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1.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229013, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal and Child health remains at the core of global health priorities transcending the Millennium Development Goals into the current era of Sustainable Development Goals. Most low and middle-income countries including Ghana are yet to achieve the required levels of reduction in child and maternal mortality. This paper analysed the trends and the associated risk factors of stillbirths in a district hospital located in an impoverished and remote region of Ghana. METHODS: Retrospective hospital maternal records on all deliveries conducted in the Navrongo War Memorial hospital from 2003-2013 were retrieved and analysed. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to summarise trends in stillbirths while the generalized linear estimation logistic regression is used to determine socio-demographic, maternal and neonatal factors associated with stillbirths. RESULTS: A total of 16,670 deliveries were analysed over the study period. Stillbirth rate was 3.4% of all births. There was an overall decline in stillbirth rate over the study period as stillbirths declined from 4.2% in 2003 to 2.1% in 2013. Female neonates were less likely to be stillborn (Adjusted Odds ratio = 0.62 and 95%CI [0.46, 0.84]; p = 0.002) compared to male neonates; neonates with low birth weight (4.02 [2.92, 5.53]) and extreme low birth weight (18.9 [10.9, 32.4]) were at a higher risk of still birth (p<0.001). Mothers who had undergone Female Genital Mutilation had 47% (1.47 [1.04, 2.09]) increase odds of having a stillbirth compared to non FGM mothers (p = 0.031). Mothers giving birth for the first time also had a 40% increase odds of having a stillbirth compared to those who had more than one previous births (p = 0.037). CONCLUSION: Despite the modest reduction in stillbirth rates over the study period, it is evident from the results that stillbirth rate is still relatively high. Primiparous women and preterm deliveries leading to low birth weight are identified factors that result in increased stillbirths. Efforts aimed at impacting on stillbirths should include the elimination of outmoded cultural practices such as FGM.


Assuntos
Natimorto/epidemiologia , Adulto , Ordem de Nascimento , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658744

RESUMO

The introduction of the two-child family planning policy in China calls for a study of the response of mothers' subjective well-being after the birth of a second child. Generally focusing on Western countries, previous studies suggested that a series of factors could influence the response, but insufficient attention has been paid to the relative importance of these factors so far. Based on survey data from mothers of two children in the Xi'an metropolitan area, Shaanxi Province, China, our study indicates that the important factors associated with mothers' life satisfaction after having a second child were, in general, common to Western countries and China. There were also two factors somewhat unique to China: positive adjustment (i.e., becoming happier) by firstborn children (average age, 6 years old) following a sibling's birth, predicted enhanced life satisfaction for mothers; additionally, mothers who had both a son and a daughter reported the highest increase in life satisfaction, while mothers who had two sons reported the lowest increase. Socioenvironmental constraints (i.e., parenting pressure and work-family conflict) had a larger association with mothers' life satisfaction than individual ideational factors (e.g., family orientation and fertility desire). These findings suggest that fertility-friendly policies and convenient family intervention institutions are needed to alleviate potential undesirable consequences and improve maternal life quality following a second childbirth so that the two-child policy can be a success.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Política de Planejamento Familiar , Mães/psicologia , Adulto , Ordem de Nascimento , Criança , China , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Núcleo Familiar , Poder Familiar , Irmãos , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida
3.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 22(3): 164-176, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198125

RESUMO

A literature review was carried out to identify pre and perinatal characteristics associated with variation in Apgar scores in population-based studies. The parameters identified in the literature search were included in the classical twin design study to estimate effects of pre and perinatal factors shared and nonshared by twins and to test for a contribution of genetic factors in 1- and 5-min Apgar scores in a large sample of Dutch monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins. The sample included MZ and DZ twins (N = 5181 pairs) recruited by the Netherlands Twin Register shortly after birth, with data on prenatal characteristics and Apgar scores at first and/or fifth minutes. The ordinal regression and structural equation modeling were used to analyze the effects of characteristics identified in the literature review and to estimate genetic and nongenetic variance components. The literature review identified 63 papers. Consistent with the review, we observed statistically significant effects of birth order, zygosity and gestational age (GA) for 1- and 5-min Apgar scores of both twins. Apgar scores are higher in first-born versus second-born twins and DZ first-born versus MZ first-born twins. Birth weight had an effect on the 5-min Apgar of the first born. Fetal presentation and mode of delivery had different effects on Apgar scores of first- and second-born twins. Parental characteristics and chorionicity did not have significant main effects on Apgar scores. The MZ twins' Apgar correlations equaled the DZ Apgar correlations. Our analyses suggest that individual differences in 1- and 5-min Apgar scores are attributable to shared and nonshared pre and perinatal factors, but not to genotypic factors of the newborns. The main predictors of Apgar scores are birth order, zygosity, GA, birth weight, mode of delivery and fetal presentation.


Assuntos
Índice de Apgar , Peso ao Nascer , Assistência Perinatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Gêmeos Dizigóticos , Gêmeos Monozigóticos , Adolescente , Adulto , Ordem de Nascimento , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Países Baixos , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
4.
Reprod Health ; 16(1): 79, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fertility rates remain persistently high in Nigeria, with little difference across socioeconomic groups. While the desire for large family size is culturally rooted, there is little understanding of how repeated child mortality experiences influence fertility behaviour and parity transition in Nigeria. METHODS: Using birth history data from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS), we applied life table techniques and proportional-hazard regression model to explore the effect of child survival experience on parity transitions. We hypothesize that a woman with one or more child death experience is at elevated risk of progressing towards higher parities. RESULTS: Our findings show that child mortality is concentrated among mothers living in deprived conditions especially in rural areas of the northern part of Nigeria and among those with little or no education and, among those belonging to Hausa/Fulani ethnicity and Islam religion. Mothers with repeated experience of child deaths were significantly at a higher rate of progressing to higher parities than their counterparts (HR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.31-1.61), when adjusted for relevant biological and socio-demographic characteristics. CONCLUSION: Recurrent experience of child deaths exacerbates the risks to higher parity transition. Interventions aimed at reducing fertility in Nigeria should target promoting child survival and family planning concurrently.


Assuntos
Intervalo entre Nascimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Coeficiente de Natalidade , Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Idade Materna , Paridade , Adolescente , Adulto , Ordem de Nascimento , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dinâmica Populacional , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 69(5): 684-689, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31105288

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the association of maternal, paternal and social factors with intellectual disability in special children.. METHODS: The case-control study was conducted in four schools of Lahore, Pakistan, from September 2014 to September 2015, and comprised intellectually disabled children aged 6-15 years, and an equal number of matching healthy subjects. group. Interviews were conducted with the help of a pre-tested structured questionnaire. SPSS -17 was utilised to analyse the data. RESULTS: Of the 298 participants, 149(50%) each were cases and controls. Overall, there were 83(56%) boys and 66(44%) girls. Significant association of intellectual disability was found with consanguinity (p=0.001), father's educational status (p=0.03), paternal history of mental retardation (p=0.01) and history of delayed cry (p=0.001). Breastfeeding (depicted a protective relationship (p=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Parental, social, environmental and familial causes contributed to intellectual disability among the subjects.


Assuntos
Asfixia Neonatal/epidemiologia , Traumatismos do Nascimento/epidemiologia , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Consanguinidade , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ordem de Nascimento , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Síndrome de Down/epidemiologia , Status Econômico , Escolaridade , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Idade Materna , Mães , Oxigenoterapia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Idade Paterna , Fatores de Risco , Escalas de Wechsler , Adulto Jovem
6.
Econ Hum Biol ; 34: 194-207, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31040075

RESUMO

In this article we test the hypothesis that the secular increase in heights in the course of the second half of the nineteenth century was associated with the rise of the breadwinner-homemaker household. In these 'modern' households, women raised the living standards (quality and quantity of food, hygiene and care) for all members, especially the children. We model the assumed contributions to the family budget by age and gender of household members, and find that a strong imbalance between consumers and producers in the household put severe strains on effective resource allocation, leading to lower net nutrition and lower young adult heights. We suggest a carefully calibrated consumer/producer ratio as an indicator to capture these effects. The ratio is not meant to replace others, and we show that sibling rank order as well as gender preferences also played a role in intra-household resource allocation. For our research, we have used a database with reconstructed life histories (including co-residence) of 3003 Dutch army recruits. Our results indicate that the consumer/producer ratio as experienced by recruits in their early life indeed had a strong impact (-1,8 cm) on their heights. However, this effect differed by social class, which can be explained by differences in acceptance of the income pooling model.


Assuntos
Estatura , Características da Família/história , Fatores Socioeconômicos/história , Ordem de Nascimento , Alimentos/economia , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Militares , Países Baixos , Estado Nutricional , Fatores Sexuais , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/história , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(8): 3401-3411, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102196

RESUMO

Previous research has found multiplex (MPX) children have an advantage in cognition compared to simplex (SPX) children. However, MPX parent's previous experience with older diagnosed siblings has not been considered. We used a large database sample to investigate the MPX advantage and contribution of birth order. Children from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) were stratified into first- (MPX1, n  = 152) and second-affected MPX (MPX2, n  = 143), SPX (n  = 111), and only-child SPX (SPXOC, n  = 23) groups. Both MPX groups had higher cognitive scores compared to SPX groups, with no differences between MPX1 and MPX2 groups. No differences were found for autism symptoms or adaptive behaviour. These results suggest parent experience due to birth order is an unlikely contributor to the MPX cognitive advantage.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Ordem de Nascimento , Cognição , Pais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Irmãos/psicologia
8.
J Genet Psychol ; 180(2-3): 130-143, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002022

RESUMO

The sibling relationship is the longest relationship of the life course and has been found to influence youth adjustment (Dunn, 2002 ). Given that adolescence is a time of increased body awareness, the authors examined the potential role of siblings' body conceptions and sibling relationship quality on adolescent body conceptions. In a sample of 101 predominantly White, middle-class adolescent sibling dyads, the authors found that positive sibling relationship quality was associated with higher physical self-worth in adolescents, but that this differed by sibling gender and sibling physical self-worth. Alternatively, negative sibling relationship quality was associated with lower physical self-worth for adolescents, but differed based on birth order, sibling physical self-worth, and adolescent gender.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Ordem de Nascimento/psicologia , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Relações entre Irmãos , Irmãos/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
9.
Infant Behav Dev ; 55: 100-111, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002987

RESUMO

Given the large numbers of families with more than one child, understanding similarities and differences in siblings' behaviors and in parents' interactions with their sibling infants is an important goal for advancing more representative developmental science. This study employed a within-family design to examine mean-level consistency and individual-order agreement in 5-month-old sibling behaviors and maternal parenting practices with their firstborns and secondborns (ns = 61 mothers and 122 infants). Each infant was seen independently with mother. Firstborn infants were more social with their mothers and engaged in more exploration with objects than secondborn infants; firstborn and secondborn infants' behaviors were correlated for smiling, distress communication, and efficiency of exploration. Mothers engaged in more physical encouragement, social exchange, didactic interaction, material provisioning, and language with their firstborns than with their secondborns. Notably, only maternal nurturing (e.g., feeding, holding) did not differ in mean level when mothers were with their two infants. However, mean differences in mothers' social exchange and material provisioning with their two children attenuated to nonsignificance when controlling for differences in siblings' behaviors. Individual-order agreement of mothers' behaviors with firstborn and secondborn infants (across an average of almost 3 years) was only moderate. These findings suggest that mother-firstborn interactions may differ from mother-secondborn interactions. Future research should move beyond studying mother-firstborn dyads to understand broader family and developmental processes.


Assuntos
Ordem de Nascimento/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Relações Familiares/etnologia , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/etnologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Educação Infantil/etnologia , Educação Infantil/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento do Lactente/etnologia , Comportamento do Lactente/psicologia , Masculino , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Irmãos/psicologia , Estados Unidos/etnologia
10.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(7): 699-709, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30891687

RESUMO

Deliveries from Indian and Chinese mothers present a higher than expected male:female ratio in their own countries, in northern Europe, EEUU and Canada. No studies have been carried out in southern European countries. We explored whether the high male-to-female ratio common in Indian and Chinese communities, also exists among families from those regions who live in Spain. For that purpose we designed a cross-sectional population-based study containing data on 3,133,908 singleton live births registered in the Spanish Vital Statistics Registry during the period 2007-2015. The ratio of male:female births by area of origin was calculated using binary intercept-only logistic regression models without reference category for the whole sample of births and taking into account a possible effect modification of birth order and sex of the previous males. Interaction effects of sociodemographic mothers' and fathers' characteristics was also assesed. In Spain, the ratio male:female is higher than expected for Indian-born mothers, especially for deliveries from mothers with no previous male births and, to a lesser extent, for Chinese-born women, specifically for third or higher order births and slightly influenced by the sex of the previous births. Therefore, the increased sex male:female ratio observed in other countries among Indian and Chinese mothers is also observed in Spain. This reinforces the notion that culture and values of the country of origin are more influential than the country of residence.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Coeficiente de Natalidade/etnologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães , Razão de Masculinidade , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Ordem de Nascimento , Coeficiente de Natalidade/tendências , China/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Parto , Gravidez , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 59: 178-184, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30818125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The childhood peak of brain tumors suggests that early-life exposures might have a role in their etiology. Hence, we examined in the Greek National Registry for Childhood Hematological Malignancies and Solid tumors (NARECHEM-ST) whether perinatal and early-life risk factors influence the risk of childhood brain tumors. METHODS: In a nationwide case-control study, we included 203 cases (0-14 years) with a diagnosis of brain tumor in NARECHEM-ST (2010-2016) and 406 age-, sex-, and center-matched hospital controls. Information was collected via interviews with the guardians and we analyzed the variables of interest in multivariable conditional logistic regression models. RESULTS: Instrument-assisted delivery was associated with higher (OR: 7.82, 95%CI: 2.18-28.03), whereas caesarean delivery with lower (OR: 0.67, 95%CI: 0.45-0.99) risk of childhood brain tumors, as compared to spontaneous vaginal delivery. Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy (OR: 2.35, 95%CI: 1.45-3.81) and history of living in a farm (OR: 4.98, 2.40-10.32) increased the odds of childhood brain tumors. Conversely, higher birth order was associated with lower risk (OR for 2nd vs. 1st child: 0.60, 95%CI: 0.40-0.89 and OR for 3rd vs. 1st: 0.34, 95%CI: 0.18-0.63). Birth weight, gestational age, parental age, history of infertility, smoking during pregnancy, allergic diseases, and maternal diseases during pregnancy showed no significant associations. CONCLUSIONS: Perinatal and early-life risk factors, and specifically indicators of brain trauma, exposure to toxic agents and immune system maturation, might be involved in the pathogenesis of childhood brain tumors. Larger studies should aim to replicate our findings and examine associations with tumor subtypes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Ordem de Nascimento , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(13): 6019-6024, 2019 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858316

RESUMO

Does birth order shape people's propensity to take risks? Evidence is mixed. We used a three-pronged approach to investigate birth-order effects on risk taking. First, we examined the propensity to take risks as measured by a self-report questionnaire administered in the German Socio-Economic Panel, one of the largest and most comprehensive household surveys. Second, we drew on data from the Basel-Berlin Risk Study, one of the most exhaustive attempts to measure risk preference. This study administered 39 risk-taking measures, including a set of incentivized behavioral tasks. Finally, we considered the possibility that birth-order differences in risk taking are not reflected in survey responses and laboratory studies. We thus examined another source of behavioral data: the risky life decision to become an explorer or a revolutionary. Findings from these three qualitatively different sources of data and analytic methods point unanimously in the same direction: We found no birth-order effects on risk taking.


Assuntos
Ordem de Nascimento , Assunção de Riscos , Adulto , Ordem de Nascimento/psicologia , Comportamento de Escolha , Humanos , Testes Psicológicos , Psicometria , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato
13.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 66(2): 67-75, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814425

RESUMO

Objective Recently, in Japan, the compulsory vaccinations administered during early childhood have been becoming increasingly varied. As a result, the vaccination schedule has become complicated. In this study, we aimed to identify the association of time-appropriate vaccination during early childhood (dependent variable) with individual-level factors including socioeconomic status and having a family doctor. We also studied the association of time-appropriate vaccination with community-level factors including the number of pediatricians in a community.Methods Multilevel logistic regression models were used for analysis. Time-appropriate BCG, DPT, and measles vaccinations were the dependent variables. Individual-level data were obtained through a survey of parents of 18-month-old children as part of the final evaluation of "Healthy Parents and Children 21"; community-level data were obtained through a survey of municipalities as part of the aforementioned final evaluation as well as through a national survey. There were 23,583 parents in 430 municipalities who were eligible for analysis.Results Time-appropriate vaccination of infants was carried out by 88.3% of parents. The results of the multilevel logistic regression showed that time-appropriate vaccination was significantly lower for those who did not have a family doctor (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36-0.55), the fourth or later birth order (0.23; 0.19-0.28), mothers aged less than 19 years at childbirth (0.17; 0.13-0.24), full-time working mothers (0.52; 0.47-0.58), and those under very difficult economic conditions (0.66; 0.57-0.77). Among community-level factors, only use of vaccination data by a municipality had a significantly negative association with the dependent variable.Conclusion Not having a family doctor, the mother's young age, late birth order, poor economic status, and full-time working mothers were risk factors associated with delayed vaccinations. It is necessary to improve environments that promote infants having a family doctor as well as to promote special approaches toward families at risk for delayed vaccinations.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Programas de Imunização , Pais/psicologia , Saúde Pública , Vacinação , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Ordem de Nascimento , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Lactente , Japão , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães , Pediatras/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos de Família/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tempo , Vacinação/psicologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Mulheres Trabalhadoras , Adulto Jovem
14.
Horm Behav ; 112: 10-19, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879994

RESUMO

We assessed parents' testosterone reactivity to the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP), a moderately stressful parent-infant interaction task that pulls for parental nurturance and caregiving behavior. Parents (146 mothers, 154 fathers) interacted with their 1-year-old infants, and saliva samples were obtained pre- and post-task to assess changes in testosterone. We examined whether testosterone reactivity differed between mothers and fathers, the extent to which parents' characteristic approaches to closeness (i.e., adult attachment orientation) contributed to testosterone changes, and whether any influences of adult attachment orientation were independent of more general personality characteristics (i.e., the Big Five personality dimensions). Results revealed that mothers and fathers showed comparable declines in testosterone during the SSP, and that these declines were attenuated among fathers with a more avoidant attachment orientation (i.e., those less comfortable with closeness). Associations between fathers' avoidance and testosterone reactivity were statistically independent of broader personality traits. Our findings provide some of the first evidence for short-term changes in both mothers' and fathers' testosterone in contexts that pull for nurturance. Moreover, these findings demonstrate that individual differences in adult attachment may play an important role in understanding such changes. We discuss possible explanations for gender differences in associations between adult attachment and parents' testosterone reactivity, and the extent to which testosterone reactivity might be sensitive to changes in context for mothers versus fathers.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Pai , Apego ao Objeto , Comportamento Paterno/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico , Testosterona/metabolismo , Adulto , Ordem de Nascimento/psicologia , Pai/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Relações Interpessoais , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Gravidez , Saliva/química , Saliva/metabolismo , Comportamento Social , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Testosterona/análise , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 128(3): 256-262, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30762377

RESUMO

The importance of gender and obstetric factors as predictors of the age of onset of schizophrenia is debatable. Unfortunately, there is a significant dearth of studies in developing countries such as Nigeria. This study involved a survey of patients with schizophrenia (n = 1,445; N = 2,393), from March 2014 to March 2016, from a psychiatric hospital in southwest Nigeria. Structured diagnostic interviews were used to confirm diagnosis. Females had a higher age of onset (M = 34.91, SD = 15.52) compared with males (M = 28.78, SD = 10.62; p = .00, M = 32.74 ± 12.96). Gender and marital status were the only variables significantly related to the age of onset (p = .00). Our model predicted 10.1% of the variability in the determination of the age of onset of schizophrenia. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idade de Início , Ordem de Nascimento/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Idade Materna , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Idade Paterna , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais
16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 191, 2019 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30764791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shared genetic and environmental factors suggest that family relationships are important predictors of obesity-related behaviors, yet little is known about how siblings influence physical activity and sedentary behaviors. This study examined physical activity and sedentary behavior between sibling dyads across summer and fall time points and determined if birth order and gender modify the relationship between sibling behaviors. METHODS: Mexican-heritage families residing in colonias along the United States-Mexico border were recruited using promotoras de salud to participate in summer and school year surveys. Eighty-seven sibling dyads had complete data for the physical activity sub-study: 21 older brother-younger brother, 21 older brother-younger sister, 23 older sister-younger brother, and 22 older sister-younger sister dyads. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were measured using a validated 7-day recall instrument to create summary measures of weekly active, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) metabolic equivalents (MET), sitting, and screen time minutes. We used linear regression analyses to examine changes over time and the association between older and younger sibling behavior. RESULTS: During summer, older siblings (mean age = 11.2 years) reported 1069 active minutes and 1244 sitting minutes per week; younger siblings (mean age = 8.3 years) reported 1201 active minutes and 1368 sitting minutes per week. Younger brothers reported fewer active minutes (mean = - 459.6; p = 0.01) and fewer MVPA MET-minutes (mean = - 2261.7; p = 0.02) of physical activity during the fall. Within all 87 dyads, older sibling physical activity was significantly associated with younger sibling active minutes (B = 0.45;p = 0.004) and MET-minutes (B = 0.45;p = 0.003) during summer but not fall; older sibling sedentary behavior was significantly associated with younger sibling sitting (B = 0.23;p = 0.01) and screen time minutes (B = 0.23;p = 0.004) during fall but not summer. After stratifying by gender dyad groups, younger brother behavior was strongly associated with older brother behavior at both time points. CONCLUSION: Younger siblings appear to emulate the physical activity behaviors of their older siblings during non-school summer months and sedentary behaviors of older siblings during school-time fall months, especially older brother-younger brother dyads. Family-based interventions to increase physical activity and decrease sedentary behavior are growing in popularity, but more work is needed to understand the role of sibling influences.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Comportamento Sedentário/etnologia , Irmãos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Ordem de Nascimento , Criança , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos , Estações do Ano , Fatores Sexuais , Texas/epidemiologia
17.
Int Urogynecol J ; 30(6): 985-990, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734837

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Birthweight seems to be a risk factor for levator ani muscle (LAM) avulsion and a predictive factor for pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Most trauma seems due to first vaginal birth. METHODS: One thousand one hundred twenty-five women with at least two vaginal deliveries underwent a physician-directed interview, followed by clinical examination (digital palpation and Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification-POPQ) and 4D translabial ultrasound. Ultrasound volume data were obtained at rest, on pelvic floor contraction and Valsalva. The investigator, blinded to all other data, performed offline analysis of the LAM integrity and hiatal area on Valsalva. We tested for associations between birthweight of the first and of the largest vaginally born baby on the one hand and avulsion and symptoms/signs of prolapse on the other hand. RESULTS: Between July 2014 and July 2017, 1575 patients were seen. After exclusion of nulliparae and women with just one vaginal birth, 1202 remained. Another 77 were excluded due to missing data, leaving 1125. A significant association was found between birthweight and LAM avulsion as well as significant prolapse on POPQ. The birthweight of the first vaginally born baby was at least as predictive for avulsion as the birthweight of any subsequent births, even when adjusted for maternal age at first delivery and use of forceps. CONCLUSIONS: The birthweight of the first vaginally born baby is associated with levator avulsion and subsequent POP. Maximum weight of vaginal births does not seem to be a stronger predictor.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Parto , Diafragma da Pelve/lesões , Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ordem de Nascimento , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diafragma da Pelve/diagnóstico por imagem , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Avaliação de Sintomas , Ultrassonografia , Manobra de Valsalva , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cryobiology ; 87: 117-119, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30707963

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to present the first birth of healthy infant born following ICSI using the new permeable cryoprotectant-free sperm vitrification protocol Easy-Sperm®. PRINCIPAL RESULTS: A 39 years old woman and his 40 years old partner underwent egg donation treatment at IVF-Spain Alicante (Spain). Half of the mature oocytes obtained from a young and healthy donor were fertilized by ICSI, using slow-frozen spermatozoa and the other half with vitrified spermatozoa. A total of 5 blastocysts were obtained on day 5 (3 resulting from vitrified spermatozoa and 2 from frozen sperm). The best embryo, with AA quality (derived from one of the oocytes fertilized with vitrified sperm) was transferred. The woman conceived and, following a normal pregnancy, delivered a healthy boy. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of a successful pregnancy and delivery of a healthy infant from ICSI with permeable vitrified spermatozoa in an oocyte donation program with transfer on blastocyst stage.


Assuntos
Criopreservação/métodos , Injeções de Esperma Intracitoplásmicas/métodos , Espermatozoides/transplante , Vitrificação , Adulto , Ordem de Nascimento , Blastocisto/fisiologia , Crioprotetores/análise , Transferência Embrionária , Feminino , Fertilização , Humanos , Masculino , Oócitos/fisiologia , Gravidez , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Doadores de Tecidos
19.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0209581, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30605457

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the association between mode of delivery and offspring BMI in late adolescence in a large cohort that predated the obesity epidemic, and assess the role of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (ppBMI) in this association. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a historical prospective study in the setting of the Jerusalem Perinatal Study (JPS), a population-based cohort that includes all 17,003 births to residents of West Jerusalem, between 1974 and 1976. Offspring's BMI at age 17 was obtained upon army recruitment and was available for 11,001 of cohort participants. The associations were examined using logistic regressions, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics and for proxies for indication for C-Section birth. Analyses were then stratified by quartiles of ppBMI. RESULTS: C-Section was associated with offspring overweight/obesity, with adjusted OR of 1.44 (95%CI:1.14-1.82). Significant interaction of ppBMI with mode of delivery was observed, such that the associations of C-Section with overweight/obesity were limited to the upper quartile of ppBMI (adjusted OR = 1.70, 95%CI:1.18-2.43). Restricting the analyses to singleton first births and excluding pregnancies complicated with toxemia and gestational diabetes yielded similar findings. CONCLUSIONS: C-Section was positively associated with being overweight/obese at age 17. Importantly, ppBMI modified this association, with a significant association between C-Section and overweight/obesity evident only among offspring born to mothers in the highest ppBMI quartile. In light of the growing rates of obesity in women of reproductive age, these results should be considered in patient-doctor shared decisions related to selection of mode of delivery, in the absence of a clear medical indication.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Adiposidade/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Ordem de Nascimento , Peso ao Nascer , Índice de Massa Corporal , Cesárea , Estudos de Coortes , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Mães , Obesidade/metabolismo , Razão de Chances , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
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