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1.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1929): 20200909, 2020 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576108

RESUMO

In some insects and vertebrate species, the specific enlargement of sensory cell epithelium facilitates the perception of particular behaviourally relevant signals. The insect auditory fovea in the ear of the bushcricket Ancylecha fenestrata (Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae) is an example of such an expansion of sensory epithelium. Bushcricket ears developed in convergent evolution anatomical and functional similarities to mammal ears, such as travelling waves and auditory foveae, to process information by sound. As in vertebrate ears, sound induces a motion of this insect hearing organ (crista acustica), which can be characterized by its amplitude and phase response. However, detailed micromechanics in this bushcricket ear with an auditory fovea are yet unknown. Here, we fill this gap in knowledge for bushcricket, by analysing and comparing the ear micromechanics in Ancylecha fenestrata and a bushcricket species without auditory fovea (Mecopoda elongata, Tettigoniidae: Mecopodinae) using laser-Doppler vibrometry. We found that the increased size of the crista acustica, expanded by a foveal region in A. fenestrata, leads to higher mechanical amplitudes and longer phase delays in A. fenestrata male ears. Furthermore, area under curve analyses of the organ oscillations reveal that more sensory units are activated by the same stimuli in the males of the auditory fovea-possessing species A. fenestrata. The measured increase of phase delay in the region of the auditory fovea supports the conclusion that tilting of the transduction site is important for the effective opening of the involved transduction channels. Our detailed analysis of sound-induced micromechanics in this bushcricket ear demonstrates that an increase of sensory epithelium with foveal characteristics can enhance signal detection and may also improve the neuronal encoding.


Assuntos
Orelha/anatomia & histologia , Gryllidae/fisiologia , Animais , Audição/fisiologia , Som
2.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e923343, 2020 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The presence of a Frank's sign ear crease is closely correlated with coronary artery disease (CAD). The SYNTAX score indicates the complexity of coronary lesions. This present investigation sought to identify the correlation between SYNTAX score and several specific ear creases. MATERIAL AND METHODS Four specific types of ear creases - crossing crease not originated from ear hole (CC-NEH), crossing crease originated from ear hole (CC-EH), vertical creases on the face side (VC-F), and vertical creases dividing earlobe and face (VC-EF) - were investigated in patients undergoing coronary angiography. A Frank's sign score system was introduced based on the 4 creases. Demographic data, clinical data, and SYNTAX score were also documented. The association between ear creases and SYNTAX score, as well as the correlation between Frank's score and SYNTAX score, were statistically analyzed. RESULTS CC-NEH had the highest positive predictive value (positive predictive value=0.439), and VC-F had the highest negative predictive value for the detection of intermediate and high SYNTAX score (negative predictive value=1.000). VC-EF and CC-NEH were associated with intermediate and high SYNTAX scores (OR=2.913-7.694, all P<0.05). Only 2.9% of patients with Frank's score=0 had intermediate or high SYNTAX scores, and 52.2% and 50.0% of patients with Frank's sign score=3 and 4 had intermediate or high SYNTAX scores, respectively. The Frank's sign score was significantly and positively correlated with SYNTAX score (r=0.457, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS Features of specific ear creases and Frank's sign scores were associated with intermediate and high complexity of coronary lesions.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Orelha/anatomia & histologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angiografia Coronária , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 147-152, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056413

RESUMO

Dog ear is very important because of disease vulnerability. Therefore, gross anatomy and sectional anatomy on CT and MRI of the dog ear should be mastered by veterinarian. The purpose of this research was to present the digital atlases which high quality sectioned images and 3D models of detailed structures of dog ear could be displayed freely. In the sectioned images of a female beagle, ear structures were reconstructed by surface modeling to make 3D models. The sectioned images and 3D models were put into the browsing software and PDF file, respectively. Using the browsing software and the PDF file, gross and radiological anatomy of dog ear could be learned easily and accurately. The auditory tube of a dog was placed anterior to the tympanic cavity unlike human. The tensor tympani muscle of a dog was connected to the dorsal wall of the tympanic cavity with the malleus. No remarkable difference in the auditory ossicles, semicircular ducts, facial nerve, and endolymphatic duct was observed between dogs and humans. The software and the PDF file will be provided to other researchers freely to help contribute to veterinary research and education.


La oreja del perro es importante debido a la vulnerabilidad de enfermedad. Por lo tanto, el veterinario debe conocer plenamente la anatomía macroscópica y la anatomía seccional en la TC y la RM del oído del perro. El objetivo de esta investigación fue presentar los atlas digitales que podían mostrar imágenes seccionadas de alta calidad y modelos 3D de estructuras detalladas de orejas de perro. En las imágenes seccionadas de una hembra Beagle, las estructuras de las orejas se reconstruyeron mediante modelado de superficie con el objetivo de crear modelos 3D. Las imágenes seccionadas y los modelos 3D se colocaron en un software de navegación y un archivo PDF. El uso de software de navegación y el archivo PDF permiten un aprendizaje fácil y preciso de la anatomía macroscópica y radiológica de la oreja de perro. El músculo tensor del tímpano de un perro estaba conectado a la pared dorsal de la cavidad timpánica con el martillo. No se observaron diferencias notables en los huesecillos auditivos, los conductos semicirculares, el nervio facial y el conducto endolinfático entre perros y humanos. El software y el archivo PDF estarán disponibles libremente para los investigadores para ayudar en la investigación y educación veterinaria.


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Orelha/diagnóstico por imagem , Software , Anatomia Transversal , Imageamento Tridimensional , Orelha/anatomia & histologia , Projetos Ser Humano Visível , Pavilhão Auricular/diagnóstico por imagem
4.
J Morphol ; 281(2): 273-293, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31886901

RESUMO

The Weberian apparatus, a diagnostic feature of otophysan fishes, is a novel hearing adaptation integrating several developmental and morphological systems (ear-vertebral column-swim bladder). Otophysan fishes are one of the largest and most successful freshwater clades, with over 10,000 species across most continents. The largest otophysan order, Cypriniformes, dominates the freshwaters of Asia, Europe, North America, and Africa. Spanning such a wide variety of environments, the Weberian apparatus undergoes morphological modifications to maintain functionality. Within Cypriniformes, we propose three distinct morphological classes of the Weberian apparatus based on the level of skeletal expansion around the swim bladder: simple (typical of most Cyprinidae), anterior plate (found in families such as Gyrinocheilidae, Catostomidae, and Botiidae), and encapsulated (either single-capsule as found, e.g., in Gobionidae and Cobitidae, or double-capsule as found, e.g., in Nemacheilidae and Balitoridae). Little ontological or comparative data exists regarding the construction or integration of these different morphologies, and less is known about the tissue level integration and variation within these morphologies. We used paraffin histology to document the hard and soft tissue anatomy of the Weberian apparatus in six species representing all morphological classes. We found sites of similarity across the morphologies including size and structure of the saccule, aspects of ossicle ossification, and swim bladder tunica composition, indicating potential sites of developmental and functional constraint. In contrast, we found differences across both auditory and nonauditory features in otic chamber size, ossification within ossicles and other vertebral elements, and composition of ligaments, indicating likely sites of adaptability. Some of these changes are likely evolutionary (taxonomic), but may be influenced by the environmental niche occupied by the clade. These results show a clear need for increased ontological and comparative study of the complete cypriniform Weberian apparatus, particularly histologically, as well as increased auditory studies across morphological types.


Assuntos
Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/citologia , Cipriniformes/anatomia & histologia , Sacos Aéreos/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Cipriniformes/classificação , Orelha/anatomia & histologia , Ligamentos/anatomia & histologia , Osteogênese
5.
Anim Genet ; 50(6): 557-568, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475748

RESUMO

Together with their sister subspecies Bos taurus, zebu cattle (Bos indicus) have contributed to important socioeconomic changes that have shaped modern civilizations. Zebu cattle were domesticated in the Indus Valley 8000 years before present (YBP). From the domestication site, they expanded to Africa, East Asia, southwestern Asia and Europe between 4000 and 1300 YBP, intercrossing with B. taurus to form clinal variations of zebu ancestry across the landmass of Afro-Eurasia. In the past 150 years, zebu cattle reached the Americas and Oceania, where they have contributed to the prosperity of emerging economies. The zebu genome is characterized by two mitochondrial haplogroups (I1 and I2), one Y chromosome haplogroup (Y3) and three major autosomal ancestral groups (Indian-Pakistani, African and Chinese). Phenotypically, zebu animals are recognized by their hump, large ears and excess skin. They are rustic, resilient to parasites and capable of bearing the hot and humid climates of the tropics. Many resources are available to study the zebu genome, including commercial arrays of SNP, reference assemblies and publicly available genotypes and whole-genome sequences. Nevertheless, many of these resources were initially developed to support research and subsidize industrial applications in B. taurus, and therefore they can produce bias in data analysis. The combination of genomics with precision agriculture holds great promise for the identification of genetic variants affecting economically important traits such as tick resistance and heat tolerance, which were naturally selected for millennia and played a major role in the evolution of B. indicus cattle.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/fisiologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Bovinos/anatomia & histologia , Resistência à Doença , Domesticação , Orelha/anatomia & histologia , Fertilidade , Variação Genética , Tamanho do Órgão , Pele/anatomia & histologia
6.
Hell J Nucl Med ; 22(2): 143, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328187

RESUMO

Dear Editor, During the last 30 years we are collecting various photographs which showed the face of persons who died at various ages during their lifetime. We so collected more than 235 photographs. After strict selection of these photographs, so that we could see well the ear and the ear-lobe we chose 57 of them and studied the following parameters: the vertical length of the ear till the lobe, the vertical length of the earlobe, the total ear length, the width of the ear-lobe and the area of the lobe, in order to relate them to longevity. All persons were Caucasians from western countries. No persons from Mediterranean countries were included. The above persons were separated into 2 Groups: Group A, 25 persons who lived 38-70 years, and Group B, 32 persons who lived 89-106 years. In both Groups it was more than obvious after calculating the Mean and the Standard Deviation (M±SD) that no relation existed between all above factos and longevity in both groups. In order to confirm the above result we separated both Groups into Subgroups. Subgroup A1 included 9 cases who lived 38-59 years and Subgroup A2 included 16 cases who lived 60-70 years. Subgroup B1 included 25 cases who died at 89-99 years of age and Subgroup B2 included 7 cases who lived 99-106 years. All above parameters were still unrelated to longevity. We noticed that the length of the total ear although unrelated to longevity was related to age till the age of 99 years. In Subgroups A1 and A2 the M±SD was 1.20±0.41cm and 1.48±0.42cm, respectively and in Subgroups B1 and B2 the M±SD of the total ear length was 2.28±0.47cm and 2.32±0.54cm, respectively (Table). The small number of persons studied was a handicap. There seemed to be a relation between total ear length and age till 99 years (Figure). It is known that the ear like all other parts of our body enlarges up to the end of our maturity and later by age. This finding in the present paper covers a wider range of ages as compared to other related papers, i.e. covers the ages of 38-106 years and so seems to be as for this point prototype. Another paper studied ear length up to the age of 41 years.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Orelha/anatomia & histologia , Longevidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
J Med Syst ; 43(7): 214, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154541

RESUMO

Today the multimodal biometric system has become a major area of study that is identified with applications of a large size in a recognition system. The feature selection is probably found to be the best factor to be optimized and is an on-going challenge in the midst of the optimization problems in the human recognition system. The feature selection aspires to bring down the number of the features, remove all types of redundant data and noise which result in a very high rate of recognition. The step further effects on the human recognition system and its performance. The work further presents a newer biometric system of verification that was multimodal and based on three different features which are the face, the hand vein, and the ear. This has today emerged as an extensively researched topic which spans various disciplines like signal processing, pattern recognition, and also computer vision. The features have been extracted by making use of the Incremental Principal Component Analysis (IPCA). Further, the work presented another novel algorithm of feature selection which was based on the Multi-Objective Modified Genetic Algorithm (MOM-GA). The Genetic Algorithm (GA) had been modified by means of introducing a levy search as opposed to a process of mutation. The algorithm has also proved to be an effective method of computation in which the search space is found to be highly dimensional. A classifier that makes use of the K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN) for classifying all accurate features is used. There were some investigations that were carried out and these results proved that this MOM-GA feature selection algorithm had been found as that which can generate certain excellent results using a minimal set of chosen features.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Biometria/métodos , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Orelha/anatomia & histologia , Face/anatomia & histologia , Mãos/anatomia & histologia , Mãos/irrigação sanguínea , Humanos , Análise de Componente Principal
8.
J Vis Exp ; (147)2019 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132040

RESUMO

The goal of this protocol is to detect and quantify protein expression changes in a cell cycle-dependent manner using single cells isolated from the epidermis of mouse skin. There are seven important steps: separation of the epidermis from the dermis, digestion of the epidermis, staining of the epidermal cell populations with cisplatin, sample barcoding, staining with metal tagged antibodies for cell cycle markers and proteins of interest, detection of metal-tagged antibodies by mass cytometry, and the analysis of expression in the various cell cycle phases. The advantage of this approach over histological methods is the potential to assay the expression pattern of >40 different markers in a single cell at different phases of the cell cycle. This approach also allows for the multivariate correlation analysis of protein expression that is more quantifiable than histological/imaging methods. The disadvantage of this protocol is that a suspension of single cells is needed, which results in the loss of location information provided by the staining of tissue sections. This approach may also require the inclusion of additional markers to identify different cell types in crude cell suspensions. The application of this protocol is evident in the analysis of hyperplastic skin disease models. Moreover, this protocol can be adapted for the analysis of specific sub-type of cells (e.g., stem cells) by the addition of lineage-specific antibodies. This protocol can also be adapted for the analysis of skin cells in other experimental species.


Assuntos
Ciclo Celular , Separação Celular/métodos , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Queratinócitos/citologia , Pele/citologia , Coloração e Rotulagem , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Cultivadas , Orelha/anatomia & histologia , Células Epidérmicas/citologia , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células-Tronco/citologia
9.
Vet Dermatol ; 30(4): 307-e85, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dermatological conditions are common in English bulldogs (EBs). HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: This cross-sectional study describes the dermatological health status of a group of EBs and compares the results with owner perceptions and its possible impact on quality of life (QoL). Computed tomographic (CT) findings of the ear canals were compared between EBs and mesaticephalic dogs. ANIMALS: Twenty-seven EBs participating in a health study in Finland. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A QoL questionnaire was completed for EBs with owner-reported clinical signs referable to the skin or ear. Clinical evaluation included recording the Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index, the Otitis Index Score, false paw pad grading and the presence of interdigital furunculosis. These were summed to form a total clinical score (TCS). The cross-sectional surface areas of the horizontal ear canals were measured from CT images and compared with respective images of 14 mesaticephalic dogs collected from a patient database. RESULTS: All 27 EBs had abnormal findings on dermatological examination, but 37% of the owners had not recognized skin or ear signs. The median QoL score was 5.0 (range 0-12) and correlated with TCS (correlation coefficient = 0.507, P < 0.05). English bulldogs had narrower horizontal ear canals than mesaticephalic dogs (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: All EBs had abnormal dermatological findings that were unnoticed or considered to be of minor significance to the QoL by most owners. Narrow ear canals were common, possibly related to the brachycephalic conformation of the breed.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Meato Acústico Externo/diagnóstico por imagem , Orelha/fisiopatologia , Dermatopatias/veterinária , Pele/fisiopatologia , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Cães , Orelha/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Finlândia , Masculino , Animais de Estimação , Qualidade de Vida , Pele/patologia , Dermatopatias/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
10.
Anim Genet ; 50(2): 157-161, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30815903

RESUMO

Considerable diversity exists in porcine ear size, which is an important morphological feature of pig breeds. Previously, we localized four crucial candidate genes-high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2), LEM domain-containing 3 (LEMD3), methionine sulfoxide reductase B3 (MSRB3) and Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (WIF1)-on Sus Scrofa chromosome 5 affecting porcine ear size, then cloned LEMD3 and MSBR3. In this study, we performed rapid amplification of cDNA ends to obtain full-length cDNA sequences of 2338-bp WIF1 and 2998-bp HMGA2. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we revealed that WIF1 expression was highest in ear cartilage of 60-day-old pigs and that this is therefore a better candidate gene for ear size than HMGA2. We further screened coding sequence variants in both genes and identified only one missense mutation (WIF1:c.1167C>G) in a conserved epidermal growth factor-like domain from the mammalian WIF1 protein. The protein-altering mutation was significantly associated with ear size across the Large White × Minzhu hybrid and Beijing Black pig populations. When WIF1:c.1167C>G was included as fixed effect in the model to re-run a genome-wide association study in the Large White × Minzhu intercross population the P-value of the peak SNP on SSC5 from re-running the genome-wide association study dropped from 2.45E-12 to 7.33E-05. Taken together, the WIF1:c.1167C>G could be an important mutation associated with ear size. Our findings provide helpful information for further studies of the molecular mechanisms controlling porcine ear size.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Orelha/anatomia & histologia , Proteína HMGA2/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Sus scrofa/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/química , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Orelha/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Proteína HMGA2/química , Proteína HMGA2/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Proteínas Repressoras/química , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária
11.
Radiologia ; 61(3): 204-214, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30777299

RESUMO

Fractures of the petrous part of the temporal bone are a common lesion of the base of the skull; most of these fractures result from high-energy trauma. In patients with multiple trauma, these injuries can be detected on CT scans of the head and neck, where the direct and indirect signs are usually sufficient to establish the diagnosis. It is important to these fractures because the temporal bone has critical structures and the complexity of this region increases the risk of error unless special care is taken. This article reviews the key anatomical points, the systematization of the imaging findings, and the classifications used for temporal bone fracture. We emphasize the usefulness of identifying and describing the findings in relation to important structures in this region, of looking for unseen fractures suspected through indirect signs, and of identifying anatomical structures that can simulate fractures. We point out that the classical classifications of these fractures are less useful, although they continue to be used for treatment decisions.


Assuntos
Osso Petroso/lesões , Fraturas Cranianas/classificação , Fraturas Cranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Cóclea/diagnóstico por imagem , Cóclea/lesões , Orelha/anatomia & histologia , Orelha/diagnóstico por imagem , Meato Acústico Externo/diagnóstico por imagem , Meato Acústico Externo/lesões , Ossículos da Orelha/diagnóstico por imagem , Ossículos da Orelha/lesões , Nervo Facial/anatomia & histologia , Nervo Facial/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos do Nervo Facial/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Osso Petroso/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Cranianas/complicações , Avaliação de Sintomas , Osso Temporal/anatomia & histologia , Osso Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Temporal/lesões
12.
JAMA Facial Plast Surg ; 21(3): 199-205, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763411

RESUMO

Importance: A theory on facial beauty might allow clinicians to achieve better results. Objectives: To find the ideal vertical position of the ears, total lip length, lip pucker length, distance between the irises, and starting point for the nasal radix. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this subjective survey, 11 sets of 43 total digitally adjusted pictures (DAPs) and line drawings of actual faces were ranked based on attractiveness by 419 clients at a facial plastic surgery clinic. The data were collected from July 13 to August 29, 2015, and were analyzed from September 17, 2015, to March 21, 2016. Main Outcomes and Measure: Six groups of line drawings and 5 groups of DAPs of an actual person were used to test the ideal position of the ears to determine whether the face is organized into oblique and parallel relationships and whether the total lip length and the lip pucker length are associated with multiples of an iris width (IW), and to determine the start of the nasal radix and its association with the superior margin of the iris and distance between the irises. Results: Of the 419 survey respondents, the ear aligned with the second oblique was considered the most ideal by the participants. The preferred total lip length was 4.0 IWs in the DAPs and 5.0 IWs in the line drawings. For the lip pucker length, 2.0 and 3.0 IWs were considered the best. The ideal start of the nasal radix was tangential with the superior margin of the iris. The distance of 5.5 IWs from iris to iris and 3.0 IWs from the horizontal level of the iris to the nasal tip was preferred. Conclusions and Relevance: The face may be ideally organized into 3 parallel obliques. The IW, horizontal aperture of the eye, and then iris to iris distance may best determine the size and shape of progressively larger objects in the face. The absolute position of the eye was considered important by the participants in the ideal positioning of other objects in the face. Level of Evidence: NA.


Assuntos
Beleza , Face/anatomia & histologia , Adulto , Orelha/anatomia & histologia , Estética , Olho/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Lábio/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Nariz/anatomia & histologia , Fotografação , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Yi Chuan ; 40(11): 1024-1032, 2018 Nov 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30465535

RESUMO

The ectodysplasinA receptor gene (EDAR) plays an important role in the development of ectoderm. The derived G allele of its key missense variant EDARV370A is prevalent in East Asians and Americans, but rare in Africans and Europeans. This leads to distinct ectodermal-derived phenotypes between different continental groups, such as the straighter and thicker hair, more eccrine sweat glands, feminine smaller breasts, shovel incisors characteristic of East Asians. At present, we know little about the association between EDARV370A and facial and ear morphology characteristics. To better understand the effect of EDARV370A on craniofacial phenotypes, we systematically examined the association between EDARV370A and 136 facial quantitative phenotypes, one chin ordinal phenotype and six ear ordinal phenotypes in 715 Uyghurs. The quantitative phenotypes were derived by applying our automated landmark annotation method to facial 3D photos and the ordinal phenotypes were manually graded from facial 2D photos. The analysis identified significant association (P<0.05 after multiple testing correction) between EDARV370A and eight facial phenotypes, one chin phenotype and three ear morphology phenotypes. Our study thus elucidated the pleotropic effect of EDARV370A on craniofacial phenotypes in a European-Asian admixed Uyghur population.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Orelha/anatomia & histologia , Receptor Edar/genética , Face/anatomia & histologia , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , China/etnologia , Orelha/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Receptor Edar/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desenvolvimento Maxilofacial , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Rev. chil. fonoaudiol. (En línea) ; 17: 1-14, nov. 2018. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-966368

RESUMO

El análisis de cuestionarios respondidos por alumnos de la disciplina Sistemas Sensoriales del curso de Fonoaudiología mostró que había dificultades para entender la histología de las regiones anatómicas del oído. Se estableció que la compresión de la histología demandaba una actividad didáctica complementaria. Por ello, se decidió crear una clase teórico-práctica diferenciada (CTP) usando un modelo tridimensional (3D) del oído humano y preparaciones histológicas de sus regiones. El modelo es una réplica anatómica muy aumentada del oído humano que permite la manipulación exploratoria de modo más eficaz que con piezas anatómicas clásicas. La CTP fue implementada en los dos semestres de 2014. La evaluación de la CTP incluyó un cuestionario de opiniones, más un cuaderno de actividades. Los resultados mostraron medias finales de mejores desempeños en ese año respecto al 2013, donde no fue dada este tipo de clase teórico-práctica. Se concluye que la CTP, asociada al modelo tridimensional y las explicaciones teóricas-prácticas de las preparaciones histológicas, permitió una mejor comprensión del contenido enseñado e introdujo una metodología más eficiente para el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje de un tema tan complejo así como importante para la formación académica de los estudiantes de Fonoaudiología. Adicionalmente, a partir de esta experiencia teórico-práctica se ha demostrado, una vez más, la importancia de la relación personal y profesional entre el profesor, preparador estudiantil y los alumnos para la calidad del trabajo académico.


We designed a differentiated theoretical-practical class (CTP) after analyzing questionnaires (Qs) answered by Speech-therapy students that attended the course "Sensory Systems". The Qs showed difficulties related with understanding the practical histology of the sensory systems, as well as problems to correlate it with the learning of the anatomy. We therefore established the to implement an auxiliary didactic activity (CTP). We used a three-dimensional model (3D) AS-001, of the University Extension Project (3D Museum). AS-001, is an enlarged anatomical replica of the human ear which is much more efficient for exploratory manipulation much than anatomical modeling. The assessment of CTP included a questionnaire and a notebook of activities. The CTP was implemented in both semesters during the year 2014. Results showed improvements when compared to 2013's data, when this type of theoretical-practical contents were not implemented. We conclude that the association of the three -dimensional model along with histological analysis of the parts of the ear effectively improved students' understanding of the subject. We therefore consider that CTP is a suitable methodology for the teaching-learning process of a complex, important subject for the academic training of Speech-therapy undergraduate students. Our experience allowed us to determine how important the personal and professional relationship between teachers and students is to improve academic work.


Assuntos
Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Orelha/anatomia & histologia , Fonoaudiologia/educação , Histologia/educação , Modelos Anatômicos , Análise Estatística , Inquéritos e Questionários , Avaliação Educacional
16.
Head Neck Pathol ; 12(3): 321-327, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30069845

RESUMO

The temporal bone is one of the more complex structures at the skull base that houses the hearing and vestibular organs, numerous nerves, and vessels. A host of inflammatory and neoplastic processes can occur within the temporal bone that often necessitate permanent and frozen section pathologic examination. A number of simple to complex surgical procedures are used to manage temporal bone pathology. This chapter will provide a brief overview of normal temporal bone anatomy, common surgical approaches, normal histology, and indications for pathologic examination.


Assuntos
Orelha/anatomia & histologia , Orelha/cirurgia , Osso Temporal/anatomia & histologia , Osso Temporal/cirurgia , Humanos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Otorrinolaringológicos/métodos
17.
Head Neck Pathol ; 12(3): 302-320, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30069846

RESUMO

CT and MR imaging are essential cross-sectional imaging modalities for assessment of temporal bone anatomy and pathology. The choice of CT versus MR depends on the structures and the disease processes that require assessment, delineation, and characterization. A thorough knowledge of the two imaging modalities' capabilities and of temporal bone anatomy greatly facilitates imaging interpretation of pathologic conditions.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Orelha/anatomia & histologia , Orelha/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Temporal/anatomia & histologia , Osso Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
18.
South Med J ; 111(8): 504-509, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30075478

RESUMO

Clinicians have attempted to find early preclinical physical diagnosis signs to detect vascular diseases at the preclinical stage and to prevent clinical deterioration in time. An interesting example of such signs is the Frank sign, which was first described by Dr Sonders T. Frank in 1973. Our goal was to summarize the clinical trials and observational studies that had examined the association between the Frank sign and cardiovascular diseases. Summarizing the 57 studies we found showed that this association could be used for early diagnosis of coronary and vascular diseases in the preclinical stage and that they were found in different populations around the world. Autopsy studies also found a strong association between the Frank sign and cardiovascular causes of death in both sexes. Cardiovascular causes of death included ischemic and hypertensive heart disease, calcific valvular stenosis, ruptured dissecting aneurysm of the thoracic aorta, and ruptured atheromatous aneurysm of the abdominal aorta. The Frank sign was correlated with increased intima-media thickness and stroke and was found in patients with peripheral vascular disease and with cardiovascular risk factors. The Frank sign could serve as a physical sign to help clinicians diagnose cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Orelha/anatomia & histologia , Medição de Risco/normas , Humanos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco
19.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0200255, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30044815

RESUMO

The ears of many mammals have a set of uniformly spaced horizontal ridges that form groove arrays. Contact of coherent waves (e.g. acoustic waves) with a series of slits or grooves causes diffraction, which produces constructive and destructive interference patterns. Increases in signal strength will occur but will depend on the frequencies involved, the groove number and their separations. Diffraction effects can happen for a wide range of frequencies and wavelengths, but no array can diffract wavelengths greater than twice the groove separation, and it is for those wavelengths comparable in size with the groove separation that the effects are greatest. For example, when ridges in bat ears are 1 mm apart, the strongest influence will occur for a 1 mm wavelength which corresponds to a frequency of 343 kHz. If bats could use these wavelengths, it would help them to resolve objects or surface textures of about 0.5 mm. Given how critical acoustics are for bat function, we asked whether bats may be taking advantage of diffraction effects generated by the grooves. We hypothesize that groove number varies with bat foraging strategy. Examining 120 species, we found that groove number is related to both guild and ear length. Bats in guilds that glean prey items from foliage or ground have on average more grooves than bats in other guilds. Harmonics generated by echolocation calls are the most likely source for the wavelengths that would correspond to the groove separations. We apply the physical principles of wave reflection, diffraction, and superposition to support the hypothesis that acoustic responses generated from grooves may be useful to bats. We offer an explanation why some bat species do not have grooves. We also discuss the presence of groove arrays in non-echolocating Chiropterans, and five additional mammalian orders.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/anatomia & histologia , Orelha/anatomia & histologia , Ecolocação/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Animais , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
Ergonomics ; 61(11): 1480-1495, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29989490

RESUMO

The present study measured 25 dimensions of the ear including the concha and ear canal for ergonomic design of ear products and compared with existing ear measurement studies. Scanning and casting methods were employed to produce 3D ear images for 230 Koreans and 96 Caucasians and measurements of the ear dimensions were obtained by identifying 21 landmarks on individual ear scan image. The Korean ear measurements were found significantly larger (mean difference d¯ = 0.4-3.7 mm) and more varied (ratio of SDs =1.01-1.55) than those of Caucasians in most of ear dimensions. The average ear length and ear breadth of male were significantly longer ( d¯ = 1.3-7.0 mm) and wider ( d¯ = 0.8-3.0 mm) than those of female. Use of gender- and ethnicity-composite ear data is recommended in product design due to the much larger intra-population variations (7.5-22.2 mm) than the corresponding inter-population variations. Practitioner Summary: The 3D ear measurements of Koreans and Caucasians were collected and compared with those of different ethnic populations. The distinct ear features of the populations identified in this study are applicable to ergonomic design of ear products with better fit and comfort. Abbreviations: CCW: cavum concha width; CV: coefficient of variation; EB: ear breadth; EL: ear length; SD: standard deviation; SE: sampling error; 3D: 3 dimensional.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Orelha/anatomia & histologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Imageamento Tridimensional , Antropometria/métodos , Orelha/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Coreia (Geográfico) , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais
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