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1.
JAMA Health Forum ; 3(2): e215146, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35977278

RESUMO

Importance: Eighteen states, including Oregon, have passed legislation requiring insurers to cover dispensation of a 12-month supply of short-acting, hormonal contraception. Objective: To determine whether Oregon's 2016 12-month supply law was associated with an increase in contraceptive supply received. Design Setting and Participants: This retrospective cohort study of hormonal contraceptive users using Oregon's All Payer All Claims database examined the quantity of contraceptive supply dispensed 3 years before and 3 years after the 2016 policy change. We also assessed changes among patients attributed to Title X clinics. Exposures: Legislation requiring insurers in Oregon to cover a 12-month supply of contraception to continuing users. Main Outcomes and Measures: Receipt of a 12-month supply of hormonal contraception. Results: This cohort study of insured users (mean [SD] age, 27.4 [2.1] years) of short-acting hormonal contraception included 639 053 contraceptive prescriptions. Results indicated that more than 80% of prescriptions for contraceptives cover 3 months or fewer. Most women in the study population used the oral contraceptive pill, lived in a metropolitan area, and were privately insured. We did not observe a significant association between the passage of the 12-month supply policy and receipt of a 12-month supply (aOR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.74-1.38). Receipt of a 12-month supply was more common for Medicaid recipients than the privately insured (aOR, 9.40; 95% CI, 6.62-13.34). We did find a shift from 1 month to 2 to 3 months supply being dispensed. The policy change was associated with a small, overall increase in quantity dispensed (0.27 months supply; 95% CI, 0.15 to -0.38). Title X clinics prescribed 3 months more of contraceptive supply than non-Title X clinics (3.03 months supply; 95% CI, 2.64-3.41). However, the policy change was not associated with increased contraceptive supply dispensed at Title X clinics. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of insured users of short-acting hormonal contraception, the passage of a 12-month contraceptive supply policy was not associated with an increase in contraceptive supply dispensed.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais , Dispositivos Anticoncepcionais , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Anticoncepcionais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Oregon , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
2.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 141: 108849, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932759

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nonpharmaceutical fentanyl has reconfigured the U.S. illicit drug market, contributing to a drastic increase in overdose drug deaths. While illicit fentanyl has subsumed the drug supply in the Northeast and Midwest, it has more recently reached the West. For this study, we explored knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among people who use drugs in Oregon in the context of the emergence of fentanyl in the drug supply. METHODS: We conducted in-depth interviews by phone with 34 people who use drugs in Oregon from May to June 2021. We used thematic analysis to analyze transcripts and construct themes. RESULTS: People who use drugs knew about fentanyl, expressed doubt that fentanyl could be found in methamphetamine; believed those who were younger or less experienced were at higher risk for harm; and received information about fentanyl from drug dealers, syringe service programs, or peers (other people who use drugs). Preference for fentanyl's presence in drugs like heroin or methamphetamine was mixed. Some felt that their preference was irrelevant since fentanyl was unavoidable. Participants reported engaging in harm reduction practices, including communicating about fentanyl with dealers and peers, testing for fentanyl, using smaller quantities of drugs, switching from injecting to smoking, and using naloxone. CONCLUSION: People who use drugs are responding to the rise of fentanyl on the West Coast and are concerned about the increasing uncertainty and hazards of the drug supply. They are willing and motivated to adopt harm reduction behaviors. Harm reduction promotion from syringe service programs and public health agencies is essential to reduce injury and death from nonpharmaceutical fentanyl.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Metanfetamina , Analgésicos Opioides , Overdose de Drogas/prevenção & controle , Fentanila , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Oregon
3.
J Urol ; 208(3): 536-541, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35942788

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In 2019 the American Urological Association (AUA) released the evidence-based guideline "Recurrent Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections in Women: AUA/CUA/SUFU Guideline." Information supporting the guideline came from a 2019 systematic evidence review prepared for the AUA by the Pacific Northwest Evidence-based Practice Center (EPC). The AUA used evidence found for 11 Key Questions (Appendix C) in the EPC's report to derive 16 Guideline Statements. In 2021 the EPC conducted an Update Literature Review (ULR) assessing abstracts from new studies published since the 2019 systematic review. The AUA asked the EPC to further assess a subset of studies included in the ULR report, to support potential changes to the 2019 guideline. MATERIALS/METHODS: A systematic-review utilized research from the Oregon Health & Science University. Pacific Northwest EPC was used to update the 2019 AUA Guideline on rUTI in women with new evidence published through 2021. RESULTS: Updates were made to reflect changes in literature since 2019. Updates include recent publications on antibiotic prophylaxis, non-antibiotic prophylaxis, and estrogen therapy. CONCLUSION: The presence of rUTI is crucial to the health of patients and its effects must be considered for the welfare of society. This document will undergo updating as the knowledge regarding current treatments and future treatment options continues to expand. .


Assuntos
Infecções Urinárias , Feminino , Humanos , Oregon , Proteínas Repressoras , Estados Unidos , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico , Infecções Urinárias/prevenção & controle
4.
Addict Sci Clin Pract ; 17(1): 45, 2022 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35986384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Residential treatment is a common approach for treating opioid use disorder (OUD), however, few studies have directly compared it to outpatient treatment. The objective of this study was to compare OUD outcomes among individuals receiving residential and outpatient treatment. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study used linked data from a state Medicaid program, vital statistics, and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Treatment Episodes Dataset (TEDS) to compare OUD-related health outcomes among individuals treated in a residential or outpatient setting between 2014 and 2017. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression models examined the association between treatment setting and outcomes (i.e., opioid overdose, non-overdose opioid-related and all-cause emergency department (ED) visits, hospital admissions, and treatment retention) controlling for patient characteristics, co-morbidities, and use of medications for opioid use disorders (MOUD). Interaction models evaluated how MOUD use modified associations between treatment setting and outcomes. RESULTS: Of 3293 individuals treated for OUD, 957 (29%) received treatment in a residential facility. MOUD use was higher among those treated as an outpatient (43%) compared to residential (19%). The risk of opioid overdose (aHR 1.39; 95% CI 0.73-2.64) or an opioid-related emergency department encounter or admission (aHR 1.02; 95% CI 0.80-1.29) did not differ between treatment settings. Independent of setting, MOUD use was associated with a significant reduction in overdose risk (aHR 0.45; 95% CI 0.23-0.89). Residential care was associated with greater odds of retention at 6-months (aOR 1.71; 95% CI 1.32-2.21) but not 1-year. Residential treatment was only associated with improved retention for individuals not receiving MOUD (6-month aOR 2.05; 95% CI 1.56-2.71) with no benefit observed in those who received MOUD (aOR 0.75; 95% CI 0.46-1.29; interaction p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Relative to outpatient treatment, residential treatment was not associated with reductions in opioid overdose or opioid-related ED encounters/hospitalizations. Regardless of setting, MOUD use was associated with a significant reduction in opioid overdose risk.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina , Overdose de Drogas , Overdose de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Overdose de Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Medicaid , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/terapia , Oregon , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(9): 1906-1908, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35840124

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 variant proportions in a population can be estimated through genomic sequencing of clinical specimens or wastewater samples. We demonstrate strong pairwise correlation between statewide variant estimates in Oregon, USA, derived from both methods (correlation coefficient 0.97). Our results provide crucial evidence of the effectiveness of community-level genomic surveillance.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Genômica , Humanos , Oregon/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Águas Residuárias
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(13)2022 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35808235

RESUMO

Large quantities of real-time particle data are becoming available from low-cost particle monitors. However, it is crucial to determine the quality of these measurements. The largest network of monitors in the United States is maintained by the PurpleAir company, which offers two monitors: PA-I and PA-II. PA-I monitors have a single sensor (PMS1003) and PA-II monitors employ two independent PMS5003 sensors. We determine a new calibration factor for the PA-I monitor and revise a previously published calibration algorithm for PA-II monitors (ALT-CF3). From the PurpleAir API site, we downloaded 83 million hourly average PM2.5 values in the PurpleAir database from Washington, Oregon, and California between 1 January 2017 and 8 September 2021. Daily outdoor PM2.5 means from 194 PA-II monitors were compared to daily means from 47 nearby Federal regulatory sites using gravimetric Federal Reference Methods (FRM). We find a revised calibration factor of 3.4 for the PA-II monitors. For the PA-I monitors, we determined a new calibration factor (also 3.4) by comparing 26 outdoor PA-I sites to 117 nearby outdoor PA-II sites. These results show that PurpleAir PM2.5 measurements can agree well with regulatory monitors when an optimum calibration factor is found.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Calibragem , California , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Oregon , Material Particulado/análise , Washington
7.
Rural Remote Health ; 22(3): 7140, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909220

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Vaccine hesitancy has been a major barrier to mitigating the effects of COVID-19, especially in rural Oregon, USA. This study assessed the influence of political affiliation, religious identity, and rurality on vaccine hesitancy in counties across Oregon. METHODS: Cross-sectional association analysis was performed using public data on US President Trump votership in the 2020 election, White Christian identity, population density, and COVID-19 vaccination data for adults as of 29 August 2021. RESULTS: By 29 August 2021, 68.0% of adults had been fully vaccinated in Oregon. Trump votership was the strongest independent association with vaccination status in Oregon (r=0.90, p<0.01), followed by White Christian identity (r= -0.69, p<0.01), and population density (r=0.55, p<0.01). In multivariate analysis, White Christian identity and political affiliation with Trump in the 2020 election explained 84.1% of the variability in COVID-19 vaccination status in Oregon counties. CONCLUSION: White Christian identity, Trump affiliation, and rurality were identified as factors in vaccine hesitancy among counties in Oregon. Without addressing these factors in public health outreach, vaccine hesitancy is likely to continue unabated.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Oregon , Pais , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Política , Religião , Vacinação , Hesitação Vacinal
8.
Harm Reduct J ; 19(1): 76, 2022 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35818072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Illicit fentanyl has contributed to a drastic increase in overdose drug deaths. While fentanyl has subsumed the drug supply in the Northeastern and Midwestern USA, it has more recently reached the Western USA. For this study, we explored perspectives of people who use drugs (PWUD) on the changing drug supply in Oregon, experiences of and response to fentanyl-involved overdose, and recommendations from PWUD to reduce overdose risk within the context of illicit fentanyl's dramatic increase in the recreational drug supply over the past decade. METHODS: We conducted in-depth interviews by phone with 34 PWUD in Oregon from May to June of 2021. We used thematic analysis to analyze transcripts and construct themes. RESULTS: PWUD knew about fentanyl, expressed concern about fentanyl pills, and were aware of other illicit drugs containing fentanyl. Participants were aware of the increased risk of an overdose but remained reluctant to engage with professional first responders due to fear of arrest. Participants had recommendations for reducing fentanyl overdose risk, including increasing access to information, harm reduction supplies (e.g., naloxone, fentanyl test strips), and medications for opioid use disorder; establishing drug checking services and overdose prevention sites; legalizing and regulating the drug supply; and reducing stigma enacted by healthcare providers. CONCLUSION: PWUD in Oregon are aware of the rise of fentanyl and fentanyl pills and desire access to tools to reduce harm from fentanyl. As states in the Western USA face an inflection point of fentanyl in the drug supply, public health staff, behavioral health providers, and first responders can take action identified by the needs of PWUD.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Fentanila , Drogas Ilícitas , Overdose de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Overdose de Drogas/prevenção & controle , Fentanila/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Oregon
9.
Mol Ecol ; 31(18): 4762-4781, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35837745

RESUMO

Lineage-based species definitions applying coalescent approaches to species delimitation have become increasingly popular. Yet, the application of these methods and the recognition of lineage-only definitions have recently been questioned. Species delimitation criteria that explicitly consider both lineages and evidence for ecological role shifts provide an opportunity to incorporate ecologically meaningful data from multiple sources in studies of species boundaries. Here, such criteria were applied to a problematic group of mycoheterotrophic orchids, the Corallorhiza striata complex, analysing genomic, morphological, phenological, reproductive-mode, niche, and fungal host data. A recently developed method for generating genomic polymorphism data-ISSRseq-demonstrates evidence for four distinct lineages, including a previously unidentified lineage in the Coast Ranges and Cascades of California and Oregon, USA. There is divergence in morphology, phenology, reproductive mode, and fungal associates among the four lineages. Integrative analyses, conducted in population assignment and redundancy analysis frameworks, provide evidence of distinct genomic lineages and a similar pattern of divergence in the extended data, albeit with weaker signal. However, none of the extended data sets fully satisfy the condition of a significant role shift, which requires evidence of fixed differences. The four lineages identified in the current study are recognized at the level of variety, short of comprising different species. This study represents the most comprehensive application of lineage + role to date and illustrates the advantages of such an approach.


Assuntos
Orchidaceae , Orchidaceae/genética , Oregon , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
10.
J Med Entomol ; 59(5): 1837-1841, 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35869567

RESUMO

Open-environment poultry farms that allow chickens to forage outdoors are becoming increasingly common throughout the United States and Europe; however, there is little information regarding the diversity and prevalence of ectoparasites in these farming systems. Eight to 25 birds were captured and surveyed for ectoparasites on each of 17 farms across the states of Washington, Idaho, Oregon, and California. Among the farms sampled, six louse species (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera & Amblycera) and two parasitic mite species (Acari: Mesostigmata) were collected and identified: Goniodes gigas (Taschenberg, 1879; Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) on one farm, Menacathus cornutus (Schömmer, 1913; Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) on one farm, Menopon gallinae (Linnaeus, 1758; Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) on six farms, Lipeurus caponis (Linnaeus, 1758; Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) on five farms, Menacanthus stramineus (Nitzsch, 1818; Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) on nine farms, Goniocotes gallinae De Geer (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) on 11 farms, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778; Mesostigmata: Dermanyssidae) on two farms, and Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini & Fanzago, 1877; Mesostigmata: Macronyssidae) on one farm. The diversity of ectoparasites on these open environment poultry farms highlights a need for additional research on ectoparasite prevalence and intensity in these poultry farming systems.


Assuntos
Iscnóceros , Ácaros , Ftirápteros , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas/parasitologia , Fazendas , Idaho/epidemiologia , Oregon , Aves Domésticas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Prevalência , Washington
11.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(7): 1013-1022, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35787079

RESUMO

Understanding the extent to which beneficiaries can "realize" access to reported provider networks is imperative in mental health care, where there are significant unmet needs. We compared listings of providers in network directories against provider networks empirically constructed from administrative claims among members who were ages sixty-four and younger and enrolled in Oregon's Medicaid managed care organizations between January 1 and December 31, 2018. "In-network" providers were those with any medical claims filed for at least five unique Medicaid beneficiaries enrolled in a given health plan. They included primary care providers, specialty mental health prescribers, and nonprescribing mental health clinicians. Overall, 58.2 percent of network directory listings were "phantom" providers who did not see Medicaid patients, including 67.4 percent of mental health prescribers, 59.0 percent of mental health nonprescribers, and 54.0 percent of primary care providers. Significant discrepancies between the providers listed in directories and those whom enrollees can access suggest that provider network monitoring and enforcement may fall short if based on directory information.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Medicaid , Planejamento em Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Oregon , Estados Unidos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805851

RESUMO

The social determinants of health (SDH) have long been considered a core mechanism through which racial health inequities are (re)produced and incubated in the U.S. Moreover, scholars have expressly-and appropriately-named structural racism as a precursor to inequities associated with SDH. However, while research on racial health inequities-SDH-related or otherwise-continues to grow, communities of color remain grossly underrepresented as public health researchers and practitioners. Additionally, although SDH are experienced in a very local sense, much research and practice fails to more deeply and thoroughly engage and center local community knowledges. Thus, much work around SDH and racial health inequities presents, ironically, as structurally racist itself-being done/led mostly by White scholars and in ways that do not "center the margins". Moreover, in the context of public health practice, youth perspective is seldom centered within local health department (LHD) community SDH assessment efforts. With these challenges in mind, this paper introduces and discusses the development of the youth health equity and action research training (yHEART) program as a model for public health researchers/practitioners to engage public health critical race praxis (PHCRP) to better understand and respond to local SDH in communities of color. Specifically, we highlight the significance of PHCRP principles of "voice" and "social construction of knowledge" in advancing antiracism in research and LHD practice related to local SDH. First, we articulate core conceptual and theoretical groundings that informed the yHEART program's development and animate its ongoing training and research activities. Second, we outline the program's core training components and overall process, and provide some brief illustrative examples of work completed during the program's first iteration-yHEART PDX, Vol.I: Youth Participatory Research on Local Social Determinants of Health. We then close with a discussion that reflects on program strengths, challenges, and implications for SDH and racial health equity research/practice in light of growing calls for an antiracist public health.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde , Saúde Pública , Fatores Raciais , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Adolescente , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Oregon
13.
Science ; 377(6604): 356, 2022 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35862532

RESUMO

Emerald ash borer has already killed millions of trees.


Assuntos
Besouros , Fraxinus , Animais , Medo , Larva , Oregon
14.
Environ Health Perspect ; 130(6): 67010, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35767012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Positive correlations have been reported between wastewater SARS-CoV-2 concentrations and a community's burden of infection, disease or both. However, previous studies mostly compared wastewater to clinical case counts or nonrepresentative convenience samples, limiting their quantitative potential. OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether wastewater SARS-CoV-2 concentrations could provide better estimations for SARS-CoV-2 community prevalence than reported cases of COVID-19. In addition, this study tested whether wastewater-based epidemiology methods could identify neighborhood-level COVID-19 hotspots and SARS-CoV-2 variants. METHODS: Community SARS-CoV-2 prevalence was estimated from eight randomized door-to-door nasal swab sampling events in six Oregon communities of disparate size, location, and demography over a 10-month period. Simultaneously, wastewater SARS-CoV-2 concentrations were quantified at each community's wastewater treatment plant and from 22 Newport, Oregon, neighborhoods. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was sequenced from all positive wastewater and nasal swab samples. Clinically reported case counts were obtained from the Oregon Health Authority. RESULTS: Estimated community SARS-CoV-2 prevalence ranged from 8 to 1,687/10,000 persons. Community wastewater SARS-CoV-2 concentrations ranged from 2.9 to 5.1 log10 gene copies per liter. Wastewater SARS-CoV-2 concentrations were more highly correlated (Pearson's r=0.96; R2=0.91) with community prevalence than were clinically reported cases of COVID-19 (Pearson's r=0.85; R2=0.73). Monte Carlo simulations indicated that wastewater SARS-CoV-2 concentrations were significantly better than clinically reported cases at estimating prevalence (p<0.05). In addition, wastewater analyses determined neighborhood-level COVID-19 hot spots and identified SARS-CoV-2 variants (B.1 and B.1.399) at the neighborhood and city scales. DISCUSSION: The greater reliability of wastewater SARS-CoV-2 concentrations over clinically reported case counts was likely due to systematic biases that affect reported case counts, including variations in access to testing and underreporting of asymptomatic cases. With these advantages, combined with scalability and low costs, wastewater-based epidemiology can be a key component in public health surveillance of COVID-19 and other communicable infections. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP10289.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Oregon/epidemiologia , Prevalência , RNA Viral/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Águas Residuárias , Vigilância Epidemiológica Baseada em Águas Residuárias
16.
J Environ Manage ; 318: 115415, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35752007

RESUMO

Green infrastructure (GI) has been gaining increasing attention due to its efficiency in controlling and purifying urban stormwater runoff, creating environmental amenities, and biodiversity conservation. Nevertheless, the existing knowledge of people's preferences for GI is not yet sufficient for evidence-based policymaking for enhancing GI. This study analyzes citizens' perceptions of the relative importance of six GI practices and estimates their willingness to pay (WTP) to enhance them. To this end, the study applies two types of stated preference methods (best-worst scaling and contingent valuation) to citizen survey data collected in Portland, Oregon. We found that GI practices that are more likely to lead to private benefits (e.g., rain barrels, urban trees) received relatively higher ratings, whereas the ratings of practices that do not offer such benefits (e.g., bioswales, rain gardens) were relatively lower. However, the diversity of preferences was large, as the relative importance varied widely among respondents. Heterogeneous preferences were also found in terms of citizens' WTP for hypothetical GI enhancement. Our comparison of uniform and variable payment schemes revealed that variable payment outperformed uniform payment because of the significant variation in citizens' WTP. The difference was large when the annual household payment was small.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Chuva , Jardins , Humanos , Oregon , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Harmful Algae ; 116: 102241, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35710201

RESUMO

Several genomes of Nostocales ADA clade members from the US Pacific Northwest were recently sequenced. Biosynthetic genes for microcystin, cylindrospermopsin or anatoxin-a were present in 7 of the 15 Dolichospermum/Anabaena strains and none of the 5 Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) strains. Toxin analyses (ELISA and LC-MS/MS) were conducted to quantitate and identify microcystin (MC) and cylindrospermopsin (CYN) congeners/analogs in samples dominated by Dolichospermum spp. of known genome sequence. MC-LR was the main congener produced by Dolichospermum spp. from Junipers Reservoir, Lake Billy Chinook and Odell Lake, while a congener provisionally identified as [Dha7]MC-HtyR was produced by a Dolichospermum sp. in Detroit Reservoir. A second Dolichospermum sp. from Detroit Reservoir was found to produce 7-epi-CYN, with 7-deoxy-CYN also present, but no CYN. The monitoring history of each of these lakes indicates the capacity for high levels of cyanotoxins during periods when Dolichospermum spp. are the dominant cyanobacteria. The diversity of ADA strains found in the US Pacific NW emphasizes the importance of these cyanobacteria as potentially toxic HAB formers in this temperate climatic region. Our results linking congener and genetic identity add data points that will help guide development of improved tools for predicting congener specificity from cyanotoxin gene sequences.


Assuntos
Anabaena , Aphanizomenon , Toxinas Bacterianas , Cianobactérias , Alcaloides , Aphanizomenon/genética , Cromatografia Líquida , Cianobactérias/genética , Toxinas de Cianobactérias , Microcistinas , Oregon , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
18.
Ecology ; 103(9): e3764, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35608560

RESUMO

In 1949-1951, ecologist Robert H. Whittaker sampled plant community composition at 470 sites in the Siskiyou Mountains (Oregon and California; also known as Klamath or Klamath-Siskiyou Mountains). His primary goal was to develop methods to quantify plant community variation across environmental gradients, following on his seminal work challenging communities as discrete entities. He selected the Siskiyous because of their diverse and endemic-rich flora, which he attributed to geological complexity and an ancient stable climate. He chose sites to span gradients of topography, elevation, geologic substrate, and distance from the coast. He used the frequencies of indicator species in his data to assign sampling locations to positions on the topographic gradient, nested within the elevational and substrate gradients. He originated in this study the concept of diversity partitioning, in which gamma diversity (species richness of a community) equals alpha diversity (species richness in homogeneous sites) times beta diversity (species turnover among sites along gradients). Diversity partitioning subsequently became highly influential and new developments on it continue. Whittaker published his Siskiyou work covering paleohistory, biogeography, floristics, vegetation, gradient analysis, and diversity partitioning in Ecological Monographs in 1960. Discussed in 2 pages of his 60-page monograph, diversity partitioning accounts for >95% of its current >4300 citations. In 2006, we retrieved Whittaker's Siskiyou data in hard copy from the Cornell University archives and entered them in a database. We used these data for multiple published analyses, including some based on (re)sampling the approximate locations of a subset of his sites. Because of the continued interest in diversity partitioning and in historic data sets, here we present his data, including 359 sampling locations and their descriptors and, for each sample, a list of species with their estimated percent cover (herbs and shrubs) and numbers by diameter at breast height (DBH) category (trees). Site descriptors include the approximate location (road, trail, or stream), elevation, topographic aspect, geologic substrate (serpentine, gabbro, or diorite), and dominant woody vegetation of each location. For 111 sites, including the small number chosen to represent the distance-to-coast gradient, we could not locate his data. There are no copyright restrictions and users of these data should cite this data paper in any publications that result from its use. The authors are available for consultations about and collaborations involving the data.


Assuntos
Plantas , Árvores , Biodiversidade , Clima , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Oregon
19.
Am J Public Health ; 112(7): 975-979, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35617654

RESUMO

A Fruit and Vegetable Prescription program (12-16 weeks, 2018-2020) was implemented at community health centers serving rural communities in the northwestern United States. The impact of the program on type 2 diabetes control was evaluated. Reductions in mean hemoglobin A1C were statistically significant (P < .01). The percentage of participants with critically high blood glucose levels (A1C > 9%) decreased from 76% (114/151) to 41% (62/151; P < .01). The findings mirror those of similar programs. The sustainability of these beneficial interventions, however, relies on improved access to preventive care. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(7):975-979.https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.306853).


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Verduras , Centros Comunitários de Saúde , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Frutas , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Idaho , Oregon , Prescrições , População Rural
20.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(6): 1101-1109, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35452383

RESUMO

Genomic surveillance has emerged as a critical monitoring tool during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Wastewater surveillance has the potential to identify and track SARS-CoV-2 variants in the community, including emerging variants. We demonstrate the novel use of multilocus sequence typing to identify SARS-CoV-2 variants in wastewater. Using this technique, we observed the emergence of the B.1.351 (Beta) variant in Linn County, Oregon, USA, in wastewater 12 days before this variant was identified in individual clinical specimens. During the study period, we identified 42 B.1.351 clinical specimens that clustered into 3 phylogenetic clades. Eighteen of the 19 clinical specimens and all wastewater B.1.351 specimens from Linn County clustered into clade 1. Our results provide further evidence of the reliability of wastewater surveillance to report localized SARS-CoV-2 sequence information.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Oregon/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Águas Residuárias , Vigilância Epidemiológica Baseada em Águas Residuárias
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