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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1267: 59-80, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894477

RESUMO

The internal spatial organization of prokaryotic organisms, including Escherichia coli, is essential for the proper functioning of processes such as cell division. One source of this organization in E. coli is the nucleoid, which causes the exclusion of macromolecules - e.g. protein aggregates and the chemotaxis network - from midcell. Similarly, following DNA replication, the nucleoid(s) assist in placing the Z-ring at midcell. These processes need to be efficient in optimal conditions and robust to suboptimal conditions. After reviewing recent findings on these topics, we make use of past data to study the efficiency of the spatial constraining of Z-rings, chemotaxis networks, and protein aggregates, as a function of the nucleoid(s) morphology. Also, we compare the robustness of these processes to nonoptimal temperatures. We show that Z-rings, Tsr clusters, and protein aggregates have temperature-dependent spatial distributions along the major cell axis that are consistent with the nucleoid(s) morphology and the volume-exclusion phenomenon. Surprisingly, the consequences of the changes in nucleoid size with temperature are most visible in the kurtosis of these spatial distributions, in that it has a statistically significant linear correlation with the mean nucleoid length and, in the case of Z-rings, with the distance between nucleoids prior to cell division. Interestingly, we also find a negative, statistically significant linear correlation between the efficiency of these processes at the optimal condition and their robustness to suboptimal conditions, suggesting a trade-off between these traits.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/citologia , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Organelas/metabolismo , Divisão Celular , Replicação do DNA
2.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1934): 20201538, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873198

RESUMO

We here report the phylogenetic position of barthelonids, small anaerobic flagellates previously examined using light microscopy alone. Barthelona spp. were isolated from geographically distinct regions and we established five laboratory strains. Transcriptomic data generated from one Barthelona strain (PAP020) were used for large-scale, multi-gene phylogenetic (phylogenomic) analyses. Our analyses robustly placed strain PAP020 at the base of the Fornicata clade, indicating that barthelonids represent a deep-branching metamonad clade. Considering the anaerobic/microaerophilic nature of barthelonids and preliminary electron microscopy observations on strain PAP020, we suspected that barthelonids possess functionally and structurally reduced mitochondria (i.e. mitochondrion-related organelles or MROs). The metabolic pathways localized in the MRO of strain PAP020 were predicted based on its transcriptomic data and compared with those in the MROs of fornicates. We here propose that strain PAP020 is incapable of generating ATP in the MRO, as no mitochondrial/MRO enzymes involved in substrate-level phosphorylation were detected. Instead, we detected a putative cytosolic ATP-generating enzyme (acetyl-CoA synthetase), suggesting that strain PAP020 depends on ATP generated in the cytosol. We propose two separate losses of substrate-level phosphorylation from the MRO in the clade containing barthelonids and (other) fornicates.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Eucariotos/fisiologia , Filogenia , Anaerobiose , Eucariotos/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Organelas/metabolismo
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4271, 2020 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32848153

RESUMO

Performing multi-color nanoscopy for extended times is challenging due to the rapid photobleaching rate of most fluorophores. Here we describe a new fluorophore (Yale-595) and a bio-orthogonal labeling strategy that enables two-color super-resolution (STED) and 3D confocal imaging of two organelles simultaneously for extended times using high-density environmentally sensitive (HIDE) probes. Because HIDE probes are small, cell-permeant molecules, they can visualize dual organelle dynamics in hard-to-transfect cell lines by super-resolution for over an order of magnitude longer than with tagged proteins. The extended time domain possible using these tools reveals dynamic nanoscale targeting between different organelles.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Organelas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Células HeLa , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Microscopia Confocal , Fotodegradação , Imagem com Lapso de Tempo
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(30): 18110-18118, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669427

RESUMO

Mechanical patterns control a variety of biological processes in plants. The microviscosity of cellular structures effects the diffusion rate of molecules and organelles, thereby affecting processes such as metabolism and signaling. Spatial variations in local viscosity are also generated during fundamental events in the cell life cycle. While crucial to a complete understanding of plant mechanobiology, resolving subcellular microviscosity patterns in plants has remained an unsolved challenge. We present an imaging microviscosimetry toolbox of molecular rotors that yield complete microviscosity maps of cells and tissues, specifically targeting the cytosol, vacuole, plasma membrane, and wall of plant cells. These boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY)-based molecular rotors are rigidochromic by means of coupling the rate of an intramolecular rotation, which depends on the mechanics of their direct surroundings, with their fluorescence lifetime. This enables the optical mapping of fluidity and porosity patterns in targeted cellular compartments. We show how apparent viscosity relates to cell function in the root, how the growth of cellular protrusions induces local tension, and how the cell wall is adapted to perform actuation surrounding leaf pores. These results pave the way to the noninvasive micromechanical mapping of complex tissues.


Assuntos
Modelos Biológicos , Células Vegetais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Viscosidade , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Proteínas Motores Moleculares/metabolismo , Sondas Moleculares/química , Especificidade de Órgãos , Organelas/metabolismo
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(32): 19190-19200, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723828

RESUMO

The 26S proteasome, a self-compartmentalized protease complex, plays a crucial role in protein quality control. Multiple levels of regulatory systems modulate proteasomal activity for substrate hydrolysis. However, the destruction mechanism of mammalian proteasomes is poorly understood. We found that inhibited proteasomes are sequestered into the insoluble aggresome via HDAC6- and dynein-mediated transport. These proteasomes colocalized with the autophagic receptor SQSTM1 and cleared through selective macroautophagy, linking aggresomal segregation to autophagic degradation. This proteaphagic pathway was counterbalanced with the recovery of proteasomal activity and was critical for reducing cellular proteasomal stress. Changes in associated proteins and polyubiquitylation on inhibited 26S proteasomes participated in the targeting mechanism to the aggresome and autophagosome. The STUB1 E3 Ub ligase specifically ubiquitylated purified human proteasomes in vitro, mainly via Lys63-linked chains. Genetic and chemical inhibition of STUB1 activity significantly impaired proteasome processing and reduced resistance to proteasomal stress. These data demonstrate that aggresomal sequestration is the crucial upstream event for proteasome quality control and overall protein homeostasis in mammals.


Assuntos
Macroautofagia , Organelas/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Células A549 , Humanos , Organelas/genética , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/genética , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/genética , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitinação
6.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2667-2678, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627078

RESUMO

Coccidian parasites possess complex life cycles involving asexual proliferation followed by sexual development leading to the production of oocysts. Coccidian oocysts are persistent stages which are secreted by the feces and transmitted from host to host guaranteeing life cycle progression and disease transmission. The robust bilayered oocyst wall is formed from the contents of two organelles, the wall-forming bodies type I and II (WFBI, WFBII), located exclusively in the macrogametocyte. Eimeria nieschulzi has been used as a model parasite to study and follow gametocyte and oocyst development. In this study, the gametocyte and oocyst wall formation of E. nieschulzi was analyzed by electron microscopy and immuno-histology. A monoclonal antibody raised against the macrogametocytes of E. nieschulzi identified a tyrosine-rich glycoprotein (EnGAM82) located in WFBII. Correlative light and electron microscopy was used to examine the vesicle-specific localization and spatial distribution of GAM82-proteins during macrogametocyte maturation by this monoclonal antibody. In early and mid-stages, the GAM82-protein is ubiquitously distributed in WFBII. Few hours later, the protein is arranged in subvesicular structures. It was possible to show that the substructure of WFBII and the spatial distribution of GAM82-proteins probably represent pre-synthesized cross-linked materials prior to the inner oocyst wall formation. Dityrosine-cross-linked gametocyte proteins can also be confirmed and visualized by fluorescence microscopy (UV light, autofluorescence of WFBII).


Assuntos
Eimeria/citologia , Eimeria/ultraestrutura , Animais , Eimeria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glicoproteínas/química , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Microscopia Eletrônica , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Oocistos/citologia , Oocistos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oocistos/metabolismo , Oocistos/ultraestrutura , Organelas/metabolismo , Organelas/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Tirosina/análogos & derivados , Tirosina/química
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(29): 17418-17428, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636267

RESUMO

Carboxysomes are membrane-free organelles for carbon assimilation in cyanobacteria. The carboxysome consists of a proteinaceous shell that structurally resembles virus capsids and internal enzymes including ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), the primary carbon-fixing enzyme in photosynthesis. The formation of carboxysomes requires hierarchical self-assembly of thousands of protein subunits, initiated from Rubisco assembly and packaging to shell encapsulation. Here we study the role of Rubisco assembly factor 1 (Raf1) in Rubisco assembly and carboxysome formation in a model cyanobacterium, Synechococcus elongatus PCC7942 (Syn7942). Cryo-electron microscopy reveals that Raf1 facilitates Rubisco assembly by mediating RbcL dimer formation and dimer-dimer interactions. Syn7942 cells lacking Raf1 are unable to form canonical intact carboxysomes but generate a large number of intermediate assemblies comprising Rubisco, CcaA, CcmM, and CcmN without shell encapsulation and a low abundance of carboxysome-like structures with reduced dimensions and irregular shell shapes and internal organization. As a consequence, the Raf1-depleted cells exhibit reduced Rubisco content, CO2-fixing activity, and cell growth. Our results provide mechanistic insight into the chaperone-assisted Rubisco assembly and biogenesis of carboxysomes. Advanced understanding of the biogenesis and stepwise formation process of the biogeochemically important organelle may inform strategies for heterologous engineering of functional CO2-fixing modules to improve photosynthesis.


Assuntos
Organelas/metabolismo , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/metabolismo , Synechococcus/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Ciclo do Carbono , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/química , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/genética , Synechococcus/genética , Transcriptoma
8.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(11): 6184-6197, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374871

RESUMO

Spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs) undergo a complex maturation pathway containing multiple steps in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm. snRNP biogenesis is strictly proofread and several quality control checkpoints are placed along the pathway. Here, we analyzed the fate of small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) that are unable to acquire a ring of Sm proteins. We showed that snRNAs lacking the Sm ring are unstable and accumulate in P-bodies in an LSm1-dependent manner. We further provide evidence that defective snRNAs without the Sm binding site are uridylated at the 3' end and associate with DIS3L2 3'→5' exoribonuclease and LSm proteins. Finally, inhibition of 5'→3' exoribonuclease XRN1 increases association of ΔSm snRNAs with DIS3L2, which indicates competition and compensation between these two degradation enzymes. Together, we provide evidence that defective snRNAs without the Sm ring are uridylated and degraded by alternative pathways involving either DIS3L2 or LSm proteins and XRN1.


Assuntos
Exorribonucleases/metabolismo , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Transporte de RNA , RNA Nuclear Pequeno/química , RNA Nuclear Pequeno/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Sítios de Ligação , Células HeLa , Humanos , Organelas/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Estabilidade de RNA , Proteínas do Complexo SMN/metabolismo
9.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(11): 6353-6366, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396195

RESUMO

Most eukaryotic mRNAs harbor a characteristic 5' m7GpppN cap that promotes pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA nucleocytoplasmic transport and translation while also protecting mRNAs from exonucleolytic attacks. mRNA caps are eliminated by Dcp2 during mRNA decay, allowing 5'-3' exonucleases to degrade mRNA bodies. However, the Dcp2 decapping enzyme is poorly active on its own and requires binding to stable or transient protein partners to sever the cap of target mRNAs. Here, we analyse the role of one of these partners, the yeast Pby1 factor, which is known to co-localize into P-bodies together with decapping factors. We report that Pby1 uses its C-terminal domain to directly bind to the decapping enzyme. We solved the structure of this Pby1 domain alone and bound to the Dcp1-Dcp2-Edc3 decapping complex. Structure-based mutant analyses reveal that Pby1 binding to the decapping enzyme is required for its recruitment into P-bodies. Moreover, Pby1 binding to the decapping enzyme stimulates growth in conditions in which decapping activation is compromised. Our results point towards a direct connection of Pby1 with decapping and P-body formation, both stemming from its interaction with the Dcp1-Dcp2 holoenzyme.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Endorribonucleases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Domínio Catalítico , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/química , Endopeptidases/química , Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Endorribonucleases/química , Holoenzimas/química , Holoenzimas/metabolismo , Ligases/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Organelas/enzimologia , Organelas/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/citologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzimologia , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Fatores de Transcrição/química
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2212, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371889

RESUMO

Gasdermin-D (GSDMD) in inflammasome-activated macrophages is cleaved by caspase-1 to generate N-GSDMD fragments. N-GSDMD then oligomerizes in the plasma membrane (PM) to form pores that increase membrane permeability, leading to pyroptosis and IL-1ß release. In contrast, we report that although N-GSDMD is required for IL-1ß secretion in NLRP3-activated human and murine neutrophils, N-GSDMD does not localize to the PM or increase PM permeability or pyroptosis. Instead, biochemical and microscopy studies reveal that N-GSDMD in neutrophils predominantly associates with azurophilic granules and LC3+ autophagosomes. N-GSDMD trafficking to azurophilic granules causes leakage of neutrophil elastase into the cytosol, resulting in secondary cleavage of GSDMD to an alternatively cleaved N-GSDMD product. Genetic analyses using ATG7-deficient cells indicate that neutrophils secrete IL-1ß via an autophagy-dependent mechanism. These findings reveal fundamental differences in GSDMD trafficking between neutrophils and macrophages that underlie neutrophil-specific functions during inflammasome activation.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Organelas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/metabolismo , Animais , Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Autofagia/genética , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/genética , Humanos , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Elastase de Leucócito/genética , Elastase de Leucócito/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/genética , Transporte Proteico , Piroptose/genética
11.
J Vis Exp ; (159)2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449725

RESUMO

Motor neurons (MNs) are highly polarized cells with very long axons. Axonal transport is a crucial mechanism for MN health, contributing to neuronal growth, development, and survival. We describe a detailed method for the use of microfluidic chambers (MFCs) for tracking axonal transport of fluorescently labeled organelles in MN axons. This method is rapid, relatively inexpensive, and allows for the monitoring of intracellular cues in space and time. We describe a step by step protocol for: 1) Fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) MFCs; 2) Plating of ventral spinal cord explants and MN dissociated culture in MFCs; 3) Labeling of mitochondria and acidic compartments followed by live confocal imagining; 4) Manual and semiautomated axonal transport analysis. Lastly, we demonstrate a difference in the transport of mitochondria and acidic compartments of HB9::GFP ventral spinal cord explant axons as a proof of the system validity. Altogether, this protocol provides an efficient tool for studying the axonal transport of various axonal components, as well as a simplified manual for MFC usage to help discover spatial experimental possibilities.


Assuntos
Transporte Axonal , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/instrumentação , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Neurônios Motores/citologia , Organelas/metabolismo , Animais , Dimetilpolisiloxanos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/citologia
12.
Nature ; 581(7807): 209-214, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32405004

RESUMO

Intracellular bodies such as nucleoli, Cajal bodies and various signalling assemblies represent membraneless organelles, or condensates, that form via liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS)1,2. Biomolecular interactions-particularly homotypic interactions mediated by self-associating intrinsically disordered protein regions-are thought to underlie the thermodynamic driving forces for LLPS, forming condensates that can facilitate the assembly and processing of biochemically active complexes, such as ribosomal subunits within the nucleolus. Simplified model systems3-6 have led to the concept that a single fixed saturation concentration is a defining feature of endogenous LLPS7-9, and has been suggested as a mechanism for intracellular concentration buffering2,7,8,10. However, the assumption of a fixed saturation concentration remains largely untested within living cells, in which the richly multicomponent nature of condensates could complicate this simple picture. Here we show that heterotypic multicomponent interactions dominate endogenous LLPS, and give rise to nucleoli and other condensates that do not exhibit a fixed saturation concentration. As the concentration of individual components is varied, their partition coefficients change in a manner that can be used to determine the thermodynamic free energies that underlie LLPS. We find that heterotypic interactions among protein and RNA components stabilize various archetypal intracellular condensates-including the nucleolus, Cajal bodies, stress granules and P-bodies-implying that the composition of condensates is finely tuned by the thermodynamics of the underlying biomolecular interaction network. In the context of RNA-processing condensates such as the nucleolus, this manifests in the selective exclusion of fully assembled ribonucleoprotein complexes, providing a thermodynamic basis for vectorial ribosomal RNA flux out of the nucleolus. This methodology is conceptually straightforward and readily implemented, and can be broadly used to extract thermodynamic parameters from microscopy images. These approaches pave the way for a deeper understanding of the thermodynamics of multicomponent intracellular phase behaviour and its interplay with the nonequilibrium activity that is characteristic of endogenous condensates.


Assuntos
Espaço Intracelular/química , Espaço Intracelular/metabolismo , Organelas/química , Organelas/metabolismo , Termodinâmica , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/deficiência , Nucléolo Celular/química , Nucléolo Celular/metabolismo , Corpos Enovelados/química , Corpos Enovelados/metabolismo , Grânulos Citoplasmáticos/química , Grânulos Citoplasmáticos/metabolismo , DNA Helicases/deficiência , Células HeLa , Humanos , Proteínas Nucleares/química , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Transição de Fase , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli-ADP-Ribose/deficiência , RNA Helicases/deficiência , Proteínas com Motivo de Reconhecimento de RNA/deficiência , RNA Ribossômico/química , RNA Ribossômico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA , Ribossomos/química , Ribossomos/metabolismo
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1941, 2020 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321914

RESUMO

Cytokinesis requires the constriction of ESCRT-III filaments on the side of the midbody, where abscission occurs. After ESCRT recruitment at the midbody, it is not known how the ESCRT-III machinery localizes to the abscission site. To reveal actors involved in abscission, we obtained the proteome of intact, post-abscission midbodies (Flemmingsome) and identified 489 proteins enriched in this organelle. Among these proteins, we further characterized a plasma membrane-to-ESCRT module composed of the transmembrane proteoglycan syndecan-4, ALIX and syntenin, a protein that bridges ESCRT-III/ALIX to syndecans. The three proteins are highly recruited first at the midbody then at the abscission site, and their depletion delays abscission. Mechanistically, direct interactions between ALIX, syntenin and syndecan-4 are essential for proper enrichment of the ESCRT-III machinery at the abscission site, but not at the midbody. We propose that the ESCRT-III machinery must be physically coupled to a membrane protein at the cytokinetic abscission site for efficient scission, uncovering common requirements in cytokinesis, exosome formation and HIV budding.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Citocinese , Complexos Endossomais de Distribuição Requeridos para Transporte/metabolismo , Organelas/metabolismo , Sindecana-4/metabolismo , Sinteninas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Membrana Celular/genética , Complexos Endossomais de Distribuição Requeridos para Transporte/genética , Endossomos/genética , Endossomos/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Humanos , Organelas/genética , Ligação Proteica , Sindecana-4/genética , Sinteninas/genética
14.
Mol Cell ; 78(4): 670-682.e8, 2020 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343944

RESUMO

Biomolecular condensates play a key role in organizing RNAs and proteins into membraneless organelles. Bacterial RNP-bodies (BR-bodies) are a biomolecular condensate containing the RNA degradosome mRNA decay machinery, but the biochemical function of such organization remains poorly defined. Here, we define the RNA substrates of BR-bodies through enrichment of the bodies followed by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). We find that long, poorly translated mRNAs, small RNAs, and antisense RNAs are the main substrates, while rRNA, tRNA, and other conserved non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are excluded from these bodies. BR-bodies stimulate the mRNA decay rate of enriched mRNAs, helping to reshape the cellular mRNA pool. We also observe that BR-body formation promotes complete mRNA decay, avoiding the buildup of toxic endo-cleaved mRNA decay intermediates. The combined selective permeability of BR-bodies for both enzymes and substrates together with the stimulation of the sub-steps of mRNA decay provide an effective organization strategy for bacterial mRNA decay.


Assuntos
Caulobacter crescentus/metabolismo , Endorribonucleases/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , Organelas/metabolismo , Polirribonucleotídeo Nucleotidiltransferase/metabolismo , RNA Helicases/metabolismo , Estabilidade de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Caulobacter crescentus/genética , Caulobacter crescentus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Endorribonucleases/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Complexos Multienzimáticos/genética , Organelas/genética , Polirribonucleotídeo Nucleotidiltransferase/genética , RNA Helicases/genética , RNA Antissenso/genética , RNA Antissenso/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Ribossômico/genética , RNA Ribossômico/metabolismo , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/genética , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo , RNA de Transferência/genética , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , RNA não Traduzido/genética , RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo
15.
Curr Opin Cell Biol ; 63: 194-203, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272435

RESUMO

Higher-order supramolecular complexes-dubbed signalosomes carry out key signaling and effector functions in innate immunity and inflammation. In this review, we present several recently discovered signalosomes that are formed either by stable protein-protein interactions or by dynamic liquid-liquid phase separation. Structural features of these signalosomes are highlighted to elucidate their functions and biological insights.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Celulares , Imunidade Inata/fisiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Substâncias Macromoleculares/metabolismo , Organelas/metabolismo , Multimerização Proteica/fisiologia , Animais , Biologia Celular , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Celulares/genética , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/genética , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Organelas/fisiologia , Ligação Proteica , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
16.
Curr Diab Rep ; 20(6): 20, 2020 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306181

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Impairments in mitochondrial function in patients with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes have been disputed for decades. This review aims to briefly summarize the current knowledge on mitochondrial dysfunction in metabolic tissues and to particularly focus on addressing a new perspective of mitochondrial dysfunction, the altered capacity of mitochondria to communicate with other organelles within insulin-resistant tissues. RECENT FINDINGS: Organelle interactions are temporally and spatially formed connections essential for normal cell function. Recent studies have shown that mitochondria interact with various cellular organelles, such as the endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes and lipid droplets, forming inter-organelle junctions. We will discuss the current knowledge on alterations in these mitochondria-organelle interactions in insulin resistance and diabetes, with a focus on changes in mitochondria-lipid droplet communication as a major player in ectopic lipid accumulation, lipotoxicity and insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Comunicação Celular/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Doenças Mitocondriais/fisiopatologia , Organelas/fisiologia , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/fisiologia , Complexo de Golgi/metabolismo , Complexo de Golgi/fisiologia , Humanos , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Gotículas Lipídicas/fisiologia , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Lisossomos/fisiologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Doenças Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Organelas/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Peroxissomos/metabolismo , Peroxissomos/fisiologia
17.
Cell ; 180(6): 1044-1066, 2020 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164908

RESUMO

The study of innate immunity and its link to inflammation and host defense encompasses diverse areas of biology, ranging from genetics and biophysics to signal transduction and physiology. Central to our understanding of these events are the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), an evolutionarily ancient family of pattern recognition receptors. Herein, we describe the mechanisms and consequences of TLR-mediated signal transduction with a focus on themes identified in the TLR pathways that also explain the operation of other immune signaling pathways. These themes include the detection of conserved microbial structures to identify infectious agents and the use of supramolecular organizing centers (SMOCs) as signaling organelles that ensure digital cellular responses. Further themes include mechanisms of inducible gene expression, the coordination of gene regulation and metabolism, and the influence of these activities on adaptive immunity. Studies in these areas have informed the development of next-generation therapeutics, thus ensuring a bright future for research in this area.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Receptores Toll-Like/imunologia , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Animais , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/fisiologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Organelas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
18.
Cell ; 180(6): 1144-1159.e20, 2020 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169217

RESUMO

In eukaryotic cells, organelle biogenesis is pivotal for cellular function and cell survival. Chloroplasts are unique organelles with a complex internal membrane network. The mechanisms of the migration of imported nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins across the crowded stroma to thylakoid membranes are less understood. Here, we identified two Arabidopsis ankyrin-repeat proteins, STT1 and STT2, that specifically mediate sorting of chloroplast twin arginine translocation (cpTat) pathway proteins to thylakoid membranes. STT1 and STT2 form a unique hetero-dimer through interaction of their C-terminal ankyrin domains. Binding of cpTat substrate by N-terminal intrinsically disordered regions of STT complex induces liquid-liquid phase separation. The multivalent nature of STT oligomer is critical for phase separation. STT-Hcf106 interactions reverse phase separation and facilitate cargo targeting and translocation across thylakoid membranes. Thus, the formation of phase-separated droplets emerges as a novel mechanism of intra-chloroplast cargo sorting. Our findings highlight a conserved mechanism of phase separation in regulating organelle biogenesis.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Transporte Proteico/fisiologia , Sistema de Translocação de Argininas Geminadas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Membranas Intracelulares/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Biogênese de Organelas , Organelas/metabolismo , Transição de Fase , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Tilacoides/metabolismo , Sistema de Translocação de Argininas Geminadas/fisiologia
19.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 27(3): 281-287, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123388

RESUMO

Carboxysomes are bacterial microcompartments that function as the centerpiece of the bacterial CO2-concentrating mechanism by facilitating high CO2 concentrations near the carboxylase Rubisco. The carboxysome self-assembles from thousands of individual proteins into icosahedral-like particles with a dense enzyme cargo encapsulated within a proteinaceous shell. In the case of the α-carboxysome, there is little molecular insight into protein-protein interactions that drive the assembly process. Here, studies on the α-carboxysome from Halothiobacillus neapolitanus demonstrate that Rubisco interacts with the N terminus of CsoS2, a multivalent, intrinsically disordered protein. X-ray structural analysis of the CsoS2 interaction motif bound to Rubisco reveals a series of conserved electrostatic interactions that are only made with properly assembled hexadecameric Rubisco. Although biophysical measurements indicate that this single interaction is weak, its implicit multivalency induces high-affinity binding through avidity. Taken together, our results indicate that CsoS2 acts as an interaction hub to condense Rubisco and enable efficient α-carboxysome formation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Halothiobacillus/química , Proteínas Intrinsicamente Desordenadas/química , Organelas/química , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Ciclo do Carbono/fisiologia , Clonagem Molecular , Cristalografia por Raios X , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Halothiobacillus/genética , Halothiobacillus/metabolismo , Proteínas Intrinsicamente Desordenadas/genética , Proteínas Intrinsicamente Desordenadas/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Organelas/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Multimerização Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/genética , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Eletricidade Estática
20.
Adv Parasitol ; 107: 25-96, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122531

RESUMO

Giardia lamblia is a widespread parasitic protist with a complex MT cytoskeleton that is critical for motility, attachment, mitosis and cell division, and transitions between its two life cycle stages-the infectious cyst and flagellated trophozoite. Giardia trophozoites have both highly dynamic and highly stable MT organelles, including the ventral disc, eight flagella, the median body and the funis. The ventral disc, an elaborate MT organelle, is essential for the parasite's attachment to the intestinal villi to avoid peristalsis. Giardia's four flagellar pairs enable swimming motility and may also promote attachment. They are maintained at different equilibrium lengths and are distinguished by their long cytoplasmic regions and novel extra-axonemal structures. The functions of the median body and funis, MT organelles unique to Giardia, remain less understood. In addition to conserved MT-associated proteins, the genome is enriched in ankyrins, NEKs, and novel hypothetical proteins that also associate with the MT cytoskeleton. High-resolution ultrastructural imaging and a current inventory of more than 300 proteins associated with Giardia's MT cytoskeleton lay the groundwork for future mechanistic analyses of parasite attachment to the host, motility, cell division, and encystation/excystation. Giardia's unique MT organelles exemplify the capacity of MT polymers to generate intricate structures that are diverse in both form and function. Thus, beyond its relevance to pathogenesis, the study of Giardia's MT cytoskeleton informs basic cytoskeletal biology and cellular evolution. With the availability of new molecular genetic tools to disrupt gene function, we anticipate a new era of cytoskeletal discovery in Giardia.


Assuntos
Giardia/citologia , Giardia/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Giardia/classificação , Giardia/ultraestrutura , Microtúbulos/química , Microtúbulos/ultraestrutura , Organelas/química , Organelas/metabolismo , Organelas/ultraestrutura
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