID-19 cases and internet searches were affected by time. We also constructed a prediction model of new COVID-19 cases using the number of COVID-19 cases, tests, and GT and NAVER RSVs in lag periods (of 1-3 days). Single and multiple regressions were employed using backward elimination and a variance inflation factor of <5. RESULTS: The numbers of COVID-19-related queries in South Korea increased during local events including local transmission, approval of coronavirus test kits, implementation of coronavirus drive-through tests, a face mask shortage, and a widespread campaign for social distancing as well as during international events such as the announcement of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization. Online queries were also stronger in women (r=0.763-0.823; P<.001) and age groups ≤29 years (r=0.726-0.821; P<.001), 30-44 years (r=0.701-0.826; P<.001), and ≥50 years (r=0.706-0.725; P<.001). In terms of spatial distribution, internet search data were higher in affected areas. Moreover, greater correlations were found in mobile searches (r=0.704-0.804; P<.001) compared to those of desktop searches (r=0.705-0.717; P<.001), indicating changing behaviors in searching for online health information during the outbreak. These varied internet searches related to COVID-19 represented community health risk perceptions. In addition, as a country with a high number of coronavirus tests, results showed that adults perceived coronavirus test-related information as being more important than disease-related knowledge. Meanwhile, younger, and older age groups had different perceptions. Moreover, NAVER RSVs can potentially be used for health risk perception assessments and disease predictions. Adding COVID-19-related searches provided by NAVER could increase the performance of the model compared to that of the COVID-19 case-based model and potentially be used to predict epidemic curves. CONCLUSIONS: The use of both GT and NAVER RSVs to explore patterns of community health risk perceptions could be beneficial for targeting risk communication from several perspectives, including time, population characteristics, and location.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Internet , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Opinião Pública , Ferramenta de Busca , Adolescente , Adulto , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Saúde Pública , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
17.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e220, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951623

RESUMO

Due to the outbreak of the deadly coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19), Wuhan was on lockdown for more than 60 days by the state government. This study investigated the perceptions and attitudes of the public on quarantine as a practical approach to halting the spread of COVID-19. An online survey was conducted via WeChat between 10 January 2020 and 10 March 2020 on the general population in Hubei province at the height of the COVID-19 outbreak. In total, 549 respondents participated in the survey. Results revealed that the public displayed significantly strong support towards quarantine throughout the outbreak period, apart from locking people up and using imprisonment legal sanctions against those who failed to comply with the stringent regulations. The support exerted by the public stemmed from the execution of authorised officers to protect the public interest and provision of psychosocial support for those affected. In situations where quarantine could not be imposed, public health policy-makers and government officials should implement an extensive system of psychosocial support to safeguard, instruct and inform frontline public health workers. The public should also be enlisted in an open conversation concerning the ethical utility of restrictive values during the COVID-19 outbreak.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Opinião Pública , Quarentena , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Governo Estadual , Adulto Jovem
18.
IEEE Pulse ; 11(4): 34-36, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804641

RESUMO

After initial assertions that the wearing of face masks was an unnecessary public health tool in the prevention of the spread of Covid-19, the advice coming out of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) suddenly changed. In early April, the CDC issued new guidelines advising people to wear face coverings in public settings where social distancing is difficult.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Máscaras , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Saúde Pública , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Liberdade , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Opinião Pública , Estados Unidos , Precauções Universais/legislação & jurisprudência , Precauções Universais/métodos
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236917, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The extent to which people implement government-issued protective measures is critical in preventing further spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Our study aimed to describe the public belief in the effectiveness of protective measures, the reported implementation of these measures, and to identify communication channels used to acquire information on COVID-19 in European countries during the early stage of the pandemic. METHODS AND FINDINGS: An online survey available in multiple languages was disseminated starting on March 19th, 2020. After five days, we computed descriptive statistics for countries with more than 500 respondents. Each day, we assessed enacted community containment measures by stage of stringency (I-IV). In total, 9,796 adults responded, of whom 8,611 resided in the Netherlands (stage III), 604 in Germany (stage III), and 581 in Italy (stage IV). To explore possible dynamics as containment strategies intensified, we also included 1,365 responses submitted during the following week. Participants indicated support for governmental measures related to avoiding social gatherings, selective closure of public places, and hand hygiene and respiratory measures (range for all measures: 95.0%-99.7%). Respondents from the Netherlands less frequently considered a complete social lockdown effective (59.2%), compared to respondents in Germany (76.6%) or Italy (87.2%). Italian residents applied enforced social distancing measures more frequently (range: 90.2%-99.3%, German and Dutch residents: 67.5%-97.0%) and self-initiated hygienic and social distancing behaviors (range: 36.3%-96.6%, German and Dutch residents: 28.3%-95.7%). Respondents reported being sufficiently informed about the outbreak and behaviors to avoid infection (range: 90.2%-91.1%). Information channels most commonly reported included television newspapers, official health websites, and social media. One week later, we observed no major differences in submitted responses. CONCLUSIONS: During the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic, belief in the effectiveness of protective measures among survey respondents from three European countries was high and participants reported feeling sufficiently informed. In March 2020, implementation of measures differed between countries and were highest among respondents from Italy, who were subjected to the most stringent lockdown measures and greatest COVID-19 burden in Europe during this period.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Opinião Pública , Quarentena , Comportamento Social , Mídias Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236157, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764767

RESUMO

Despite significant potential for providing insight to private perceptions and behaviors, search engine data has yet to be utilized as a means of gauging the U.S. public's interest and understanding of mental health in the context of gun violence and politics. An analysis of Google Trends revealed that Mental health searches increased in volume starting in the beginning of the current decade. Notably, both "mental health" and "gun(s)" were searched with greater frequency the week after the mass shooting events occurred. Related searches after the event also observed a significant increase in interest in mental health and gun regulation, legal reform, mass shootings, and gun(s). Results suggest that the American public's perception of mental illness increasingly incorporates associations with themes of violence and politics, which becomes more apparent surrounding mass shooting events. Future studies are needed to determine implications for stigmatization of vulnerable groups, and possible relations to media coverage.


Assuntos
Violência com Arma de Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Política , Violência com Arma de Fogo/psicologia , Humanos , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa/psicologia , Opinião Pública , Ferramenta de Busca/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
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