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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444578

RESUMO

Recently, 194 World Health Organization member states called on the international organization to develop a global campaign to combat ageism, citing its alarming ubiquity, insidious threat to health, and prevalence in the media. Existing media studies of age stereotypes have mostly been single-sourced. This study harnesses a 1.1-billion-word media database comprising the British National Corpus and Corpus of Contemporary American English-with genres including spoken/television, fiction, magazines, newspapers-to provide a comprehensive view of ageism in the United Kingdom and United States. The US and UK were chosen as they are home to the largest media conglomerates with tremendous power to shape public opinion. The most commonly used synonym of older adults was identified, and its most frequently used descriptors were analyzed for valence. Such computational linguistics techniques represent a new advance in studying aging narratives. The key finding is consistent, though no less alarming: Negative descriptions of older adults outnumber positive ones by six times. Negative descriptions tend to be physical, while positive ones tend to be behavioral. Magazines contain the highest levels of ageism, followed by the spoken genre, newspapers, and fiction. Findings underscore the need to increase public awareness of ageism and lay the groundwork to design targeted societal campaigns to tackle ageism-one of our generation's most pernicious threats.


Assuntos
Ageismo , Estereotipagem , Opinião Pública , Televisão , Estados Unidos
2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 702146, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34447736

RESUMO

Background: Policymakers must promote the development of public health education and human resources. As a feature of the political environment, public opinion is essential for policy-making, but virtually the attitudes of Chinese citizens toward human resources development in public health is unknown. Methods: This study conducted a crosssectional survey from February 4, 2021 to February 26, 2021 in China. We adopted a convenient sampling strategy to recruit participators. Participants filled out the questions, which assess the attitudes of the expanding public health professionals. A logistic regression analysis was given to identify the predictors associated with the attitudes of the subjects. Results: There were 2,361 residents who have finished our questionnaire. Chinese residents who lived in urban (OR = 1.293, 95% CI = 1.051-1.591), "themselves or relatives and friends have participated in relevant epidemic prevention work" (OR = 1.553, 95% CI = 1.160-2.079), "themselves or family members engaged in medical-related work" (OR = 1.468, 95% CI = 1.048-2.056), and those who "were aware of public health before the outbreak of COVID-19" (OR = 1.428, 95% CI = 1.125-1.812) were more likely to support the promotion of public health education and training. Conclusions: The present study found that 74.50% of Chinese citizens supported the promotion of public health education and training in China, in which economic status, personal perception, and comprehension are the crucial factors that influence public opinion. COVID-19 has aroused the attention of Chinese residents to public health education, with only 22.11% of residents being aware of public health before the outbreak of COVID-19. The COVID-19 pandemic has profound implications for human society. Literally, this impact will feed back into future public health policies based on public opinion. This innovative perspective will also help us better understand the potential social impact of COVID-19 on human resources and development for health in the modern world.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , China/epidemiologia , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Motivação , Opinião Pública , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(9): e599-e611, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446266

RESUMO

Artificial intelligence (AI) promises to change health care, with some studies showing proof of concept of a provider-level performance in various medical specialties. However, there are many barriers to implementing AI, including patient acceptance and understanding of AI. Patients' attitudes toward AI are not well understood. We systematically reviewed the literature on patient and general public attitudes toward clinical AI (either hypothetical or realised), including quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods original research articles. We searched biomedical and computational databases from Jan 1, 2000, to Sept 28, 2020, and screened 2590 articles, 23 of which met our inclusion criteria. Studies were heterogeneous regarding the study population, study design, and the field and type of AI under study. Six (26%) studies assessed currently available or soon-to-be available AI tools, whereas 17 (74%) assessed hypothetical or broadly defined AI. The quality of the methods of these studies was mixed, with a frequent issue of selection bias. Overall, patients and the general public conveyed positive attitudes toward AI but had many reservations and preferred human supervision. We summarise our findings in six themes: AI concept, AI acceptability, AI relationship with humans, AI development and implementation, AI strengths and benefits, and AI weaknesses and risks. We suggest guidance for future studies, with the goal of supporting the safe, equitable, and patient-centred implementation of clinical AI.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Atitude Frente aos Computadores , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Pacientes/psicologia , Opinião Pública , Humanos
4.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256241, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388215

RESUMO

The importance of researching public support for preventive policies have been amplified by the COVID-19 pandemic. Using a representative sample of the Hungarian population, we investigated the support for commonly used preventive measures (social distancing, hand hygiene and wearing masks) comparing two different policy tools (nudges and regulations). Because of the high risk and unfamiliarity of the pandemic, the respondents' risk perception and experience with the disease was also assessed. All preventive measures were generally supported and, contrary to the findings of previous nudge research, there was no clear pattern whether regulations or nudges are preferred. People with higher level of risk perception supported both types of policies more but slightly favoured the regulations. Those who had contact with the disease (either themselves or a close friend or family member contracting COVID-19) reported a higher level of risk perception. When the person themselves was afflicted, this higher levels of risk perception did not translate to a higher level of support, moreover, it even decreased support for the regulations according to regression analysis. In case of a loved one contracting the disease, there was an increased support for both types of measures, but that is explained by the higher risk perception.


Assuntos
Atitude , COVID-19/psicologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Opinião Pública , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Hungria , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assunção de Riscos
5.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256212, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388225

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented public health crisis with broad social and economic consequences. We conducted four surveys between April and August 2020 using the graph-based open-ended survey (GOS) framework, and investigated the most pressing concerns and issues for the general public in Japan. The GOS framework is a hybrid of the two traditional survey frameworks that allows respondents to post their opinions in a free-format style, which can subsequently serve as one of the choice items for other respondents, just as in a multiple-choice survey. As a result, this framework generates an opinion graph that relates opinions and respondents. We can also construct annotated opinion graphs to achieve a higher resolution. By clustering the annotated opinion graphs, we revealed the characteristic evolution of the response patterns as well as the interconnectedness and multi-faceted nature of opinions. Substantively, our notable finding is that "social pressure," not "infection risk," was one of the major concerns of our respondents. Social pressure refers to criticism and discrimination that they anticipate receiving from others should they contract COVID-19. It is possible that the collectivist nature of Japanese culture coupled with the government's policy of relying on personal responsibility to combat COVID-19 explains some of the above findings, as the latter has led to the emergence of vigilantes. The presence of mutual surveillance can contribute to growing skepticism toward others as well as fear of ostracism, which may have negative consequences at both the societal and individual levels.


Assuntos
Atitude , COVID-19/psicologia , Opinião Pública , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Japão , Quarentena/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256014, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415941

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Eradicated infectious diseases like smallpox can re-emerge through accident or the designs of bioterrorists, and cause heavy casualties. Presently, the populace is largely susceptible as only a small percentage is vaccinated, and their immunity is likely to have waned. And when the disease re-emerges, the susceptible individuals may be manipulated by disinformation on Social Media to refuse vaccines. Thus, a combination of countermeasures consisting of antiviral drugs and vaccines and a range of policies for their application need to be investigated. Opinions regarding whether to receive vaccines evolve over time through social exchanges via networks that overlap with but are not identical to the disease propagation networks. These couple the spread of the biological and information contagion and necessitate a joint investigation of the two. METHODS: We develop a computationally tractable metapopulation epidemiological model that captures the joint spatio-temporal evolution of an infectious disease (e.g., smallpox, COVID-19) and opinion dynamics. RESULTS: Considering smallpox, the computations based on the model show that opinion dynamics have a substantial impact on the fatality count. Towards understanding how perpetrators are likely to seed the infection, we identify a) the initial distribution of infected individuals that maximize the overall fatality count; and b) which habitation structures are more vulnerable to outbreaks. We assess the relative efficacy of different countermeasures and conclude that a combination of vaccines and drugs minimize the fatalities, and by itself, drugs reduce fatalities more than the vaccine. Accordingly, we assess the impact of increase in the supply of drugs and identify the most effective among a collection of policies for administering of drugs for various parameter combinations. Many of the observed patterns are stable to variations of a diverse set of parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide a quantitative foundation for various important elements of public health discourse that have largely been conducted qualitatively.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Opinião Pública , Varíola/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Mortalidade , Densidade Demográfica , Guerra Psicológica , Varíola/tratamento farmacológico , Varíola/epidemiologia , Varíola/transmissão , Vacina Antivariólica/uso terapêutico , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Processos Estocásticos , Recusa de Vacinação/psicologia
8.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1545, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384378

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: This study examined the dynamic association between risk communication and the public's risk perception and action across the COVID-19 outbreak timeline in China. METHODS: This study collected publicly available information on COVID-19 released on official channels (e.g., government websites and official media) by the Parehub tool. Also, the study used the Zhongyun Big Data Platform to search public datasets about released COVID-19 information on Chinese social media, such as TikTok and Weibo. An online survey was conducted via WeChat to Chinese citizens using a snowball sampling method. The questionnaire assessed changes in participants' risk perception and action against COVID-19. The data analysis examined information content and release-time trajectories against the public's risk perception and actions over time. RESULTS: Altogether, the collected data includes 1477 pieces of authorized information and 297,000 short videos on COVID-19. Of 1362 participants recruited from 33 provinces and municipalities of China, 1311 respondents (25-60 years, 42% male) were valid for future analysis. The study indicated that 85.7% of participants mainly relied on official channels to obtain information. Alongside the outbreak's progress, there was a gradual rise in information quantity, publishing frequency, and content variation. Correspondingly, the public's risk perception that "take it seriously" rose from 13 to 80%, 87.1% of those who took "multiple actions" compared to 25.9% initially. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicated that insufficient information freely-accessible at the early stages of the outbreak might lead to the lack of risk awareness and the public's inadequate protective actions. Given the current global situation of COVID-19, the study highlights authorized, transparent, and timely two-way risk communication is vital to guide public perception and actions. Furthermore, our study provides risk communication recommendations and may contribute to developing full measures to address future crises.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Mídias Sociais , China/epidemiologia , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Opinião Pública , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1604037, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335147

RESUMO

Objectives: COVID-19 is the most challenging public health crisis in decades in the United States. It is imperative to enforce social distancing rules before any safe and effective vaccines are widely available. Policies without public support are destined to fail. This study aims to reveal factors that determine the American public support for six mitigation measures (e.g., cancel gatherings, close schools, restrict non-essential travel). Methods: Based on a nationally representative survey, this study uses Structural Equation Modelling to reveal the relationships between various factors and public support for COVID-19 mitigation. Results: 1). Democrats are more likely than Republicans to support mitigation measures; 2).Favorability towards the political leader (Biden or Trump) can slant public support for COVID-19 mitigation measures among different segments of the public.; 3). Indirect experience, rather than direct experience with COVID-19 can motivate people to support mitigation; 4). Concern for COVID-19 is a strong motivator of support for mitigation. Conclusion: Political polarization poses an enormous challenge to societal well-being during a pandemic. Indirect experience renders COVID-19 an imminent threat.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Opinião Pública , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Demografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Política , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360053

RESUMO

The rebound of online public opinion is an important driving force in inducing a secondary crisis in the case of public emergencies. Effective risk-information communication is an important means to manage online public opinion regarding emergencies. This paper employs fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis to discover which conditions are combined and may result in the rebound of online public opinion. Five conditions were selected: the type of public emergency, messengers, message attributes, audience, and information feedback. The study used a sample of 25 major public emergencies that occurred between 2015 and 2020 in China. The type of public emergency, audience, and information feedback emerged as critical influencing factors. Message attributes promote the rebound of online public opinion regarding public health emergencies, while messengers play a traction role in the rebound of online public opinion on other types of public emergencies. This study extends risk-information communication theory from the perspective of the type of emergency, explores the causes of rebounded online public opinion regarding public emergencies, and provides policies and suggestions for risk-information communication and online public-opinion governance during emergencies.


Assuntos
Emergências , Opinião Pública , China , Comunicação , Humanos , Saúde Pública
11.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(8): e29150, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak has induced negative emotions among people. These emotions are expressed by the public on social media and are rapidly spread across the internet, which could cause high levels of panic among the public. Understanding the changes in public sentiment on social media during the pandemic can provide valuable information for developing appropriate policies to reduce the negative impact of the pandemic on the public. Previous studies have consistently shown that the COVID-19 outbreak has had a devastating negative impact on public sentiment. However, it remains unclear whether there has been a variation in the public sentiment during the recovery phase of the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aim to determine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in mainland China by continuously tracking public sentiment on social media throughout 2020. METHODS: We collected 64,723,242 posts from Sina Weibo, China's largest social media platform, and conducted a sentiment analysis based on natural language processing to analyze the emotions reflected in these posts. RESULTS: We found that the COVID-19 pandemic not only affected public sentiment on social media during the initial outbreak but also induced long-term negative effects even in the recovery period. These long-term negative effects were no longer correlated with the number of new confirmed COVID-19 cases both locally and nationwide during the recovery period, and they were not attributed to the postpandemic economic recession. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic induced long-term negative effects on public sentiment in mainland China even as the country recovered from the pandemic. Our study findings remind public health and government administrators of the need to pay attention to public mental health even once the pandemic has concluded.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Emoções , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Opinião Pública , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 13(1): e1-e8, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the search for effective treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection continues, the public opinion around the potential use of chloroquine (CQ) in treating COVID-19 remains mixed. AIM: To examine opinion and uptake of CQ for treating COVID-19 in the sub-Saharan African (SSA) region. SETTING: This study was conducted through an online survey software titled SurveyMonkey. METHODS: Anonymous online survey of 1829 SSA countries was conducted during the lockdown period using Facebook, WhatsApp and authors' networks. Opinion and uptake of CQ for COVID-19 treatment were assessed using multivariate analyses. RESULTS: About 14% of respondents believed that CQ could treat COVID-19 and of which, 3.2% took CQ for COVID-19 treatment. Multivariate analyses revealed that respondents from Central (adjusted odds ratios [aOR]: 2.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43, 4.43) and West Africa (aOR: 1.79, 95% CI 1.15, 2.88) had higher odds of believing that CQ could treat COVID-19. Respondents from East Africa reported higher odds for uptake of CQ for COVID-19 than Central, Western and Southern Africans. Knowledge of the disease and compliance with the public health advice were associated with both belief and uptake of CQ for COVID-19 treatment. CONCLUSION: Central and West African respondents were more likely to believe in CQ as a treatment for COVID-19 whilst the uptake of the medication during the pandemic was higher amongst East Africans. Future intervention discouraging the unsupervised use of CQ should target respondents from Central, West and East African regions.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Opinião Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198901

RESUMO

The aim of our research was to assess whether and to what extent the perceived change in the content of selected ingredients in dairy products is important for Polish consumers in accepting the enhancement of the health benefits of dairy products, including yogurt. The data were collected using a CAPI (Computer Assisted Personal Interview) survey on a sample of 983 consumers. The logistic regression model was used to predict the behavior of consumers associated with their willingness to accept the health aspects of improving dairy products. The results indicated that changes in the level of selected ingredients enhanced the willingness to accept increasing the health value of the product. The socio-demographic characteristics of the participants were not associated with the degree of their willingness to accept the improvement of the perceived health attributes. Practitioners in the dairy industry and policy makers can benefit from these results. When designing food products, it is worth focusing on increasing the nutritional value and enhancing the health value of food that is perceived by consumers as generally possessing positive health benefits, rather than on food that is perceived by them as possessing negative qualities.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Laticínios , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Opinião Pública , Adulto , Comportamento de Escolha , Feminino , Alimentos Fortificados , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Percepção , Polônia , Análise de Componente Principal , Inquéritos e Questionários , Iogurte , Adulto Jovem
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(7): e2116113, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236410

RESUMO

Importance: Policies to promote social distancing can minimize COVID-19 transmission but come with substantial social and economic costs. Quantifying relative preferences among the public for such practices can inform locally relevant policy prioritization and optimize uptake. Objective: To evaluate relative utilities (ie, preferences) for COVID-19 pandemic social distancing strategies against the hypothetical risk of acquiring COVID-19 and anticipated income loss. Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study recruited individuals living in the Missouri area from May to June 2020 via randomly distributed unincentivized social media advertisements and local recruitment platforms for members of minority racial and ethnic groups. Participants answered 6 questions that asked them to choose between 2 hypothetical counties where business closures, social distancing policy duration, COVID-19 infection risk, and income loss varied. Main Outcomes and Measures: Reweighted population-level relative preferences (utilities) for social distancing policies, subgroups, and latent classes. Results: The survey had a 3% response rate (3045 of 90 320). Of the 2428 respondents who completed the survey, 1669 (75%) were 35 years and older, 1536 (69%) were women, and 1973 (89%) were White. After reweighting to match Missouri population demographic characteristics, the strongest preference was for the prohibition of large gatherings (mean preference, -1.43; 95% CI, -1.67 to -1.18), with relative indifference to the closure of social and lifestyle venues (mean preference, 0.05; 95% CI, -0.08 to 0.17). There were weak preferences to keep outdoor venues (mean preference, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.61) and schools (mean preference, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.30) open. Latent class analysis revealed 4 distinct preference phenotypes in the population: risk averse (48.9%), conflicted (22.5%), prosocial (14.9%), and back to normal (13.7%), with men twice as likely as women to belong to the back to normal group than the risk averse group (relative risk ratio, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.54 to 3.12). Conclusions And relevance: In this survey study using a discrete choice experiment, public health policies that prohibited large gatherings, as well as those that closed social and lifestyle venues, appeared to be acceptable to the public. During policy implementation, these activities should be prioritized for first-phase closures. These findings suggest that policy messages that address preference heterogeneity (eg, focusing on specific preference subgroups or targeting men) could improve adherence to social distancing measures for COVID-19 and future pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Distanciamento Físico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Missouri/epidemiologia , Opinião Pública , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Anaesth Intensive Care ; 49(4): 257-267, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34154374

RESUMO

Airway Management is the key for anaesthetists dealing with patients undergoing diagnostic procedures and surgical interventions. The present coronavirus pandemic underpins even more how important safe airway management is. It also highlights the need to apply stringent precautions to avoid infection and ongoing transmission to patients, anaesthetists and other healthcare workers (HCWs). In light of this extraordinary global situation the aim of this article is to update the reader on the varied aspects of the ever-changing tasks anaesthetists are involved in and highlight the equipment, devices and techniques that have evolved in response to changing technology and unique patient and surgical requirements.


Assuntos
Anestesia , Opinião Pública , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas , Educação Continuada , Humanos , Pandemias
17.
Am J Public Health ; 111(8): 1473-1480, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111938

RESUMO

This article explores a tension at the core of the concept of herd immunity that has been overlooked in public and scientific discussions-namely: how can immunity, a phenomenon of individual biological defenses, be made relevant to populations? How can collectives be considered "immune"? Over the course of more than a century of use of the term, scientists have developed many different understandings of the concept in response to this inherent tension. Originating among veterinary scientists in the United States in the late 19th century, the concept was adopted by British scientists researching human infectious disease by the early 1920s. It soon became a staple concept for epidemiologists interested in disease ecology, helping to articulate the population dynamics of diseases such as diphtheria and influenza. Finally, though more traditional understandings of the concept remained in scientific use, in the era after World War II, it increasingly came to signal the objective and outcome of mass vaccination. Recognizing the complexity of scientific efforts to resolve the paradox of herd immunity may help us consider the best distribution of immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Imunidade Coletiva , Vacinação em Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/transmissão , Humanos , Opinião Pública , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia
19.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253175, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161377

RESUMO

This study looks at population response to government containment strategies during initial stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in four high-trust Northern European countries-Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden-with special emphasis on expressions of governmental trust. Sentiment analysis and topic modeling analysis were performed using Twitter data from three phases during the initial European lockdown, and results were compared over time and between countries. Findings show that, in line with existing theory, assertive crisis responses and proactive communication were generally well-received, whereas tentative crisis responses or indications by the authorities that the crisis was manageable were generally met with suspicion. In addition, while government support was high in all countries during the height of the crisis, messages critical of the government as well as conspiracy theories were nevertheless widely circulated. Importantly, countries with the least assertive strategies, rather than clear negative responses, saw heightened polarization of sentiment in the population. Furthermore, in the case of Sweden, a laissez-faire strategy was generally accepted by the population, despite strong criticism from other countries, until mortality rates started to rise. Possible explanations for these findings are discussed with an emphasis of prior trust as a potential explanatory factor. Future research should seek to replicate these findings in other countries with different levels of prior governmental trust or with a different severity of the COVID-19 outbreak than the countries in this study as well as triangulate the findings of this study using alternative methods.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Opinião Pública , Mídias Sociais , COVID-19/mortalidade , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Máscaras , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Política , Suécia/epidemiologia , Confiança
20.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252841, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases, such as COVID-19, have negative impacts on bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (BCPR) for fear of transmission while breaking social distancing rules. The latest guidelines recommend hands-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and facemask use. However, public willingness in this setup remains unknown. METHODS: A cross-sectional, unrestricted volunteer Internet survey was conducted to assess individuals' attitudes and behaviors toward performing BCPR, pre-existing CPR training, occupational identity, age group, and gender. The raking method for weights and a regression analysis for the predictors of willingness were performed. RESULTS: Among 1,347 eligible respondents, 822 (61%) had negative attitudes toward performing BCPR. Healthcare providers (HCPs) and those with pre-existing CPR training had fewer negative attitudes (p < 0.001); HCPs and those with pre-existing CPR training and unchanged attitude showed more positive behaviors toward BCPR (p < 0.001). Further, 9.7% of the respondents would absolutely refuse to perform BCPR. In contrast, 16.9% would perform BCPR directly despite the outbreak. Approximately 9.9% would perform it if they were instructed, 23.5%, if they wore facemasks, and 40.1%, if they were to perform hands-only CPR. Interestingly, among the 822 respondents with negative attitudes, over 85% still tended to perform BCPR in the abovementioned situations. The weighted analysis showed similar results. The adjusted predictors for lower negative attitudes toward BCPR were younger age, being a man, and being an HCP; those for more positive behaviors were younger age and being an HCP. CONCLUSIONS: Outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases, such as COVID-19, have negative impacts on attitudes and behaviors toward BCPR. Younger individuals, men, HCPs, and those with pre-existing CPR training tended to show fewer negative attitudes and behaviors. Meanwhile, most individuals with negative attitudes still expressed positive behaviors under safer measures such as facemask protection, hands-only CPR, and available dispatch instructions.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/psicologia , Opinião Pública , Adulto , Idoso , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/educação , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Mãos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taiwan , Adulto Jovem
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