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1.
Bull Entomol Res ; 110(1): 15-21, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190651

RESUMO

Two major fruit fly pest species, Bactrocera dorsalis and B. umbrosa, are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) found in >450 plant species. They are, however, exclusive pollinators of certain daciniphilous (attracting Dacini fruit flies) Bulbophyllum orchids. A comparison between the recaptures of feral males after feeding ad libitum on 0.6 mg ME (simulating an average floral quantity of an orchid flower - Trial 1) and 480 mg in Trial 2 was investigated using the non-invasive capture-mark-release-recapture (CMRR) technique. Based on daily CMRR over a 16-day period, using a different colour enamel paint each day, percentages of B. dorsalis males recaptured in Trial 1 were significantly higher than those in Trial 2. However, for B. umbrosa, percentages of recaptures for different day-specific colours were highly variable due to low fly numbers captured/day. In Trial 1, of 756 B. dorsalis males released, 36.4% were recaptured once, 7.7 twice, 2.4 three times and 0.4 four times. While in Trial 2 of 1157 released males, 6% were recaptured once and 0.3% twice. Of 67 B. umbrosa males released, 28.4% were recaptured once and none more than once in Trial 1. Nevertheless, of 119 flies released in Trial 2, 25.2% were recaptured once and 3.3% twice. Overall, many marked males did return to a single ME-source to 'refuel' ME (a sex pheromone precursor). The results also show that a relatively high number of flies paid multi-visitations to a single 0.6 mg ME-source and indicate that the presence of natural ME-sources may impact area-wide IPM programmes.


Assuntos
Comportamento Apetitivo , Eugenol/análogos & derivados , Tephritidae , Animais , Masculino , Orchidaceae
2.
Syst Biol ; 69(1): 91-109, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127939

RESUMO

Disentangling phylogenetic relationships proves challenging for groups that have evolved recently, especially if there is ongoing reticulation. Although they are in most cases immediately isolated from diploid relatives, sets of sibling allopolyploids often hybridize with each other, thereby increasing the complexity of an already challenging situation. Dactylorhiza (Orchidaceae: Orchidinae) is a genus much affected by allopolyploid speciation and reticulate phylogenetic relationships. Here, we use genetic variation at tens of thousands of genomic positions to unravel the convoluted evolutionary history of Dactylorhiza. We first investigate circumscription and relationships of diploid species in the genus using coalescent and maximum likelihood methods, and then group 16 allotetraploids by maximum affiliation to their putative parental diploids, implementing a method based on genotype likelihoods. The direction of hybrid crosses is inferred for each allotetraploid using information from maternally inherited plastid RADseq loci. Starting from age estimates of parental taxa, the relative ages of these allotetraploid entities are inferred by quantifying their genetic similarity to the diploids and numbers of private alleles compared with sibling allotetraploids. Whereas northwestern Europe is dominated by young allotetraploids of postglacial origins, comparatively older allotetraploids are distributed further south, where climatic conditions remained relatively stable during the Pleistocene glaciations. Our bioinformatics approach should prove effective for the study of other naturally occurring, nonmodel, polyploid plant complexes.


Assuntos
Orchidaceae/classificação , Orchidaceae/genética , Filogenia , Diploide , Europa (Continente) , Tetraploidia
3.
Carbohydr Polym ; 227: 115362, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590882

RESUMO

A new polysaccharide (pFSP) was first isolated from the originally discarded fibrous roots part of Chinese traditional herb, Bletilla striata. pFSP was composed of D-glucose, D-galactose and D-mannose in a molar ratio of 1: 2.03: 3.45 with molecular weight of 9.1 × 104 Da. It could effectively scavenge DPPH and superoxide radicals with inhibition rate of 64.47% and 72.27% at 5.0 mg/ml, higher than that of polysaccharide from Bletilla striata tuber. Structural investigations of the periodate oxidation studies and Smith-degradation as well as the FT-IR spectroscopy were performed, and combined with 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, the repeating unit of pFSP contained (1→4)-linked-α-D-Glcp, (1→4)-linked-ß-D-Manp and (1→3,6)-linked-ß-D-Manp units, together with the branches of (1→6)-linked-ß-D-Galp and terminated with (1→)-linked-ß-D-Manp residue.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Orchidaceae , Polissacarídeos/química , Benzotiazóis/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Picratos/química , Raízes de Plantas , Ácidos Sulfônicos/química , Superóxidos/química
4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(19): 4129-4133, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872689

RESUMO

Traditional Chinese medicine is planted in mountainous areas with suitable natural conditions. The planting area is complex in terrain,and the planting plots are mostly irregularly shaped. It is difficult to accurately calculate the planting area by traditional survey methods. The method of extracting Chinese herbal medicine planting area combined with remote sensing and GIS technology is of great significance for the rational development and utilization of traditional Chinese medicine resources. Taking Bletilla striata planting in Ningshan county of Shaanxi province as an example,the extraction method of planting area of traditional Chinese medicine in county was studied. High-resolution ZY-3 and GF-1 multi-spectral multi-temporal remote sensing images were used as data sources. Through field sampling,samples such as B. striata,cultivated land,forest land,water body,artificial surface,alpine meadow,etc. are collected. The spectral features,texture features and shape features of remotely identifiable objects in different planting areas and cultivated land,vegetable sheds were analyzed,confusing ground objects were eliminated and interpretation marks were establish. The method of visual interpretation is used to realize the extraction of B. striata planting areas,and the B. striata planting area are calculated by combining GIS technology. The results showed that the method of visual interpretation,using high-resolution ZY-3 and GF-1 multi-spectral multi-temporal remote sensing image data extracted the planting area of 403.05 mu. It can effectively extract the B. striata planting area in research region.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Orchidaceae , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Florestas
5.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 369, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bletilla striata is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat hemorrhage, scald, gastric ulcer, pulmonary diseases and inflammations. In this study, we investigated bioactivity of the effective fraction of B. striata (EFB) in reducing the inflammatory cytokine production induced by water or organic extracts of PM2.5. METHODS: PM2.5 extracts were collected and analyzed by chromatographic system and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Cell viability was measured using MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium) assay, and cell supernatant was analyzed by flow cytometry, ELISA, and qRT-PCR in cultured mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 treated with EFB and PM2.5 extracts. Expressions of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway were measured by Western blot. RESULTS: PM2.5 composition is complex and the toxicity of PM2.5 extracts were not noticeable. The treatment of EFB at a wide dose-range of 0-40 µg/mL did not cause significant change of RAW264.7 cell proliferation. EFB pretreatment decreased the inflammatory cytokines in the macrophage. Further analysis showed that EFB significantly attenuated PM2.5-induced proinflammatory protein expression and downregulated the levels of phosphorylated NF-κBp65, inhibitor of kappa B (IκB)-α, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and p38. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated the potential effectiveness of B. striata extracts for treating PM2.5-triggered pulmonary inflammation.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Orchidaceae , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/análise , Citocinas/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Camundongos , Modelos Imunológicos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
6.
Zootaxa ; 4571(4): zootaxa.4571.4.3, 2019 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715791

RESUMO

Two of the species of Pectinariidae previously reported from the Brazilian coast are herein described, together with a new species and also new record for the genus Petta Malmgren, 1866 for the southern Atlantic. Amphictene catharinensis (Grube, 1870) was described from material from off Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, but the most recent description for these animals comes from Nilsson (1928); a redescription for A. catharinensis is herein provided. Pectinaria nonatoi n. sp. was informally described as P. (Pectinaria) laelia nomen nudum in an unpublished thesis and a formal description has never been provided, although the species has been reported from several other localities off the Brazilian shoreline, mostly in ecological studies; the species is formally described herein and compared to the most similar congeners. Petta alissoni n. sp. is also described and compared to the most similar congeners and this is the first record for animals of this genus from southern Atlantic. There are also records for Pectinaria gouldii (Verrill, 1874) and P. regalis Verrill, 1901 from off the Brazilian coast, and a doubtful record for Lagis pseudokoreni (Day, 1955), but we did not find any material belonging to those taxa.


Assuntos
Anelídeos , Orchidaceae , Poliquetos , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Brasil
7.
Zootaxa ; 4646(1): zootaxa.4646.1.1, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717024

RESUMO

We report on the schizorhynch species collected in a survey in the eastern region of Cuba. Eighteen species were identified, of which only three are known to science: Cheliplana asica, C. terminalis, and Carcharodorhynchus flavidus. The 15 new species belong to three different genera: Cheliplana (five species), Carcharodorhynchus (four species), and Schizochilus (six species). The five new species of Cheliplana (C. gibarenha sp. n., C. santiaguera sp. n., C. spuriaseminalis sp. n., C. subproximalis sp. n. and C. verrucosa sp. n.) differ from their congeners in the detailed morphology of the proboscis hooks and the atrial organs. The proboscis hooks bear a distal small hook in C. verrucosa sp. n., a feature only shared with C. paradoxa. Two of the four new species of Carcharodorhynchus (C. smilodon sp. n. and C. papillaris sp. n. ) are very similar to C. flavidus in that the toothed belts of the proboscis are not continuous. However, they clearly differ from that species and from each other in the detailed construction of the teeth and copulatory organ. Carcharodorhynchus spiniformis sp. n. and C. nativus sp. n. can also be distinguished from the other species of Carcharodorhynchus by the detailed construction of the proboscis teeth and copulatory organ. The six new species of Schizochilus here described show a spiny cirrus around a central stylet. Two species lack the distal sclerotized cap of the copulatory bulb: S. favus sp. n. and S. bueycabonensis sp. n.. All new species of Schizochilus can be distinguished from each other and their congeners by the detailed construction of the hard parts (cirrus and stylet) of the copulatory organ.


Assuntos
Orchidaceae , Platelmintos , Aranhas , Animais , Cuba , Raízes de Plantas
8.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180439, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531531

RESUMO

The orchid seed banks of Atlantic Forest may be considered a key strategy for the conservation of species threatened with extinction by indiscriminate collection or habitat destruction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the seed viability, to choose the best culture medium for the asymbiotic germination and evaluate germination, after storage for different periods and temperatures for the Brazilian native orchids: Gomesa praetexta (Rchb.f.) M.W.Chase & N.H.Williams, Gomesa forbesii (Hook.) M.W.Chase & N.H.Williams, Gomesa recurva R.Br. and Grandiphyllum divaricatum (Lindl.) Docha Neto. Knudson C (KC), Murashige & Skoog (MS), half-strength MS (1/2 MS macro- and micro-nutrients) and Woody Plant Medium (WPM) culture media were tested for germination. The WPM culture medium was the best for asymbiotic germination of all species evaluated, with high germination percentages and improved seedling development. Seeds of G. divaricatum, G. praetexta, G. recurva and G. forbesii indicated orthodox behavior, with high viability rates after 12 months of storage, being recommended the storage temperature of -80°C for the first three species and -20°C for G. forbesii. The protocol developed in the present study was efficient for seed bank storage, in vitro germination and seedling production of G. divaricatum and G. praetexta, contributing to conservation strategies of these species.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura/métodos , Germinação/fisiologia , Orchidaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aclimatação , Brasil , Meios de Cultura , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Florestas , Orchidaceae/classificação , Banco de Sementes
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(17)2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480267

RESUMO

Phalaenopsis cultivar 'Panda' is a beautiful and valuable ornamental for its big flower and unique big spots on the petals and sepals. Although anthocyanins are known as the main pigments responsible for flower colors in Phalaenopsis, and the anthocyanins biosynthetic pathway in Phalaenopsis is generally well known, the detailed knowledge of anthocynins regulation within the spot and non-spot parts in 'Panda' flower is limited. In this study, transcriptome and small RNA libraries analysis from spot and non-spot sepal tissues of 'Panda' were performed, and we found PeMYB7, PeMYB11, and miR156g, miR858 is associated with the purple spot patterning in its sepals. Transcriptome analyses showed a total 674 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), with 424 downregulated and 250 upregulated (Non-spot-VS-Spot), and 10 candidate DEGs involved in anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. The qPCR analysis confirmed that seven candidate structure genes (PeANS, PeF3'H, PeC4H, PeF3H, PeF3H1, Pe4CL2, and PeCHI) have significantly higher expressing levels in spot tissues than non-spot tissues. A total 1552 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) were detected with 676 downregulated and 876 upregulated. However, microRNA data showed no DEMs targeting on anthocyanin biosynthesis structure gene, while a total 40 DEMs target transcription factor (TF) genes, which expressed significantly different level in spot via non-spot sepal, including 2 key MYB regulator genes. These results indicated that the lack of anthocyanidins in non-spot sepal may not directly be caused by microRNA suppressing anthocyanidin synthesis genes rather than the MYB genes. Our findings will help in understanding the role of miRNA molecular mechanisms in the spot formation pattern of Phalaenopsis, and would be useful to provide a reference to similar research in other species.


Assuntos
Flores/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , MicroRNAs/genética , Orchidaceae/genética , Antocianinas/biossíntese , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Biblioteca Gênica , Genoma de Planta , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Orchidaceae/anatomia & histologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
10.
Plant Sci ; 287: 110173, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481204

RESUMO

Anthocyanins are responsible for red, purple, and pink pigmentation of flowers in Cymbidium hybrids. Although anthocyanin content in all floral organs increases with flower development, they increase markedly in the tepals compared with the labella or columns. Using next-generation sequencing technology, we identified three anthocyanin biosynthesis regulatory genes, CyMYB1, CybHLH1, and CybHLH2, from Cymbidium 'Mystique'. Yeast two-hybrid analysis showed that the CyMYB1 protein can form a heterodimer with either CybHLH1 or CybHLH2. In the tepals, the expression level of CyMYB1 increased as the flower developed, whereas the high expression level of CyMYB1 was detected at the early flower developmental stages in the labella and columns, remaining constant until increasing at the late developmental stage. These expression profiles of CyMYB1 positively correlated with the profiles of anthocyanin accumulation in the tepals. When Cymbidium Sazanami 'Champion' was grown at 30 °C/25 °C, reduced anthocyanin levels were observed, specifically in the tepals, compared with those in flowers grown at 20 °C/15 °C. The transcription of CyMYB1 in the tepals was suppressed at high temperatures, and the expressions of CyDFR and CyANS were also synchronously suppressed. This study revealed that CyMYB1 activates the transcription of CyDFR and CyANS and regulates the temporal- and temperature-dependent anthocyanin accumulation in Cymbidium tepals.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Orchidaceae/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Orchidaceae/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Temperatura Ambiente , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
11.
Plant Sci ; 287: 110166, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481226

RESUMO

In angiosperms, cyclic electron flow (CEF) around photosystem I (PSI) is more important for photoprotection under fluctuating light than under constant light. However, the underlying mechanism is not well known. In the present study, we measured the CEF activity, P700 redox state and electrochromic shift signal upon a sudden transition from low to high light in wild-type plants of Arabidopsis thaliana and Bletilla striata (Orchidaceae). Within the first 20 s after transition from low to high light, P700 was highly reduced in both species, which was accompanied with a sufficient proton gradient (ΔpH) across the thylakoid membranes. Meanwhile, the level of CEF activation was elevated. After transition from low to high light for 60 s, the plants generated an optimal ΔpH. Under such condition, PSI was highly oxidized and the level of CEF activation decreased to the steady state. Furthermore, the CEF activation was positively correlated to the P700 reduction ratio. These results indicated that upon a sudden transition from low to high light, the insufficient ΔpH led to the over-reduction of PSI electron carriers, which in turn stimulated the CEF around PSI. This transient stimulation of CEF not only favored the rapid ΔpH formation but also accepted electrons from PSI, thus protecting PSI at donor and acceptor sides. These findings provide new insights into the important role of CEF in regulation of photosynthesis under fluctuating light.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons , Orchidaceae/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/efeitos da radiação , Clorofila/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Transporte de Elétrons/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Orchidaceae/efeitos da radiação , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I/efeitos da radiação
12.
Molecules ; 24(17)2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484345

RESUMO

Pleione (Orchidaceae) is not only famous for the ornamental value in Europe because of its special color, but also endemic in Southern Asia for its use in traditional medicine. A great deal of research about its secondary metabolites and biological activities has been done on only three of 30 species of Pleione. Up to now, 183 chemical compounds, such as phenanthrenes, bibenzyls, glucosyloxybenzyl succinate derivatives, flavonoids, lignans, terpenoids, etc., have been obtained from Pleione. These compounds have been demonstrated to play a significant role in anti-tumor, anti-neurodegenerative and anti-inflammatory biological activities and improve immunity. In order to further develop the drugs and utilize the plants, the chemical structural analysis and biological activities of Pleione are summarized in this review.


Assuntos
Bibenzilas/química , Orchidaceae/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Estrutura Molecular
13.
Fitoterapia ; 138: 104350, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473333

RESUMO

Three new bibenzyl derivatives (bletstrins A-C, 1-3), including two bibenzyls that have hydroxyl-substituted chiral centers on the aliphatic bibenzyl bridge, along with eighteen known stilbenoids (4-21) were isolated from the tubers of Bletilla striata. The structures of new compounds were elucidated by the use of 1D/2D NMR spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations of bletitrins A and B were determined by optical rotation value. Compounds 13-16 were isolated from the Orchidaceae for the first time. Most of the isolated compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activities against three gram-positive bacterial strains and one gram-negative bacterial strain. Compounds 4, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16 and 18 showed potent inhibitory activities, with MICs of (6-52 µg/mL) against S. aureus ATCC 6538.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Orchidaceae/química , Tubérculos/química , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Bibenzilas/isolamento & purificação , Bibenzilas/farmacologia , China , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Estilbenos/isolamento & purificação
14.
Fitoterapia ; 138: 104313, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421147

RESUMO

Bulbocodioidins E-H (1-4), four pairs of undescribed racemic bi(9,10-dihydro)phenanthrene and phenanthrene/bibenzyl atropisomers, along with four known compounds (5-8) were isolated from the ethanol extract of the pseudobulbs of Pleione bulbocodioides. Their structures were established by HRESIMS and comprehensive NMR spectroscopic data analysis. Their absolute configurations were elucidated by comparison of their experimental and calculated ECD (electronic circular dichroism) curves. Furthermore, compound 4a displayed cytotoxic activity against colon cancer (HCT-116), liver cancer (HepG2), and breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines with IC50 values of 7.6, 3.8 and 3.4 µM, respectively. Compound 6 showed cytotoxic activity against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7) with IC50 value of 5.4 µM.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Bibenzilas/farmacologia , Orchidaceae/química , Fenantrenos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Bibenzilas/isolamento & purificação , China , Células HCT116 , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Estrutura Molecular , Fenantrenos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 337, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cymbidium goeringii belongs to the Orchidaceae, which is one of the most abundant angiosperm families. Cymbidium goeringii consist with high economic value and characteristics include fragrance and multiple flower colors. Floral scent is one of the important strategies for ensuring fertilization. However, limited genetic data is available in this non-model plant, and little known about the molecular mechanism responsible for floral scent in this orchid. Transcriptome and expression profiling data are needed to identify genes and better understand the biological mechanisms of floral scents in this species. Present transcriptomic data provides basic information on the genes and enzymes related to and pathways involved in flower secondary metabolism in this plant. RESULTS: In this study, RNA sequencing analyses were performed to identify changes in gene expression and biological pathways related scent metabolism. Three cDNA libraries were obtained from three developmental floral stages: closed bud, half flowering stage and full flowering stage. Using Illumina technique 159,616,374 clean reads were obtained and were assembled into 85,868 final unigenes (average length 1194 nt), 33.85% of which were annotated in the NCBI non redundant protein database. Among this unigenes 36,082 were assigned to gene ontology and 23,164 were combined with COG groups. Total 33,417 unigenes were assigned in 127 pathways according to the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database. According these transcriptomic data we identified number of candidates genes which differentially expressed in different developmental stages of flower related to fragrance biosynthesis. In q-RT-PCR most of the fragrance related genes highly expressed in half flowering stage. CONCLUSIONS: RNA-seq and DEG data provided comprehensive gene expression information at the transcriptional level that could be facilitate the molecular mechanisms of floral biosynthesis pathways in three developmental phase's flowers in Cymbidium goeringii, moreover providing useful information for further analysis on C. goeringii, and other plants of genus Cymbidium.


Assuntos
Flores/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas/genética , Odorantes , Orchidaceae/genética , Acetatos/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Farneseno Álcool/metabolismo , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Orchidaceae/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Terpenos/metabolismo
16.
Molecules ; 24(13)2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323985

RESUMO

Seven novel norcycloartane glycosides, maryloside A-G (1-7), were isolated from the leaves of Cymbidium Great Flower 'Marylaurencin', along with a known norcycloartane glycoside, cymbidoside (8). These structures were determined on the basis of mainly NMR experiments as well as chemical degradation and X-ray crystallographic analysis. The isolated compounds (1-6 and 8) were evaluated for the inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 cells. Consequently, 1 and 3 exhibited moderate activity.


Assuntos
Flores/química , Glicosídeos/química , Orchidaceae/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Sobrevivência Celular , Flores/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Orchidaceae/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
17.
Molecules ; 24(13)2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324007

RESUMO

The feasibility of using the fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic technique with a stacked sparse auto-encoder (SSAE) to identify orchid varieties was studied. Spectral data of 13 orchids varieties covering the spectral range of 4000-550 cm-1 were acquired to establish discriminant models and to select optimal spectral variables. K nearest neighbors (KNN), support vector machine (SVM), and SSAE models were built using full spectra. The SSAE model performed better than the KNN and SVM models and obtained a classification accuracy 99.4% in the calibration set and 97.9% in the prediction set. Then, three algorithms, principal component analysis loading (PCA-loading), competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS), and stacked sparse auto-encoder guided backward (SSAE-GB), were used to select 39, 300, and 38 optimal wavenumbers, respectively. The KNN and SVM models were built based on optimal wavenumbers. Most of the optimal wavenumbers-based models performed slightly better than the all wavenumbers-based models. The performance of the SSAE-GB was better than the other two from the perspective of the accuracy of the discriminant models and the number of optimal wavenumbers. The results of this study showed that the FTIR spectroscopic technique combined with the SSAE algorithm could be adopted in the identification of the orchid varieties.


Assuntos
Orchidaceae/química , Orchidaceae/classificação , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Algoritmos , Modelos Teóricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise Espectral , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
18.
Molecules ; 24(14)2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319503

RESUMO

Two new cycloartane glycosides, nervisides I-J, were isolated from Nervilia concolor whole plants. Their structures were unambiguously established by interpretation of their HRESIMS and 1D and 2D NMR data. These cycloartanes comprised a stereogenic center at C-24, the R configuration of which was assigned based on DFT-NMR calculations and the subsequent DP4 probability score. These compounds were tested for cytotoxicity against K562 and MCF-7 tumor cell lines, revealing mild cytotoxic activity.


Assuntos
Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Orchidaceae/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia
19.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 33(11): e4637, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256429

RESUMO

Bletilla striata (Thunb.) Reichb. f. (Orchidaceae), also known as Bai-ji, is a traditional Chinese herb that is widely used in Asia to treat hematemesis, hemoptysis, traumatic bleeding and other similar disorders. Most studies have focused on the pharmacological activities of polysaccharide extracts from B. striata. Our previous studies found that the nonpolysaccharide fraction from B. striata extract also has a hemostatic effect; however, the active constituents responsible for this pharmacological action are unclear. Thus, the metabolic profiles of the nonpolysaccharide fraction were investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats and intestinal bacteria models using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. Mass data were acquired by the MSE method. Eight components including five prototypes and three metabolites were identified in rat biofluids after oral administration of the nonpolysaccharide fraction. The parent compounds underwent various metabolic processes, including hydrolysis, deglucosylation, glycosylation and sulfate conjugation. The results not only reveal the possible metabolic pathway, but also indicate the potential pharmacological components. Further mechanistic studies using nonpolysaccharide compounds of the B. striata extract are required to obtain potential candidate compounds.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/metabolismo , Orchidaceae , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Succinatos/metabolismo , Animais , Bile/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
20.
Bioengineered ; 10(1): 316-334, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347943

RESUMO

In the development of medicinally important Orchidaceae, the extent of fungal endophytes specificity is not presently very clear. Limited study has been available on natural products formed and its role on plant growth, defence mechanism by endophytes, and to characterize the chief treasure of bioactive molecules. Therefore, this review article presents an evaluation of the endophytes associated with Orchidaceae for physiology, metabolism, and genomics which have prominently contributed to the resurgence of novel metabolite research increasing our considerate of multifaceted mechanisms regulatory appearance of biosynthetic gene groups encoding diverse metabolites. Additionally, we presented the comprehensive recent development of bio-strategies for the cultivation of endophytes from Orchidaceae and integration of bioengineered 'Genomics with metabolism' approaches with emphases collective omics as powerful approach to discover novel metabolite compounds. The Orchidaceae-fungal endophytes' biodynamics for sustainable development of bioproducts and its applications are supported in large-scale biosynthesis of industrially and pharmaceutical important biomolecules.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/química , Endófitos/metabolismo , Fungos/metabolismo , Orchidaceae/microbiologia , Simbiose/fisiologia , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/genética , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Caules de Planta/microbiologia , Metabolismo Secundário/fisiologia
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