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1.
Syst Biol ; 69(1): 91-109, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127939

RESUMO

Disentangling phylogenetic relationships proves challenging for groups that have evolved recently, especially if there is ongoing reticulation. Although they are in most cases immediately isolated from diploid relatives, sets of sibling allopolyploids often hybridize with each other, thereby increasing the complexity of an already challenging situation. Dactylorhiza (Orchidaceae: Orchidinae) is a genus much affected by allopolyploid speciation and reticulate phylogenetic relationships. Here, we use genetic variation at tens of thousands of genomic positions to unravel the convoluted evolutionary history of Dactylorhiza. We first investigate circumscription and relationships of diploid species in the genus using coalescent and maximum likelihood methods, and then group 16 allotetraploids by maximum affiliation to their putative parental diploids, implementing a method based on genotype likelihoods. The direction of hybrid crosses is inferred for each allotetraploid using information from maternally inherited plastid RADseq loci. Starting from age estimates of parental taxa, the relative ages of these allotetraploid entities are inferred by quantifying their genetic similarity to the diploids and numbers of private alleles compared with sibling allotetraploids. Whereas northwestern Europe is dominated by young allotetraploids of postglacial origins, comparatively older allotetraploids are distributed further south, where climatic conditions remained relatively stable during the Pleistocene glaciations. Our bioinformatics approach should prove effective for the study of other naturally occurring, nonmodel, polyploid plant complexes.


Assuntos
Orchidaceae/classificação , Orchidaceae/genética , Filogenia , Diploide , Europa (Continente) , Tetraploidia
2.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180439, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531531

RESUMO

The orchid seed banks of Atlantic Forest may be considered a key strategy for the conservation of species threatened with extinction by indiscriminate collection or habitat destruction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the seed viability, to choose the best culture medium for the asymbiotic germination and evaluate germination, after storage for different periods and temperatures for the Brazilian native orchids: Gomesa praetexta (Rchb.f.) M.W.Chase & N.H.Williams, Gomesa forbesii (Hook.) M.W.Chase & N.H.Williams, Gomesa recurva R.Br. and Grandiphyllum divaricatum (Lindl.) Docha Neto. Knudson C (KC), Murashige & Skoog (MS), half-strength MS (1/2 MS macro- and micro-nutrients) and Woody Plant Medium (WPM) culture media were tested for germination. The WPM culture medium was the best for asymbiotic germination of all species evaluated, with high germination percentages and improved seedling development. Seeds of G. divaricatum, G. praetexta, G. recurva and G. forbesii indicated orthodox behavior, with high viability rates after 12 months of storage, being recommended the storage temperature of -80°C for the first three species and -20°C for G. forbesii. The protocol developed in the present study was efficient for seed bank storage, in vitro germination and seedling production of G. divaricatum and G. praetexta, contributing to conservation strategies of these species.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura/métodos , Germinação/fisiologia , Orchidaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aclimatação , Brasil , Meios de Cultura , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Florestas , Orchidaceae/classificação , Banco de Sementes
3.
Molecules ; 24(13)2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324007

RESUMO

The feasibility of using the fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic technique with a stacked sparse auto-encoder (SSAE) to identify orchid varieties was studied. Spectral data of 13 orchids varieties covering the spectral range of 4000-550 cm-1 were acquired to establish discriminant models and to select optimal spectral variables. K nearest neighbors (KNN), support vector machine (SVM), and SSAE models were built using full spectra. The SSAE model performed better than the KNN and SVM models and obtained a classification accuracy 99.4% in the calibration set and 97.9% in the prediction set. Then, three algorithms, principal component analysis loading (PCA-loading), competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS), and stacked sparse auto-encoder guided backward (SSAE-GB), were used to select 39, 300, and 38 optimal wavenumbers, respectively. The KNN and SVM models were built based on optimal wavenumbers. Most of the optimal wavenumbers-based models performed slightly better than the all wavenumbers-based models. The performance of the SSAE-GB was better than the other two from the perspective of the accuracy of the discriminant models and the number of optimal wavenumbers. The results of this study showed that the FTIR spectroscopic technique combined with the SSAE algorithm could be adopted in the identification of the orchid varieties.


Assuntos
Orchidaceae/química , Orchidaceae/classificação , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Algoritmos , Modelos Teóricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise Espectral , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
4.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 93, 2019 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tropical rainforests (TRFs) harbour almost half of the world's vascular plant species diversity while covering only about 6-7% of land. However, why species richness varies amongst the Earth's major TRF regions remains poorly understood. Here we investigate the evolutionary processes shaping continental species richness disparities of the pantropical, epiphytic and mostly TRF-dwelling orchid mega-genus Bulbophyllum (c. 1948 spp. in total) using diversification analyses based on a time-calibrated molecular phylogeny (including c. 45-50% spp. each from Madagascar, Africa, Neotropics, and 8.4% from the Asia-Pacific region), coupled with ecological niche modelling (ENM) of geographic distributions under present and past (Last Glacial Maximum; LGM) conditions. RESULTS: Our results suggest an early-to-late Miocene scenario of 'out-of-Asia-Pacific' origin and progressive, dispersal-mediated diversification in Madagascar, Africa and the Neotropics, respectively. Species richness disparities amongst these four TRF lineages are best explained by a time-for-speciation (i.e. clade age) effect rather than differences in net diversification or diversity-dependent diversification due to present or past spatial-bioclimatic limits. For each well-sampled lineage (Madagascar, Africa, Neotropics), we inferred high rates of speciation and extinction over time (i.e. high species turnover), yet with the origin of most extant species falling into the Quaternary. In contrast to predictions of classical 'glacial refuge' theories, all four lineages experienced dramatic range expansions during the LGM. CONCLUSIONS: As the Madagascan, African and Neotropical lineages display constant-rate evolution since their origin (early-to-mid-Miocene), Quaternary environmental change might be a less important cause of their high species turnover than intrinsic features generally conferring rapid population turnover in tropical orchids (e.g., epiphytism, specialization on pollinators and mycorrhizal fungi, wind dispersal). Nonetheless, climate-induced range fluctuations during the Quaternary could still have played an influential role in the origination and extinction of Bulbophyllum species in those three, if not in all four TRF regions.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Orchidaceae/classificação , Filogenia , Floresta Úmida , Ecossistema , Extinção Biológica , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Madagáscar , Filogeografia , Probabilidade , Especificidade da Espécie , Fatores de Tempo
5.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0212677, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865720

RESUMO

Acianthera section Pleurobotryae is one of ten sections of the genus Acianthera and include four species endemic to the Atlantic Forest. The objective of this study was to describe comparatively the anatomy of vegetative organs and floral micromorphology of all species of Acianthera section Pleurobotryae in order to identify diagnostic characters between them and synapomorphies for the section in relation of other sections of the genus. We analyzed roots, ramicauls, leaves and flowers of 15 species, covering eight of the nine sections of Acianthera, using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Acianthera section Pleurobotryae is a monophyletic group and the cladistic analyses of anatomical and flower micromorphology data, combined with molecular data, support internal relationship hypotheses among the representatives of this section. The synapomorphies identified for A. sect. Pleurobotryae are based on leaf anatomy: unifacial leaves, round or elliptical in cross-section, round leaves with vascular bundles organized in concentric circles, and mesophyll with 28 to 30 cell layers. Within the section, the clade (A. crepiniana + A. mantiquyrana) presented more differences in vegetative organ morphology and higher support values in combined analyses when compared to the second clade, (A. atropurpurea + A. hatschbachii). For each of these clades an exclusive set of homoplasies of vegetative and floral organs were also identified. The results support the argument that vegetative organs are more evolutionarily stable in comparison to reproductive organs and thus helpful for inference of internal phylogenetic relationships in Acianthera, while flowers are highly variable, perhaps due to the diversity of pollinator attraction mechanisms. The analyses indicate that the elliptical leaves observed in A. crepiniana have originated from round leaves observed in the other species of this section, suggesting an adaptation to increase the area of exposure of the leaf and better the efficiency of capture of sunlight in shaded environments such as the Atlantic Forest. The presence of papillose regions in both vegetative and floral organs indicated that micromorphological characters are also useful for the delimitation of species and sections within the genus.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Flores , Orchidaceae , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta , Polinização , Flores/fisiologia , Flores/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Orchidaceae/classificação , Orchidaceae/fisiologia , Orchidaceae/ultraestrutura , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/ultraestrutura , Polinização/fisiologia
6.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 63, 2019 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30808310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The plastid is a semiautonomous organelle with its own genome. Plastid genomes have been widely used as models for studying phylogeny, speciation and adaptive evolution. However, most studies focus on comparisons of plastid genome evolution at high taxonomic levels, and comparative studies of the process of plastome evolution at the infrageneric or intraspecific level remain elusive. Holcoglossum is a small genus of Orchidaceae, consisting of approximately 20 species of recent radiation. This made it an ideal group to explore the plastome mutation mode at the infrageneric or intraspecific level. RESULTS: In this paper, we reported 15 complete plastid genomes from 12 species of Holcoglossum and 1 species of Vanda. The plastid genomes of Holcoglossum have a total length range between 145 kb and 148 kb, encoding a set of 102 genes. The whole set of ndh-gene families in Holcoglossum have been truncated or pseudogenized. Hairpin inversion in the coding region of the plastid gene ycf2 has been found. CONCLUSIONS: Using a comprehensive comparative plastome analysis, we found that all the indels between different individuals of the same species resulted from the copy number variation of the short repeat sequence, which may be caused by replication slippage. Annotation of tandem repeats shows that the variation introduced by tandem repeats is widespread in plastid genomes. The hairpin inversion found in the plastid gene ycf2 occurred randomly in the Orchidaceae.


Assuntos
Genomas de Plastídeos , Orchidaceae/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Evolução Molecular , Mutação INDEL , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Orchidaceae/classificação , Filogenia , Plastídeos , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico
7.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(7): 3681-3686, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30638265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glucomannan (GM) is a polysaccharide of the mannan family of compounds found in some plant species. The dried and powdered tubers of some orchid species, collectively known as 'salep powder,' are a commercially important crop for human consumption and are one of the primary sources of GM. GM content is the primary indicator for the yield and quality of salep powder. We hypothesized that it would be more practical and accurate to measure GM content within tuber powder directly, prior to any purification or pre-processing. The GM content of tubers of 14 different orchid species was evaluated and compared using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and an enzymatic colorimetric method. RESULTS: Among the analyzed modes, the sum of the peak areas at 873 and 812 cm-1 , which represent the CH bending attributed to the ß-pyranose form of d-glucose and d-mannose, respectively, gave the only confirmation using colorimetric methods. It was found that the tubers of Himantoglossum caprinum and Serapias vomeracea had the highest GM concentrations among the analyzed species. After conducting different pre-processing steps on Serapias vomeracea tubers, it was found that treating the tubers with milk, or high temperature resulted in an apparent increase in GM concentrations. CONCLUSION: Himantoglossum caprinum and Serapias vomeracea give the highest yields of GM and should be used for commercial horticulture. GM estimation should be made prior to any pre-processing. FTIR spectroscopy is effective and reliable for directly comparing GM content of different orchid species, without the need for any purification or pre-processing. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Mananas/análise , Orchidaceae/química , Tubérculos/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Orchidaceae/classificação , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Tubérculos/classificação
8.
Protoplasma ; 256(3): 655-668, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30402736

RESUMO

In this research, anatomical, leaf micromorphological features of the samples belonging to 25 taxa (Anacamptis Rich., Cephalanthera Rich., Dactylorhiza Necker ex Nevski, Gymnadenia R.Br., Himantoglossum Spreng., Limodorum Boehm., Ophrys L., Orchis L., Platanthera Rich., Serapias L., Spiranthes Rich. and Steveniella Schltr.) spread in the Karadeniz Region have been evaluated comparatively. In anatomical studies, the transverse section from root, stem and leaf, and surface section from leaves of plants were examined. In addition, micromorphological properties of leaf were determined by electron microscopy. Morphometrical analyses were carried out using the anatomical and leaf micromophological characters of each taxa. The data matrices were obtained by examining the results of at least three samples collected from different localities. The data were evaluated using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and PAleontological STatistics (PAST) statistical programs with PCA, linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean analysis. Anatomical characteristics of plants such as root epidermis cell length, cortex diameter and pith cell diameter, leaf upper epidermis length-width and bulliform cell length-width were determined to be important characteristics. It was concluded that these characters are especially important in grouping at the genus level.


Assuntos
Orchidaceae/anatomia & histologia , Análise Discriminante , Orchidaceae/classificação , Orchidaceae/citologia , Orchidaceae/ultraestrutura , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Caules de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Análise de Componente Principal , Especificidade da Espécie , Tricomas/citologia , Turquia
9.
BMC Genomics ; 19(1): 800, 2018 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30400862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Calanthe masuca and C. sinica are two genetically closely related species in Orchidaceae. C. masuca is widely distributed in Asia, whereas C. sinica is restricted to Yunnan and Guangxi Provinces in southwest China. Both play important roles in horticulture and are under the pressure of population decline. Understanding their genetic background can greatly help us develop effective conservation strategies for these species. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are useful for genetic diversity analysis, presumably providing key information for the study and preservation of the wild populations of the two species we are interested in. RESULTS: In this study, we performed RNA-seq analysis on the leaves of C. masuca and C. sinica, obtaining 40,916 and 71,618 unigenes for each species, respectively. In total, 2,019/3,865 primer pairs were successfully designed from 3,764/7,189 putative SSRs, among which 197 polymorphic SSRs were screened out according to orthologous gene pairs. After mononucleotide exclusion, a subset of 129 SSR primers were analysed, and 13 of them were found to have high polymorphism levels. Further analysis demonstrated that they were feasible and effective against C. masuca and C. sinica as well as transferable to another species in Calanthe. Molecular evolutionary analysis revealed functional pathways commonly enriched in unigenes with similar evolutionary rates in the two species, as well as pathways specific to each species, implicating species-specific adaptation. The divergence time between the two closely related species was tentatively determined to be 3.42 ± 1.86 Mya. CONCLUSIONS: We completed and analysed the transcriptomes of C. masuca and C. sinica, assembling large numbers of unigenes and generating effective polymorphic SSR markers. This is the first report of the development of expressed sequence tag (EST)-SSR markers for Calanthe. In addition, our study could enable further genetic diversity analysis and functional and comparative genomic studies on Calanthe.


Assuntos
Repetições de Microssatélites , Orchidaceae/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Transcriptoma , China , Etiquetas de Sequências Expressas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Orchidaceae/classificação , Polimorfismo Genético
10.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0204174, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30226857

RESUMO

Sexually deceptive orchids of the genus Ophrys may rapidly evolve by adaptation to pollinators. However, understanding of the genetic basis of potential changes and patterns of relationships is hampered by a lack of genomic information. We report the complete plastid genome sequences of Ophrys iricolor and O. sphegodes, representing the two most species-rich lineages of the genus Ophrys. Both plastomes are circular DNA molecules (146754 bp for O. sphegodes and 150177 bp for O. iricolor) with the typical quadripartite structure of plastid genomes and within the average size of photosynthetic orchids. 213 Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) (31.5% polymorphic between O. iricolor and O. sphegodes) were identified, with homopolymers and dipolymers as the most common repeat types. SSRs were mainly located in intergenic regions but SSRs located in coding regions were also found, mainly in ycf1 and rpoC2 genes. The Ophrys plastome is predicted to encode 107 distinct genes, 17 of which are completely duplicated in the Inverted Repeat regions. 83 and 87 putative RNA editing sites were detected in 25 plastid genes of the two Ophrys species, all occurring in the first or second codon position. Comparing the rate of nonsynonymous (dN) and synonymous (dS) substitutions, 24 genes (including rbcL and ycf1) display signature consistent with positive selection. When compared with other members of the orchid family, the Ophrys plastome has a complete set of 11 functional ndh plastid genes, with the exception of O. sphegodes that has a truncated ndhF gene. Comparative analysis showed a large co-linearity with other related Orchidinae. However, in contrast to O. iricolor and other Orchidinae, O. sphegodes has a shift of the junction between the Inverted Repeat and Small Single Copy regions associated with the loss of the partial duplicated gene ycf1 and the truncation of the ndhF gene. Data on relative genomic coverage and validation by PCR indicate the presence, with a different ratio, of the two plastome types (i.e. with and without ndhF deletion) in both Ophrys species, with a predominance of the deleted type in O. sphegodes. A search for this deleted plastid region in O. sphegodes nuclear genome shows that the deleted region is inserted in a retrotransposon nuclear sequence. The present study provides useful genomic tools for studying conservation and patterns of relationships of this rapidly radiating orchid genus.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Genomas de Plastídeos/genética , Genômica , Orchidaceae/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Orchidaceae/classificação , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 127: 952-960, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29969657

RESUMO

The colonization of the epiphytic niche of Neotropical forest canopies played an important role in orchid's extraordinary diversification, with rare reversions to the terrestrial habit. To understand the evolutionary context of those reversals, we investigated the diversification of Galeandra, a Neotropical orchid genus which includes epiphytic and terrestrial species. We hypothesized that reversion to the terrestrial habit accompanied the expansion of savannas. To test this hypothesis we generated a comprehensive time-calibrated phylogeny and employed comparative methods. We found that Galeandra originated towards the end of the Miocene in Amazonia. The terrestrial clade originated synchronously with the rise of dry vegetation biomes in the last 5 million years, suggesting that aridification dramatically impacted plant diversification and habits in the Neotropics. Shifts in habit impacted floral spur lengths and geographic range size, but not climatic niche. The longer spurs and narrower ranges characterize epiphytic species, which probably adapted to specialized long-tongued Euglossini bee pollinators inhabiting forested habits. The terrestrial species present variable floral spurs and wider distribution ranges, with evidence of self-pollination, suggesting the loss of specialized pollination system and concomitant range expansion. Our study highlights how climate change impacted habit evolution and associated traits such as mutualistic interactions with pollinators.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Orchidaceae/fisiologia , Árvores/fisiologia , Animais , Abelhas/fisiologia , Calibragem , Clima , Orchidaceae/classificação , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Polinização , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 127: 304-319, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29870858

RESUMO

Australia harbours a rich and highly endemic orchid flora, with c. 90% of species endemic to the country. Despite that, the biogeographic history of Australasian orchid lineages is only poorly understood. Here we examined evolutionary relationships and the spatio-temporal evolution of the sun orchids (Thelymitra, 119 species), which display disjunct distribution patterns frequently found in Australasian orchid lineages. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted based on one nuclear (ITS) and three plastid markers (matK, psbJ-petA, ycf1) using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference. Divergence time estimations were carried out with a relaxed molecular clock in a Bayesian framework. Ancestral ranges were estimated using the dispersal-extinction-cladogenesis model and an area coding based on major disjunctions. The phylogenetic analyses clarified intergeneric relationships within Thelymitrinae, with Epiblema being sister to Thelymitra plus Calochilus, both of which were well-supported. Within Thelymitra, eight major and several minor clades were retrieved in the nuclear and plastid phylogenetic reconstructions. Five major clades corresponded to species complexes previously recognized based on morphological characters, whereas other previously recognized species groups were found to be paraphyletic. Conflicting signals between the nuclear and plastid phylogenetic reconstructions provided support for hybridization and plastid capture events both in the deeper evolutionary history of the genus and more recently. Divergence time estimation placed the origin of Thelymitra in the late Miocene (c. 10.8 Ma) and the origin of the majority of the main clades within Thelymitra during the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene, with the majority of extant species arising during the Pleistocene. Ancestral range reconstruction revealed that the early diversification of the genus in the late Miocene and Pliocene took place predominantly in southwest Australia, where most species with highly restricted distributional ranges occur. Several long-distance dispersal events eastwards across the Nullarbor Plain were inferred, recurrently resulting in lineage divergence within the genus. The predominant eastwards direction of long-distance dispersal events in Thelymitra highlights the importance of the prevailing westerly winds in the Southern Hemisphere for the present-day distribution of the genus, giving rise to the Thelymitra floras of Tasmania, New Zealand and New Caledonia, which were inferred to be of comparatively recent origin.


Assuntos
Orchidaceae/classificação , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Austrália , Teorema de Bayes , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Funções Verossimilhança , Orchidaceae/anatomia & histologia , Fenótipo , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 126: 241-249, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29673694

RESUMO

Despite significant progress made in recent years toward developing an infrafamilial classification of Orchidaceae, our understanding of relationships among and within tribal and subtribal groups of epidendroid orchids remains incomplete. To reassess generic delimitation among one group of these epidendroids, the African angraecoids, phylogenetic relationships were inferred from DNA sequence data from three regions, ITS, matK, and the trnL-trnF intergenic spacer, obtained from a broadly representative sample of taxa. Parsimony and Bayesian analyses yielded highly resolved trees that are in clear agreement and show significant support for many key clades within subtribe Angraecinae s.l. Angraecoid orchids comprise two well-supported clades: an African/American group and an Indian Ocean group. Molecular results also support many previously proposed relationships among genera, but also reveal some unexpected relationships. The genera Aerangis, Ancistrorhynchus, Bolusiella, Campylocentrum, Cyrtorchis, Dendrophylax, Eurychone, Microcoelia, Nephrangis, Podangis and Solenangis are all shown to be monophyletic, but Angraecopsis, Diaphananthe and Margelliantha are polyphyletic. Diaphananthe forms three well-supported clades, one of which might represent a new genus, and Rhipidoglossum is paraphyletic with respect to Cribbia and Rhaesteria, and also includes taxa currently assigned to Margelliantha. Tridactyle too is paraphyletic as Eggelingia is embedded within it. The large genus Angraecum is confirmed to be polyphyletic and several groups will have to be recognized as separate genera, including sections Dolabrifolia and Hadrangis. The recently segregated genus Pectinariella (previously recognized as A. sect. Pectinaria) is polyphyletic and its Continental African species will have to be removed. Similarly, some of the species recently transferred to Angraecoides that were previously placed in Angraecum sects. Afrangraecum and Conchoglossum will have to be moved and described as a new genus.


Assuntos
Orchidaceae/classificação , Filogenia , Teorema de Bayes , DNA de Plantas/genética , Oceano Índico , Orchidaceae/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(3)2018 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29498674

RESUMO

Orchidaceae is the 3rd largest family of angiosperms, an evolved young branch of monocotyledons. This family contains a number of economically-important horticulture and flowering plants. However, the limited availability of genomic information largely hindered the study of molecular evolution and phylogeny of Orchidaceae. In this study, we determined the evolutionary characteristics of whole chloroplast (cp) genomes and the phylogenetic relationships of the family Orchidaceae. We firstly characterized the cp genomes of four orchid species: Cremastra appendiculata, Calanthe davidii, Epipactis mairei, and Platanthera japonica. The size of the chloroplast genome ranged from 153,629 bp (C. davidi) to 160,427 bp (E. mairei). The gene order, GC content, and gene compositions are similar to those of other previously-reported angiosperms. We identified that the genes of ndhC, ndhI, and ndhK were lost in C. appendiculata, in that the ndh I gene was lost in P. japonica and E. mairei. In addition, the four types of repeats (forward, palindromic, reverse, and complement repeats) were examined in orchid species. E. mairei had the highest number of repeats (81), while C. davidii had the lowest number (57). The total number of Simple Sequence Repeats is at least 50 in C. davidii, and, at most, 78 in P. japonica. Interestingly, we identified 16 genes with positive selection sites (the psbH, petD, petL, rpl22, rpl32, rpoC1, rpoC2, rps12, rps15, rps16, accD, ccsA, rbcL, ycf1, ycf2, and ycf4 genes), which might play an important role in the orchid species' adaptation to diverse environments. Additionally, 11 mutational hotspot regions were determined, including five non-coding regions (ndhB intron, ccsA-ndhD, rpl33-rps18, ndhE-ndhG, and ndhF-rpl32) and six coding regions (rps16, ndhC, rpl32, ndhI, ndhK, and ndhF). The phylogenetic analysis based on whole cp genomes showed that C. appendiculata was closely related to C. striata var. vreelandii, while C. davidii and C. triplicate formed a small monophyletic evolutionary clade with a high bootstrap support. In addition, five subfamilies of Orchidaceae, Apostasioideae, Cypripedioideae, Epidendroideae, Orchidoideae, and Vanilloideae, formed a nested evolutionary relationship in the phylogenetic tree. These results provide important insights into the adaptive evolution and phylogeny of Orchidaceae.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Genômica , Orchidaceae/genética , Adaptação Biológica , Composição de Bases , Dosagem de Genes , Ordem dos Genes , Genômica/métodos , Repetições de Microssatélites , Mutação , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Orchidaceae/classificação , Filogenia , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico , Seleção Genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
15.
Mol Ecol ; 27(5): 1324-1337, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29419910

RESUMO

The climbing orchid Erythrorchis altissima is the largest mycoheterotroph in the world. Although previous in vitro work suggests that E. altissima has a unique symbiosis with wood-decaying fungi, little is known about how this giant orchid meets its carbon and nutrient demands exclusively via mycorrhizal fungi. In this study, the mycorrhizal fungi of E. altissima were molecularly identified using root samples from 26 individuals. Furthermore, in vitro symbiotic germination with five fungi and stable isotope compositions in five E. altissima at one site were examined. In total, 37 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to nine orders in Basidiomycota were identified from the orchid roots. Most of the fungal OTUs were wood-decaying fungi, but underground roots had ectomycorrhizal Russula. Two fungal isolates from mycorrhizal roots induced seed germination and subsequent seedling development in vitro. Measurement of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope abundances revealed that E. altissima is a full mycoheterotroph whose carbon originates mainly from wood-decaying fungi. All of the results show that E. altissima is associated with a wide range of wood- and soil-inhabiting fungi, the majority of which are wood-decaying taxa. This generalist association enables E. altissima to access a large carbon pool in woody debris and has been key to the evolution of such a large mycoheterotroph.


Assuntos
Micorrizas/fisiologia , Orchidaceae/microbiologia , Carbono/metabolismo , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Micorrizas/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Orchidaceae/classificação , Orchidaceae/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/classificação , Raízes de Plantas/genética
16.
BMC Plant Biol ; 17(1): 222, 2017 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29178835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subtribe Orchidinae (Orchidaceae, Orchidoideae) are a nearly cosmopolitan taxon of terrestrial orchids, comprising about 1800 species in 47 to 60 genera. Although much progress has been made in recent years of phylogenetics of Orchidinae, considerable problems remain to be addressed. Based on molecular phylogenetics, we attempt to illustrate the phylogenetic relationships and discuss generic delimitation within Orchidinae. Seven DNA markers (five plastid and two nuclear), a broad sampling of Orchidinae (400 species in 52 genera) and three methods of phylogenetic analysis (maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference) were used. RESULTS: Orchidinae s.l. are monophyletic. Satyrium is sister to the rest of Orchidinae s.l. Brachycorythis and Schizochilus are successive sister to Asian-European Orchidinae s.s. Sirindhornia and Shizhenia are successive sister to clade formed by Tsaiorchis-Hemipilia-Ponerorchis alliance. Stenoglottis is sister to the Habenaria-Herminium-Peristylus alliance. Habenaria, currently the largest genus in Orchidinae, is polyphyletic and split into two distant clades: one Asian-Australian and the other African-American-Asian. Diplomeris is sister to Herminium s.l. plus Asian-Australian Habenaria. CONCLUSIONS: We propose to recognize five genera in the Ponerorchis alliance: Hemipilia, Ponerorchis s.l., Sirindhornia, Shizhenia and Tsaiorchis. Splitting Habenaria into two genera based on morphological characters and geographical distribution may be the least disruptive approach, and it is reasonable to keep Satyrium in Orchidinae.


Assuntos
Orchidaceae/classificação , DNA de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , Orchidaceae/genética , Filogenia
17.
PLoS One ; 12(11): e0187318, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29140976

RESUMO

In this paper, we compare ndh genes in the plastid genome of many Cymbidium species and three closely related taxa in Orchidaceae looking for evidence of ndh gene degradation. Among the 11 ndh genes, there were frequently large deletions in directly repeated or AT-rich regions. Variation in these degraded ndh genes occurs between individual plants, apparently at population levels in these Cymbidium species. It is likely that ndh gene transfers from the plastome to mitochondrial genome (chondriome) occurred independently in Orchidaceae and that ndh genes in the chondriome were also relatively recently transferred between distantly related species in Orchidaceae. Four variants of the ycf1-rpl32 region, which normally includes the ndhF genes in the plastome, were identified, and some Cymbidium species contained at least two copies of that region in their organellar genomes. The four ycf1-rpl32 variants seem to have a clear pattern of close relationships. Patterns of ndh degradation between closely related taxa and translocation of ndh genes to the chondriome in Cymbidium suggest that there have been multiple bidirectional intracellular gene transfers between two organellar genomes, which have produced different levels of ndh gene degradation among even closely related species.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas , Orchidaceae/genética , Plastídeos/genética , Orchidaceae/classificação , Filogenia
18.
Nature ; 549(7672): 379-383, 2017 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28902843

RESUMO

Constituting approximately 10% of flowering plant species, orchids (Orchidaceae) display unique flower morphologies, possess an extraordinary diversity in lifestyle, and have successfully colonized almost every habitat on Earth. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Apostasia shenzhenica, a representative of one of two genera that form a sister lineage to the rest of the Orchidaceae, providing a reference for inferring the genome content and structure of the most recent common ancestor of all extant orchids and improving our understanding of their origins and evolution. In addition, we present transcriptome data for representatives of Vanilloideae, Cypripedioideae and Orchidoideae, and novel third-generation genome data for two species of Epidendroideae, covering all five orchid subfamilies. A. shenzhenica shows clear evidence of a whole-genome duplication, which is shared by all orchids and occurred shortly before their divergence. Comparisons between A. shenzhenica and other orchids and angiosperms also permitted the reconstruction of an ancestral orchid gene toolkit. We identify new gene families, gene family expansions and contractions, and changes within MADS-box gene classes, which control a diverse suite of developmental processes, during orchid evolution. This study sheds new light on the genetic mechanisms underpinning key orchid innovations, including the development of the labellum and gynostemium, pollinia, and seeds without endosperm, as well as the evolution of epiphytism; reveals relationships between the Orchidaceae subfamilies; and helps clarify the evolutionary history of orchids within the angiosperms.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Planta/genética , Orchidaceae/genética , Filogenia , Genes de Plantas/genética , Orchidaceae/anatomia & histologia , Orchidaceae/classificação , Transcriptoma
19.
Proc Biol Sci ; 284(1863)2017 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28931735

RESUMO

In eastern Mediterranean countries orchids continue to be collected from the wild for the production of salep, a beverage made of dried orchid tubers. In this study we used nrITS1 and nrITS2 DNA metabarcoding to identify orchid and other plant species present in 55 commercial salep products purchased in Iran, Turkey, Greece and Germany. Thirty samples yielded a total of 161 plant taxa, and 13 products (43%) contained orchid species and these belonged to 10 terrestrial species with tuberous roots. Another 70% contained the substitute ingredient Cyamopsis tetraganoloba (Guar). DNA metabarcoding using the barcoding markers nrITS1 and nrITS2 shows the potential of these markers and approach for identification of species used in salep products. The analysis of interspecific genetic distances between sequences of these markers for the most common salep orchid genera shows that species level identifications can be made with a high level of confidence. Understanding the species diversity and provenance of salep orchid tubers will enable the chain of commercialization of endangered species to be traced back to the harvesters and their natural habitats, and thus allow for targeted efforts to protect or sustainably use wild populations of these orchids.


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Comércio , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Orchidaceae/classificação , DNA de Plantas/genética , Alemanha , Grécia
20.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 42(11): 2058-2067, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28822148

RESUMO

In this study, DNA barcoding was used to validate the traditional morphological classification of medicinal plants of Orchidaceae. The 163 samples of 135 species belong to 49 genera which have been confirmed by morphological identification were collected. Candidate sequences, including matK, psbA-trnH and ITS2 sequences, were amplified, bidirectionally sequenced, and assembled. All the sequences were blasted to GenBank database at NCBI, then analyzed using Neighbor-joining tree method by MEGA 7.0. The results showed that the DNAs of 163 samples were successfully extracted. The amplification efficiency of matK, psbA-trnH and ITS2 sequences were 100%, 100% and 98.77%, respectively. The 487 sequences were obtained, 345 sequences of which have matched corresponding sequences in the GenBank database and 142 sequences were new sequences. The topology of NJ tree which were constructed with the matK sequences was better than the trees of psbA-trnH and ITS2 sequences. In conclusion, the matK, psbA-trnH and ITS2 sequences were complementary and suitable for identification of medicinal plants of Orchidaceae. DNA barcoding can be used as an auxiliary means for identification of medicinal plants of Orchidaceae.


Assuntos
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Orchidaceae/classificação , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , DNA de Plantas/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Genes de Plantas
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